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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2014

Loreta Stankeviciute and Anna Krook Riekkola

– This paper aims to quantify the potentials for the development of combined heat and power (CHP) in Europe.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to quantify the potentials for the development of combined heat and power (CHP) in Europe.

Design/methodology/approach

To this end, it uses the TIMES-EU energy-economic model and assesses the impact of key policy options and targets in the area of CO2 emissions reduction, renewable energies and energy efficiency improvements. The results are also compared with the cogeneration potentials as reported by the Member States in their national reports.

Findings

The paper shows that CHP output could be more than doubled and that important CHP penetration potential exists in expanding the European district heating systems. This result is even more pronounced with the far-reaching CO2 emissions reduction necessary in order to meet a long-term 2 degree target. Nevertheless, the paper also shows that strong CO2 emission reductions in the energy sector might limit the CHP potential due to increased competition for biomass with the transport sector.

Originality/value

Given the proven socio-economic benefits of using CHP, the paper identifies the areas for future research in order to better exploit the potential of this technology such as the combination of CHP and district cooling or country- and industry-specific options to generate process heat.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 22 December 2016

Neil Hewitt, Ye Huang, Mingjun Huang and Caterina Brandoni

Currently heating and cooling in buildings is responsible for over 30% of the primary energy consumption in the United Kingdom with a similar amount in China. We analyze…

Abstract

Purpose

Currently heating and cooling in buildings is responsible for over 30% of the primary energy consumption in the United Kingdom with a similar amount in China. We analyze heat pumps and district thermal energy network for efficient buildings. Their advantages are examined (i.e., flexibility in choosing heat sources, reduction of fuel consumption and increased environmental quality, enhanced community energy management, reduced costs for end users) together with their drawbacks, when they are intended as means for efficient building heating and cooling.

Methodology/approach

A literature review observed a range of operating conditions and challenges associated with the efficient operation of district heating and cooling networks, comparing primarily the UK’s and China’s experiences, but also acknowledging the areas of expertise of European, the United States, and Japan. It was noted that the efficiency of cooling networks is still in its infancy but heating networks could benefit from lower distribution temperatures to reduce thermal losses. Such temperatures are suitable for space heating methods provided by, for example, underfloor heating, enhanced area hydronic radiators, or fan-assisted hydronic radiators. However, to use existing higher temperature hydronic radiator systems (typically at a temperatures of >70°C) a modified heat pump was proposed, tested, and evaluated in an administrative building. The results appears to be very successful.

Findings

District heating is a proven energy-efficient mechanism for delivering space heating. They can also be adaptable for space cooling applications with either parallel heating and cooling circuits or in regions of well-defined seasons, on flow and return circuit with a defined change-over period from heating to cooling. Renewable energy sources can provide either heating or cooling through, for example, biomass boilers, photovoltaics, solar thermal, etc. However, for lower loss district heating systems, lower distribution temperatures are required. Advanced heat pumps can efficiently bridge the gap between lower temperature distribution systems and buildings with higher temperature hydronic heating systems

Originality/value

This chapter presents a case for district heating (and cooling). It demonstrates the benefits of reduced temperatures in district heating networks to reduce losses but also illustrates the need for temperature upgrading where building heating systems require higher temperatures. Thus, a novel heat pump was developed and successfully tested.

Details

China and Europe’s Partnership for a More Sustainable World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-331-3

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1997

J.P. Richards

States that supply industry privatization, its restructuring and strong competition from other fuels means that constant innovation is required in the electric heating

Abstract

States that supply industry privatization, its restructuring and strong competition from other fuels means that constant innovation is required in the electric heating business. Credanet is such a product with central programming and remote heater control. Credanet appears similar to a traditional central heating system in its operation and offers superior controllability with its advanced electric heating appliances. Feedback from both end users and specifiers indicate it is considered superior to existing electric heating systems. Credanet’s advanced communication technology also appears suited to other domestic appliances and related areas such as metering.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1991

A.K. Woollaston

Outlines the history and uses of copper tubing and its position inthe modern building industry. Discusses its various designations andtempers, its strength and ductility…

