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The effects which are produced by pearlescent pigments are intimately connected to optics and the interaction of light with matter. Pearlescent pigments are optical filters which reflect and transmit light which falls upon them. In order to understand pearlescent pigments, therefore it is first necessary to understand some of the basic laws of optics. I would like to review some of these laws to talk about light and its interaction with matter, how it can be separated into its components, the laws of reflection and refraction and how all of these laws apply to pearlescent pigments.
Stereolithography (SL) is a kind of rapid prototyping technology which uses the laminate manufacturing to fabricate parts. With the development of RP, some new RP…
Stereolithography (SL) is a kind of rapid prototyping technology which uses the laminate manufacturing to fabricate parts. With the development of RP, some new RP processes have boomed rapidly. Compact prototyping system (CPS) is a kind of novel stereolithography method which utilizes conventional UV light as the light source. After transmitting by optic fiber and focusing through lens set, the light is intensified and can be used to cure the photopolymer. Compared with the laser SL prototyping apparatus, this apparatus has unique characteristics on its driving system and light path system. Discusses the characteristics and corresponding consequences of the driving system and light path system, and analyzes the light energy distribution and the corresponding line shapes. Since each layer is constructed from a serial of lines, the scanning parameters, especially scanning speed and hatch gap, will influence the overall light intensity which determines the layer thickness, section shape and ultimately the prototyping accuracy. The driving system, due to the non‐uniform moving speeds, could cause the shape error of the lines. A light shutter, keeping the light only illuminating on resin surface within given curing areas, is employed to solve this deficiency.
This chapter investigates how night-time light images acquired from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System provide spatial and temporal…
This chapter investigates how night-time light images acquired from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System provide spatial and temporal insight into the economic impact of the disintegration of Yugoslavia. First, the chapter provides an overview of the economic development in Yugoslavia using conventional statistics, and second, it presents an analysis of the disintegration of the federation by comparing official statistics with night-time light data. Evaluating the impact of the disintegration of Yugoslavia as a federation and the conflicts arising in the wake of the break up is challenging since reliable data is missing. Therefore, satellite images, as one of the few sources of objective information, are potentially of great importance. We used yearly Operational Linescan System composites covering the period 1992–2013. The analysis is divided into small geographical units (districts) based on the republics in the former Yugoslavia.
The concept of light-handed regulation, including light-handed approaches to the regulation of airport services, is discussed. The rationale for the economic regulation of…
The concept of light-handed regulation, including light-handed approaches to the regulation of airport services, is discussed. The rationale for the economic regulation of airport services and the traditional approaches used for economic regulation of airport charges are summarized. The evolution of international practice of light-handed regulation is outlined, including the experience with minimal regulation across monopoly industries in New Zealand and the acceptance of “negotiated settlements” in utility industries in North America. General reasons for moving to light-handed regulation of airports include the disadvantages of the price cap approach in practice and the benefits of facilitating greater negotiation between airports and users. Comparisons are made between alternative approaches to light-handed regulation of airport services, including price and quality of service monitoring, information disclosure regulation and negotiate-arbitrate regulation, approaches that have been applied to airport services in Australia and New Zealand. The role and nature of the incentives under each approach are discussed. The chapter concludes that whether light-handed regulation provides a suitable alternative approach to direct regulation depends on the market circumstances and the design characteristics of the light-handed approach.
This chapter explores the multiple levels of authenticity involved in son et lumière and projection mapping. Light shows are increasingly staged at historic sites, using…
This chapter explores the multiple levels of authenticity involved in son et lumière and projection mapping. Light shows are increasingly staged at historic sites, using monumental buildings as canvases. The use of light allows the buildings to communicate, giving them a performative, additional dimension, generating multiplicity, where the same architectural structure or place is encountered simultaneously in both its light and physical forms. The effect is hyperreal, transforming buildings into simulacra, versions of distorted reality, where no original exists. As the building appears to move, the mind simultaneously informs the viewer that it is static, evoking a co-created tourist experience. Light shows, arguably staged by “imagineers”, reflect the increasing move toward the spectacle essential for creative and experience economies.
The sheathing panels of traditional light wood frame shear walls mainly use oriented strand board (OSB) panels, and the damage of the traditional walls is mainly caused by…
The sheathing panels of traditional light wood frame shear walls mainly use oriented strand board (OSB) panels, and the damage of the traditional walls is mainly caused by the tear failure at the bottom corner of the OSB panel. In order to improve the lateral performance of the traditional light wood frame shear wall, a new type of end narrow panels reinforced light wood frame shear wall is proposed.
The monotonic loading tests and finite element analysis of nine groups of walls, with different types of end narrow panel, types of fasteners used on the end narrow panels and the end narrow panels edge fastener spacing, are carried out. The effects of different characters on lateral performance of light wood frame shear walls are reported and discussed.
The failure modes of the wall reinforced by parallel strand bamboo narrow panels with 150 mm edge nails spacing are similar to the traditional wall. Conversely, the failure modes of other groups of walls reinforced by end narrow panels are the tears of the bottom narrow panel or the bottom beam. The end narrow panel reinforced light wood frame shear wall can make full use of the material property of sheathing panels. Compared with the lateral performance of traditional walls, the new-type end narrow panels reinforced walls have better lateral performance.
A new type of end narrow panels reinforced light wood frame shear wall is proposed, which can enhance the lateral performance of the traditional light wood frame shear wall. The new-type walls have advantages of convenient operation, manufacture cost saving and important value of engineering application.
The purpose of the research is to concentrate on the most important smart metropolitan applications which are smart living, smart security and smart maintainable. In that…
The purpose of the research is to concentrate on the most important smart metropolitan applications which are smart living, smart security and smart maintainable. In that, Power management and security is a most important problem in the current metropolitan situation.
A smart metropolitan area utilizes recent innovative technologies to improve its living, security and maintainable. The aim of this study is to recognize and resolve the difficulties in metropolitan area applications.
The main aim of this study is to reduce the metropolitan foremost energy consumption, to recharge the electric vehicles and to increase the lifetime of smart street lights.
The hybrid renewable energy street light applies smart resolutions to substructure and facilities in rural and metropolitan areas to create them well. This study will be applying smart metropolitan solar and wind turbine street light using renewable energy for existing areas. In future, the smart street light work will be implemented everywhere else.