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Article
Publication date: 30 November 2020

Sahin Akin, Oguzcan Ergun, Elif Surer and Ipek Gursel Dino

In performative architectural design, daylighting is a crucial design consideration; however, the evaluation of daylighting in the design process can be challenging…

Abstract

Purpose

In performative architectural design, daylighting is a crucial design consideration; however, the evaluation of daylighting in the design process can be challenging. Immersive environments (IEs) can create a dynamic, multi-sensory, first-person view in computer-generated environments, and can improve designers' visual perception and awareness during performative design processes. This research addresses the need for interactive and integrated design tools for IEs toward better-performing architectural solutions in terms of daylighting illumination. In this context, building information modeling and performance simulations are identified as critical technologies to be integrated into performative architectural design.

Design/methodology/approach

This research adopts a design science research (DSR) methodology involving an iterative process of development, validation and improvement of a novel and immersive tool, HoloArch, that supports design development during daylighting-informed design processes. HoloArch was implemented in a game engine during a spiral software development process. HoloArch allows users to interact with, visualize, modify and explore architectural models. The evaluation is performed in two workshops and a user study. A hybrid approach that combines qualitative and quantitative data collection was adopted for evaluation. Qualitative data analyses involve interviews, while quantitative data analyses involve both daylighting simulations and questionnaires (e.g. technology acceptance model (TAM), presence and system usability scale (SUS)).

Findings

According to the questionnaire results, HoloArch had 92/100 for SUS, a mean value of 120.4 for presence questionnaire (PQ) and 9.4/10 for TAM. According to the simulation results, all participants improved the given building's daylighting performance using HoloArch. The interviews also indicated that HoloArch is an effective design tool in terms of augmented perception, continuous design processes, performative daylighting design and model interaction. However, challenges still remain regarding the complete integration of tools and simultaneous simulation visualization. The study concludes that IEs hold promising potentials where performative design actions at conceptual, spatial and architectural domains can take place interactively and simultaneously with immediate feedback.

Originality/value

The research integrates building information modeling (BIM), performative daylighting simulations and IEs in an interactive environment for the identification of potentials and limitations in performative architectural design. Different from existing immersive tools for architecture, HoloArch offers a continuous bidirectional workflow between BIM tools and IEs.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2018

Asim Kumar Roy Choudhury and Biswapati Chatterjee

The purpose of this paper is to compare light fastness assessments by exposure of fabric dyes with various dyes in daylight and an artificial xenon arc lamp.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare light fastness assessments by exposure of fabric dyes with various dyes in daylight and an artificial xenon arc lamp.

Design/methodology/approach

Cotton fabric dyed with 66 reactive, vat, azoic and direct dyes dyed in different depths were exposed to daylight and Xenon arc lamp for assessment of light fastness by standard methods. The light fastness rating and fading hours by the two methods were analysed and compared statistically.

Findings

The correlation between the corresponding light fastness rating (LFR) measured in Xenotest and daylight is quite high (0.93). The logarithmic correlation coefficients between fading hour (FH) and LFR in Xenotest and daylight are 0.95 and 0.88, respectively. For Xenotest, the assessed LFRs are same as those predicted from geometric progression up to LFR of 5.5, and thereafter, the former is higher. On the other hand, in the case of daylight, the assessed LFR is lower. Assessments for three successive seasons showed high repeatability in case of Xenotest and moderate repeatability in case of daylight. Assessments for three successive seasons showed high repeatability in case of Xenotest and moderate repeatability in case of daylight.

Research limitations/implications

The exposure conditions in daylight cannot be controlled or standardised, whereas the exposure in Xenon arc lamp in the accelerated fading instrument can be strictly controlled. These differences in exposure control may affect the repeatability of experimental findings.

Practical implications

Inconsistent ratings may be because of little deterioration of samples during storage, as well as seasonal variation of daylight.

Social implications

There are no direct social implications.

Originality/value

The researches on the comparison of the two light fastness assessment methods have not been reported in any recent publication to the best our knowledge.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Francesco De Luca, Raimo Simson, Hendrik Voll and Jarek Kurnitski

Electric lighting accounts for a large share of energy consumption in commercial buildings. Utilization of daylight can significantly help to reduce the need for…

Abstract

Purpose

Electric lighting accounts for a large share of energy consumption in commercial buildings. Utilization of daylight can significantly help to reduce the need for artificial lighting, increase workers productivity, customers’ satisfaction and consequently improve sales. However, excessive use of glazing and absence of lighting controls can contribute greatly to higher energy need for heating and cooling and cause undesired glare effects. Thus, optimizing the size, position and materials of external glazing, with the addition of deflectors and dynamic artificial lighting, can become key aspects in the design of sustainable low energy buildings. The purpose of this paper is to analyze daylight potential and energy performance of a hall-type commercial building, situated in the cold climate of Finland, by utilizing different combinations of skylights, windows and lighting controls.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors have used computer simulations to estimate daylight and energy performance of a single floor commercial building in relation to various combinations of skylights and windows with variable glazing materials, light deflectors and zonal lighting controls.

