The effects which are produced by pearlescent pigments are intimately connected to optics and the interaction of light with matter. Pearlescent pigments are optical filters which reflect and transmit light which falls upon them. In order to understand pearlescent pigments, therefore it is first necessary to understand some of the basic laws of optics. I would like to review some of these laws to talk about light and its interaction with matter, how it can be separated into its components, the laws of reflection and refraction and how all of these laws apply to pearlescent pigments.
Stereolithography (SL) is a kind of rapid prototyping technology which uses the laminate manufacturing to fabricate parts. With the development of RP, some new RP…
Stereolithography (SL) is a kind of rapid prototyping technology which uses the laminate manufacturing to fabricate parts. With the development of RP, some new RP processes have boomed rapidly. Compact prototyping system (CPS) is a kind of novel stereolithography method which utilizes conventional UV light as the light source. After transmitting by optic fiber and focusing through lens set, the light is intensified and can be used to cure the photopolymer. Compared with the laser SL prototyping apparatus, this apparatus has unique characteristics on its driving system and light path system. Discusses the characteristics and corresponding consequences of the driving system and light path system, and analyzes the light energy distribution and the corresponding line shapes. Since each layer is constructed from a serial of lines, the scanning parameters, especially scanning speed and hatch gap, will influence the overall light intensity which determines the layer thickness, section shape and ultimately the prototyping accuracy. The driving system, due to the non‐uniform moving speeds, could cause the shape error of the lines. A light shutter, keeping the light only illuminating on resin surface within given curing areas, is employed to solve this deficiency.
This paper explores the sensory experiences and cultural meanings of light in Japan in relation to Japanese changing lighting practices. It demonstrates that these sensory…
This paper explores the sensory experiences and cultural meanings of light in Japan in relation to Japanese changing lighting practices. It demonstrates that these sensory experiences and cultural meanings form an integral part of social life in Japan.
This paper adopts a blended approach that combines historical research and ethnographic data in the research on the meanings of light. The findings are presented in three parts. Two of them describe the social history of light, and the third draws on ethnographic data collected in suburban Japan.
The findings suggest that light in Japan has maintained a close symbolic connection with certain positive values despite the changing lighting practices. For example, light is related to cleanliness in early historical records on candle-making. In post-war Japan, new light metaphors such as “bright family” were invented to accommodate new aspirations for modernity and progress. In the latest development, the moral dimension of light is emphasised. This is evident in the concerns on being seen as a “bright person”, a person with a cheerful personality. Light in this way is related to the sensory experience of feeling a “social weight”, the pressure for one to act according to social norms.
This paper contributes to our anthropological understandings of light. It also provides a local case study of Japan, supported by original ethnographic research conducted by the author.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the measurement error of a three-dimensional coordinate measurement system based on dual-position-sensitive detector (PSD) under…
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the measurement error of a three-dimensional coordinate measurement system based on dual-position-sensitive detector (PSD) under different background light.
The mind evolutionary algorithm (MEA)-back propagation (BP) neural network is used to predict the three-dimensional coordinates of the points, and the influence of the background light on the measurement accuracy of the three-dimensional coordinates based on PSD is obtained.
The influence of the background light on the measurement accuracy of the system is quantitatively calculated. The background light has a significant influence on the prediction accuracy of the three-dimensional coordinate measurement system. The optical method, electrical method and photoelectric compensation method are proposed to improve the measurement accuracy.
BP neural network based on MEA is applied to the coordinate prediction of the three-dimensional coordinate measurement system based on dual-PSD, and the influence of background light on the measurement accuracy is quantitatively analyzed.
This chapter investigates how night-time light images acquired from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System provide spatial and temporal…
This chapter investigates how night-time light images acquired from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System provide spatial and temporal insight into the economic impact of the disintegration of Yugoslavia. First, the chapter provides an overview of the economic development in Yugoslavia using conventional statistics, and second, it presents an analysis of the disintegration of the federation by comparing official statistics with night-time light data. Evaluating the impact of the disintegration of Yugoslavia as a federation and the conflicts arising in the wake of the break up is challenging since reliable data is missing. Therefore, satellite images, as one of the few sources of objective information, are potentially of great importance. We used yearly Operational Linescan System composites covering the period 1992–2013. The analysis is divided into small geographical units (districts) based on the republics in the former Yugoslavia.
The concept of light-handed regulation, including light-handed approaches to the regulation of airport services, is discussed. The rationale for the economic regulation of…
The concept of light-handed regulation, including light-handed approaches to the regulation of airport services, is discussed. The rationale for the economic regulation of airport services and the traditional approaches used for economic regulation of airport charges are summarized. The evolution of international practice of light-handed regulation is outlined, including the experience with minimal regulation across monopoly industries in New Zealand and the acceptance of “negotiated settlements” in utility industries in North America. General reasons for moving to light-handed regulation of airports include the disadvantages of the price cap approach in practice and the benefits of facilitating greater negotiation between airports and users. Comparisons are made between alternative approaches to light-handed regulation of airport services, including price and quality of service monitoring, information disclosure regulation and negotiate-arbitrate regulation, approaches that have been applied to airport services in Australia and New Zealand. The role and nature of the incentives under each approach are discussed. The chapter concludes that whether light-handed regulation provides a suitable alternative approach to direct regulation depends on the market circumstances and the design characteristics of the light-handed approach.
This chapter explores the multiple levels of authenticity involved in son et lumière and projection mapping. Light shows are increasingly staged at historic sites, using…
This chapter explores the multiple levels of authenticity involved in son et lumière and projection mapping. Light shows are increasingly staged at historic sites, using monumental buildings as canvases. The use of light allows the buildings to communicate, giving them a performative, additional dimension, generating multiplicity, where the same architectural structure or place is encountered simultaneously in both its light and physical forms. The effect is hyperreal, transforming buildings into simulacra, versions of distorted reality, where no original exists. As the building appears to move, the mind simultaneously informs the viewer that it is static, evoking a co-created tourist experience. Light shows, arguably staged by “imagineers”, reflect the increasing move toward the spectacle essential for creative and experience economies.