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The purpose of this paper is threefold: to present internet of things (IoT)-based cyber-physical system (CPS) architecture framework to facilitate the integration of IoT…
The purpose of this paper is threefold: to present internet of things (IoT)-based cyber-physical system (CPS) architecture framework to facilitate the integration of IoT and CPS; to implement an IoT-based CPS prototype based on the architecture framework for a PL application scenario of in a case study; and to devise evaluation methods and conduct experimental evaluations on an IoT-based CPS prototype.
The design research method, case study, emulation experiment method, and cost-benefit analysis are applied in this research. An IoT-based CPS architecture framework is proposed, and followed by the development of prototype system and testbed platform. Then, the emulation and experimental evaluation of IoT-based CPS are conducted on the testbed, and the experimental results are analyzed.
The emulation experiment results show that the proposed IoT-based CPS outperforms current barcode-based system regarding labor cost, efficiency, and operational adaptiveness. The evaluation of the IoT-based CPS prototype indicates significant improvements in PL tasks and reduced part inventory under a dynamic changing shop-floor environment.
The case study shows that the proposed architecture framework and prototype system can be applied to many discrete manufacturing industries, such as automobile, airplane, bicycle, home appliance, and electronics.
The proposed IoT-based CPS is among the first to address the need to integrate IoT and CPS for PL applications, and to conduct experimental evaluations and cost-benefit analysis of adopting IoT-based CPS for PL. This paper also contributes to the IoT research by using diverse research methods to offer broader insights into understanding IoT and CPS.
In this case, students assume the roles of FK Day and Dave Neiswander, leaders of the social enterprise World Bicycle Relief (WBR), which donates and sells bicycles in…
In this case, students assume the roles of FK Day and Dave Neiswander, leaders of the social enterprise World Bicycle Relief (WBR), which donates and sells bicycles in sub-Saharan Africa. As a social enterprise, WBR combines not-for-profit and for-profit activities. Starting as a traditional not-for-profit organization formed to donate bicycles after the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004, WBR eventually added a for-profit arm to facilitate growth and reduce its dependence on donations and grants. As a result, by 2017 WBR had distributed around 400,000 bicycles, primarily to schoolgirls, entrepreneurs, and health workers. As the organization grows, its leaders are interested in optimizing operations and entering new countries in Africa. What is the optimal distribution of WBR's resources between its for-profit and not-for-profit operations? How should it define the objective of its operations: should WBR maximize its social impact or the total number of bicycles in the field? Which countries should it enter?
To answer those questions, students are required to analyze the social enterprise business model. This analysis starts at the strategic level and ties into the operational level. If desired, this analysis can be followed by an Excel optimization of WBR's operations. The case contains historical data on the organization and poses questions that can be analyzed from the perspectives of a number of academic fields. It can be used in various types of courses including strategy, not-for-profit organizations, operations, and finance. The instructor materials include a prepared Excel model that can be used to make the quantitative analysis accessible to students without quantitative backgrounds, videos from WBR, and a video that shows FK Day and Dave Neiswander answering questions in the inaugural use of the case at Kellogg.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the knowledge needs of a small, volunteer‐based Non‐Profit Organization (NPO) and present recommendations for implementation of…
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the knowledge needs of a small, volunteer‐based Non‐Profit Organization (NPO) and present recommendations for implementation of KM solutions.
The methodology used in this paper is the knowledge audit. Data collection methods include semi‐structured interviews, documentary photography, and a review of content on the NPO's website.
The paper recommends a combination of web 2.0 technology and low‐tech solutions to meet the KM needs of the volunteer‐based organization within the constraints of its limited resources. Based on the observation that dedicated and reliable volunteers are critical to this organization's success, the paper proposes that the KM solution address personal knowledge needs related to volunteer motivation factors as a strategy for improving volunteer recruitment and retention.
The study examined a small group of volunteers engaged in a specialized form of knowledge‐sharing work. Future research could test this paper's conclusions in larger and more diverse volunteer‐based NPOs.
The paper extends KM research into the realm of volunteer‐based NPOs and adopts elements from Motivation‐Hygiene theory as well as specific volunteer motivation factors as additional criteria for a KM solution.
The purpose of this paper is to consider the management of hazards arising from the make-buy choice in the face of radical technological change. This sourcing choice can…
The purpose of this paper is to consider the management of hazards arising from the make-buy choice in the face of radical technological change. This sourcing choice can lead to distinctive exchange and hierarchical hazards. This study’s main interest is in investigating the research question “How can firms reduce those distinctive exchange and hierarchical hazards arising from the make-buy sourcing strategy when dealing with radical technological change?”