Findings

The results show that electric light energy saving potential ranges from a negligible 1.9 percent to a significant 58.6 percent in the case of glass skylights and wall windows using multi-zone lighting control. Total delivered energy ranges between increase of 1.5 and 21.2 percent in the cases with single zone lighting control and between decrease of 4.5 percent and increase of 4.5 percent in the cases with multi-zone control. The highest decrease in primary energy consumption was 2.2 percent for single zone and 17.6 percent for multi-zone lighting control. The research underlines the significant potential of electric light energy savings using daylighting strategies that, including the control of direct solar access for glare and internal gains, can be more than 50 percent.

Originality/value

This research combines accurate daylight and energy assessment for commercial hall buildings based in cold climate region with multiple design variations. The novelty of this work is the consideration of interior elements, shelves and deflectors, in the calculations. This is made possible through the combined use of validated simulation platforms for detailed annual daylighting and electric lighting calculation (Radiance and Daysim) and energy analysis (IDA-ICE, Equa Simulation AB). This method allows to obtain a reliable assessment of the potential of using natural light sources in buildings.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 24 May 2013

Tuğba İnan

The purpose of this research is to investigate natural illumination properties of one of the classrooms in the School of Architecture at Izmir Institute of Technology…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to investigate natural illumination properties of one of the classrooms in the School of Architecture at Izmir Institute of Technology, located in Turkey, which is the northern hemisphere.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the definitions of the basic terms in daylighting, such as daylight factor, illuminance, glazing ratio, are given first. Then, a luxmeter and a lighting simulation software, Velux, are used in order to calculate variable lighting factors during daytime, at different storeys, at different directions, for the classes. Velux is a proprietary software and it enables natural lighting analysis practically.

Findings

Chosen classrooms are examined regarding their having sufficient natural illumination. The height of windows from the floor is changed, and the resultant effects on natural lighting in the classrooms are determined by using the lighting simulation program, Velux. The study shows that daylight factor and illumination near the window decreases as the height of the window above the floor increases. However, the illumination increases away from the window, giving greater uniformity to the lighting. At the same time, the usable depth of the classroom increases. The tall and narrow windows bring the daylight near themselves.

Social implications

Practical window design decisions can help architects to provide effective and healthy natural lighting for interiors.

Originality/value

Adjustment of the dimensions of the windows is important in order to balance the energy consumption of buildings. This study investigates natural lighting depending on both experimental measurements and simulation software, Velux.

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Article
Publication date: 24 June 2020

Anthony G. Vito, Vanessa Woodward Griffin, Gennaro F. Vito and George E. Higgins

The purpose of this paper is to draw a better understanding of the potential impact of daylight in officer decision making. In order to this, the authors test the veil of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to draw a better understanding of the potential impact of daylight in officer decision making. In order to this, the authors test the veil of darkness hypothesis, which theorizes that racial bias in traffic stops can be tested by controlling for the impact of daylight, while operating under the assumption that driver patterns remain constant across race.

Design/methodology/approach

Publicly available traffic-stop records from the Louisville Metro Police Department for January 2010–2019. The analysis includes both propensity score matching to examine the impact of daylight in similarly situated stops and coefficients testing to analyze how VOD may vary in citation-specific models.

Findings

The results show that using PSM following the VOD hypothesis does show evidence of racial bias, with Black drivers more likely to be stopped. Moreover, the effects of daylight significantly varied across citation-specific models.

Research limitations/implications

The data are self-reported from the officer and do not contain information on the vehicle make or model.

Practical implications

This paper shows that utilizing PSM and coefficients testing provides for a better analysis following the VOD hypothesis and does a better job of understanding the impact of daylight and the officer decision-making on traffic stops.

Social implications

Based on the quality of the data, the findings show that the use of VOD allows for the performance of more rigorous analyses of traffic stop data – giving police departments a better way to examine if racial profiling is evident.

Originality/value

This is the first study (to the researchers' knowledge) that applies the statistical analyses of PSM to the confines of the veil of darkness hypothesis.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

Marja Sofie Lundgren

The purpose of this paper is to propose building code changes that would benefit both architectural design and the potential of achieving nearly zero energy goals by…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose building code changes that would benefit both architectural design and the potential of achieving nearly zero energy goals by analyzing the architectural implications of the energy system boundaries within the Swedish code.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is driven by three questions that relate the national implementation of EU directive on nearly zero energy 2020 to the premises set out in the guidelines for revising the Swedish building code aiming at a performance-based regulation. A crucial part of the research is a comparative analysis of the design implications of the code to research findings in scientific articles on near-zero energy or low-energy design.

Findings

The energy system boundaries in the Swedish code are steering the architectural design and energy consequences of offices towards using less heat but more electricity. The energy section is also limiting the architectural design choices by ignoring the positive energy aspects of daylight. A proposal of a new comprehensive energy section taking all architectural design related energy aspects into account is presented, in order to support design of nearly zero energy buildings.

Practical implications

A building code that relates the energy system boundaries to form will help integrated design choices that are more likely to support the strive towards nearly zero energy buildings.