Abstract

Outlines the history and uses of copper tubing and its position in the modern building industry. Discusses its various designations and tempers, its strength and ductility, corrosion resistance, compatibility with other plumbing materials, suitability for use with potable water, its potential as a bacteriostat, its biofouling resistance and its availability in a range of sizes. Notes its position as a guaranteed British Standard quality product, and assesses the impact of Water Bylaws, Building Regulations and the British Standard Code of Practice on Water Supply on its use in building today. Explores other current and future applications of copper tube and extols its properties for health.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 22 November 2017

Huub Ruël and Luisa Suren

Multinational corporations (MNCs) are experiencing a number of major challenges in the international business arena. Can business diplomacy help them to deal with these…

Abstract

Purpose

Multinational corporations (MNCs) are experiencing a number of major challenges in the international business arena. Can business diplomacy help them to deal with these challenges effectively? In this introductory chapter we conceptualize and identify the relationship between MNCs’ international business diplomatic activities and firm performance.

Design/methodology/approach

We conducted a literature review and interviews with five large MNCs that are operating in distinctive industries. Business diplomatic activities have been classified into three particular areas to support the analysis, namely: (1) MNC–Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) relations, (2) MNC–Host Government relations, and (3) MNC–Local Community relations.

Findings

The main findings suggest that international business diplomacy has a direct positive effect on firm performance with regard to so-called soft or nonfinancial indicators. These indicators include knowledge sharing, reputation, company image, and marketing possibilities. The effect can in turn lead to a better financial performance and market stance in the long run.

Originality/value

The results of this study are important for the future awareness and execution of business diplomacy in large MNCs.

Article
Publication date: 11 May 2010

Jegenathan Krishnasamy, Kah‐Yoong Chan and Teck‐Yong Tou

The purpose of this paper is to address the influence of deposition process parameters. The substrate heating mechanisms are also discussed.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the influence of deposition process parameters. The substrate heating mechanisms are also discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

Deposition duration, sputtering power, working gas pressure, and substrate heater temperature on substrate heating in the direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering deposition process were investigated.

Findings

Results from the experiments show that, in DC magnetron sputtering deposition process, substrate heating is largely influenced by the process parameters and conditions.

Originality/value

This paper usefully demonstrates that substrate heating effects can be minimized by adjusting and selecting the proper sputtering process parameters; the production cost can be reduced by employing a higher sputtering power, lower working gas pressure and shorter deposition duration.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Rekha Raju, Manish Kumar and Manoj Changat

The purpose of this study is to show how scenario-based forecasting can give a better understanding of future commercial potential of a newly developed technology. This…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to show how scenario-based forecasting can give a better understanding of future commercial potential of a newly developed technology. This study aims to bridge the existing gaps in technology commercialization process for various projects supported under innovation support schemes in India.

Design/methodology/approach

The scope of this study is to understand the commercial potential and future deployment prospect of “sun direct hot water system (SDHWS)”. Scenarios have been drawn using “cone of plausibility” method and the commercial potential forecasted under different scenarios using arithmetic and linear regression forecasting tool.

Findings

The SDHWS is an incremental innovation but has great potential to overcome major constraints and barriers associated with existing solar water heater (SWH) technologies. Among the three scenarios drawn, plausible scenario is most likely to happen in future. The SDHWS is technically and economically capable of replacing existing conventional systems of SWHs.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited to developing alternate qualitative scenarios and, further, an attempt to quantify the commercial potential. Various assumptions have been taken because of non-availability of past data on SDHWS technology.

Originality/value

Scenario-based forecasting to understand commercial potential for innovative technology is a new approach. The adoption of such insight and analysis would brighten the chance of SDHWS technology to reach the market.