The author develops hypotheses that the in-house retention of outsourced component knowledge will likely reduce exchange hazards arising from the buy strategy choice. And prior exploratory technological experience will likely reduce hierarchical hazards arising from the make strategy choice. The author explores the US mountain bicycle industry from 1980 to 1992 to test the developed hypotheses. For endogeneity arising from the make-buy sourcing decision, the author uses Heckman’s two-stage switching regression model.
The major findings are that the in-house retention of outsourced component knowledge and prior exploratory technological experience is distinctive moderating factors improving performance of a buy strategy and a make strategy, respectively.
Since the extant literature tends to focus on which of the two sourcing strategies provides the greatest performance advantages in the face of radical technological change, there is a strong implication to suggest that if a firm performs poorly with one sourcing decision, the firm should switch to an alternative one. Different from the expositions of the literature, this study elevates the understanding regarding how firms can improve the performance of their current sourcing orientation rather than whether they should switch from one sourcing strategy to another.
Explores certain problems associated with formal mentoring within five organizations. Also offers solutions to some of these problems. However, a number of the solutions offered here may be difficult to implement as they represent for some a major shift in thinking.
– The aim of this paper is to examine marketing practices within the bicycle industry.
The aim of this paper is to examine marketing practices within the bicycle industry.
The paper utilizes both primary and secondary sources to provide a retrospective analysis of marketing strategy at the largest Italian bicycle company.
The paper explains how marketing works at the Bianchi company and provides a detailed analysis of how it built its brand identity over time.
Very few primary sources were available. There was neither a company archive nor other archives. For the most part, the paper is based on secondary sources.
The paper tries to fill the gap in current marketing literature that usually neglects the bicycle as a relevant topic, despite bicycle companies being a predecessor to the automobile industry. Moreover, the paper demonstrates that bicycle companies developed a rather sophisticated approach to marketing that is still in use.
Purpose – This chapter analyses the various themes connected with cycling's current situation and future prospects which have emerged through the previous 10 chapters, and elaborates the need for a ‘bicycle system’ which is capable of achieving a ‘revolution’ in cycling.
Approach – The chapter draws on previous chapters, as well as the results of recently completed research into the state of cycling across urban England.
Findings – Cycling remains marginalised, but its current rise in status across some of the world's cities offers grounds for optimism about its future contribution to sustainability objectives. The bicycle's rise in status is currently both elitist and, potentially, a passing fashion; the challenge is to make it both more democratic and durable.
Practical implications – In the mould of ‘common endeavours’ outlined in the World Commission Report on Environment and Development ‘Our Common Future’, the authors propose building a ‘bicycle system’ to ensure the bicycle can play a full role in the transition to (especially urban) sustainability and outline possible principles for, pathways towards, and components and characteristics of, a bicycle system.
Social implications – The chapter aims to influence broader debates, and importantly it needs to influence political discourse, about the changes required to assist in the transition to greater urban transport sustainability, and specifically to discourage car use whilst encouraging use of the bicycle for short urban journeys.
Value of paper – The authors provide an analysis of the current constraints on cycling, and a case for simultaneously assembling a ‘bicycle system’ as the means of transitioning urban transport towards sustainability, whilst at the same time disassembling the current system that allows cars to predominate.
Purpose – This chapter traces the development of cycling in several European countries over the period from the 1880s to the present, with special focus on the two cycling…
Purpose – This chapter traces the development of cycling in several European countries over the period from the 1880s to the present, with special focus on the two cycling nations, Denmark and The Netherlands.
Methodology – Drawing on a wide array of research on bicycle use in Europe in the twentieth century as well as primary sources, the chapter pays particular attention to the users of the bicycle, their organisations and the mixture of male and female, young and old, and rich and poor, because these users were the people who actually shaped cycling cultures.
Findings – While acknowledging that geographical conditions cannot be fully ruled out as contributing factors, the authors point out that political, social and cultural aspects were all woven together into what would become increasingly distinctive national cycling cultures.
Value – This study provides historical context for recent efforts to increase cycling participation by identifying relevant cultural, social and political factors, and providing insights into the trajectories of Dutch and Danish cycling cultures.
This paper presents the second-generation estimates for the Italian engineering industry in 1911, a year documented both by the customary demographic census, and the first…
This paper presents the second-generation estimates for the Italian engineering industry in 1911, a year documented both by the customary demographic census, and the first industrial census. The first part of this paper uses the census data to estimate the industry’s value added, sector by sector; the second further disaggregates each sector by activity, and estimates the value added, employment, physical product, and metal consumption of each one. A third, concluding section dwells on the dependence of cross-section estimates on time-series evidence. Three appendices detail the specific algorithms that generate the present estimates; a fourth, a useful sample of firm-specific data.