Originality/value

The paper reveals the design implication of the Swedish energy section to be counterproductive regarding energy efficiency as well as limiting architectural design choices.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Mansoureh Gholami, Majid Mofidi Shemirani and Rima Fayaz

The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology to quantify the solar energy potential for applying photovoltaic systems and find an efficient geometry for urban…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology to quantify the solar energy potential for applying photovoltaic systems and find an efficient geometry for urban blocks to obtain a better quality of daylighting in terms of continuous daylight autonomy (DA) and spatial DA with less energy consumption.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on a complete simulation of the topography and micro-climate of the area under study. Simulations were performed using ArcGIS and Rhinoceros and urban daylight (UD) and urban modeling interface plugin for a neighborhood in the region of Narmak in Tehran, Iran. Five configurations of a neighborhood were compared using simulations.

Findings

It was found that the impact of the geometrical form on daylight gain and energy consumption is significant and the terraced model is the most suitable form for obtaining a constant floor area ratio. Furthermore, it is an optimal form of urban blocks to gain the most energy through photovoltaic systems in the neighborhood as it would be able to satisfy about 42 percent of the energy needs.

Originality/value

Planning to achieve sufficient energy factors in cities is a difficult task, since urban planners often do not have adequate technical knowledge to measure the contribution of solar energy in urban plans and this paper aims to introduce a comprehensive modeling methodology by which the urban energy planning can be used and understood in the urban context to make it completely clear as a strategy of implementation.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

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Article
Publication date: 20 July 2021

Seyedeh Samaneh Golzan, Mina Pouyanmehr and Hassan Sadeghi Naeini

The modular dynamic façade (MDF) concept could be an approach in a comfort-centric design through proper integration with energy-efficient buildings. This study focuses on…

Abstract

Purpose

The modular dynamic façade (MDF) concept could be an approach in a comfort-centric design through proper integration with energy-efficient buildings. This study focuses on obtaining and/or calculating an efficient angle of the MDF, which would lead to the optimum performance in daylight availability and energy consumption in a single south-faced official space located in the hot-arid climate of Yazd, Iran.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology consists of three fundamental parts: (1) based on previous related studies, a diamond-based dynamic skin façade was applied to a south-faced office building in a hot-arid climate; (2) the daylighting and energy performance of the model were simulated annually; and (3) the data obtained from the simulation were compared to reach the optimum angle of the MDF.

Findings

The results showed that when the angle of the MDF openings was set at 30°, it could decrease energy consumption by 41.32% annually, while daylight simulation pointed that the space experienced the minimum possible glare at this angle. Therefore, the angle of 30° was established as the optimum angle, which could be the basis for future investment in responsive building envelopes.

Originality/value

This angular study simultaneously assesses the daylight availability, visual comfort and energy consumption on a MDF in a hot-arid climate.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

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Article
Publication date: 30 March 2012

Peter S. Defoe and Ian Frame

Over the last few years it has been established that there is a need to re‐evaluate the basis of assessment of the sufficiency of daylight, in rights to light cases, where…

Abstract

Purpose

Over the last few years it has been established that there is a need to re‐evaluate the basis of assessment of the sufficiency of daylight, in rights to light cases, where the loss of daylight after obstruction might lead to injunction and/or damages. The purpose of this paper is to further examine whether the methodology used by surveyors, whereby the effect of glazing, window frames and internal reflectance are ignored, is valid and whether theoretical values can be translated into real values obtained through practical experimentation.

Design/methodology/approach

Modern methods of assessment of daylighting, for design purposes, calculate a whole room average as a percentage of available daylight from a Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) sky whereas Waldram's methodology, in rights to light cases, results in a contour line marking the series of points in a room where the task lighting, from a uniform sky, would be insufficient for normal use. These two methods appear incompatible and the conundrum is that whilst the courts are seeking to determine adequacy of daylighting to a room, the practitioners need to be able to measure the reduction in a way that has real meaning and can be valued.

Findings

By comparing theoretical results using the Waldram methodology with those obtained using the Building Research Establishment (BRE) methodology and with physical measurements on site and in an artificial sky dome, it can be demonstrated that results using the Waldram Diagram, or the proposed CIEL Diagram, can be translated into real values of daylighting for a room and that these values are more realistic than those obtained through the BRE methodology.

Originality/value

This research (which is ongoing) will be useful to practitioners and the courts in determining rights to light cases and is a significant contribution to the debate initiated in this journal by Michael Pitts some 12 years ago.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1999

Jeffrey Scherer

Lighting – from the firmament and the filament – is intrinsically linked with library design, influencing many factors from user comfort and productivity to spatial…

Abstract

Lighting – from the firmament and the filament – is intrinsically linked with library design, influencing many factors from user comfort and productivity to spatial perception and connotation. For centuries, daylight governed libraries, forging built form and determining access hours. Within the last 100 years, the ascendancy of electric lighting has expanded possibilities and added challenges to library lighting design. The recent advent of the computer, and the light emanating from their screens, has provoked consideration of other light issues. This article addresses how to integrate light – in all its manifestations – within the context of library design.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Keywords

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