Details

foresight, vol. 18 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 July 2009

Davide Maritan and Roberto Panizzolo

Although important concepts and steps for strategic planning have been identified, there are few practical, systematic and powerful methodologies and tools to support an…

1481

Abstract

Purpose

Although important concepts and steps for strategic planning have been identified, there are few practical, systematic and powerful methodologies and tools to support an integrated and well‐managed process. This paper aims at describing in details how the quality function deployment (QFD) methodology can be applied in order to define the strategic priorities of a firm, to establish clear customer needs/expectations and to draw up a range of product and service characteristics in order to enhance customer satisfaction and thus competitive advantage.

Design/methodology/approach

From a methodological point of view, an exploratory case study has been taken with multiple level of analysis and multiple data collection methods. The case study refers to a small manufacturing firm operating in Italy which designs and sells geothermal heat pump systems.

Findings

The proposed methodology provides an excellent mechanism for integrating the important concepts and linking major steps of strategic planning and offers a rigorous methodology for identifying business priorities and developing order winning criteria.

Originality/value

In the last two decades many studies have appeared in the literature regarding the use of QFD procedure in supporting different types of planning. The main problem with these studies is that few explain the details of the process and even fewer present in‐depth case studies to demonstrate the process. Given the intrinsic characteristics of the case study, it is the authors' opinion that the analysis can give relevant indications about the feasibility and general applicability of the proposed methodology.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 November 2009

Charikleia Karakosta, Haris Doukas and John Psarras

Sustainable development (SD) in developing countries is mentioned as one of the main aims of the Kyoto protocol's clean development mechanism. However, in the present…

1824

Abstract

Purpose

Sustainable development (SD) in developing countries is mentioned as one of the main aims of the Kyoto protocol's clean development mechanism. However, in the present context, uncertainty prevails to whether the (CDM) is actually procuring its aims in terms of achieving SD and to what extent. Chile, which has an open market economy, could risk becoming “locked” into a carbon intensive future, due to the recently discovered coal reserves and plans of large utilities to move to coal technology and not necessarily clean‐coal technology. The aim of this paper is to assist Chile in finding ways of encouraging technology transfer of energy technologies that would contribute to a low‐carbon sustainable energy development.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to be able to identify potential CDM projects facilitating SD in developing countries, through technology transfer from developed ones and, thus, to formulate a series of possible investment strategies with a SD component, it is crucial to establish a clear understanding of the host country's needs and priorities and the suitable energy technologies to meet these needs.

Findings

This paper presents results obtained from an elaborated stakeholders' assessment on Chile's high priority energy needs, sustainable energy technologies fulfilling these needs and opportunities and barriers related with the implementation of these technologies in the particular market.

Originality/value

The paper provides useful results that could facilitate Chile's designated national authority as well as future project investors to put on the map the most suitable sustainable energy technologies, based on the country's SD needs and priorities, to transfer and implement via CDM. The above is particularly important for Chile since recent coal discoveries could risk becoming “locked” into a carbon intensive future.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Babak Lotfi, Bengt Sunden and Qiu-Wang Wang

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the numerical fluid-structure interaction (FSI) framework for the simulations of mechanical behavior of new vortex generators…

380

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the numerical fluid-structure interaction (FSI) framework for the simulations of mechanical behavior of new vortex generators (VGs) in smooth wavy fin-and-elliptical tube (SWFET) heat exchanger using the ANSYS MFX Multi-field® solver.

Design/methodology/approach

A three-dimensional FSI approach is proposed in this paper to provide better understanding of the performance of the VG structures in SWFET heat exchangers associated with the alloy material properties and geometric factors. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with shear stress transport turbulence model are applied for modeling of the turbulent flow in SWFET heat exchanger and the linear elastic Cauchy-Navier model is solved for the structural von Mises stress and elastic strain analysis in the VGs region.

Findings

Parametric studies conducted in the course of this research successfully identified illustrate that the maximum magnitude of von Mises stress and elastic strain occurs at the root of the VGs and depends on geometrical parameters and material types. These results reveal that the titanium alloy VGs shows a slightly higher strength and lower elastic strain compared to the aluminum alloy VGs.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the first in the literature that provides original information mechanical behavior of a SWFET heat exchanger model with new VGs in the field of FSI coupling technique.

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