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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Mohammad Fahim Ansari and Gautam Sarkhel

The purpose of this study is to improve the coating properties of shellac–epoxidised novolac blends by treatment with melamine formaldehyde resin (MF) at ambient…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to improve the coating properties of shellac–epoxidised novolac blends by treatment with melamine formaldehyde resin (MF) at ambient temperature for its use as a coating material.

Design/methodology/approach

Epoxidised-novolac resin was synthesised by epoxidation of novolac resin with epichlorohydrin. Novolac resin was synthesised by reaction of phenol with formaldehyde in acidic medium. Shellac was blended with the epoxidised-novolac resin in solution in varying ratios and treated the blends with MF resin in fixed ratio. Coating properties of the treated compositions were studied using a standard procedure. The compositions were characterised with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) spectroscopy.

Findings

Treatment of shellac–epoxidised-novolac blends with MF resin improved water and alkali resistance of the blends, besides enhancing gloss. Gloss in all the blends was uniformly increased on treatment with MF resin. Water resistance of the blends tremendously improved after treatment with MF resin. Contact angle of the blends against water increased while decreased against ethylene glycol and dioxane. The compositions were more resistant to polar solvent than non-polar ones, suggesting that the compositions shifted to hydrophobic (lipophilic) nature on treatment with the MF resin.

Research limitations/implications

A specified concentration of MF resin was used in the study. Different concentrations of the MF resin can also be tried for treatment of shellac–epoxidised-novolac blends to see the effect of the resin on the blends.

Practical implications

Treatment of shellac–epoxidised-novolac blend with MF resin improved the coating properties of the blends. The formulation SeNB-64 is the best with high gloss, good impact, scratch hardness and water resistance, and hence can be used as coating material for metal surfaces.

Originality/value

Blending of shellac with epoxidised-novolac resin and treatment of the blends with the MF resin was done for the first time. The formulation SeNB-64 can be used as coating material for metal surfaces.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 26 August 2014

Mohammad Fahim Ansari, Gautam Sarkhel, Dipendra Nath Goswami and Bangali Baboo

– The purpose of this paper is to improve the properties of shellac by blending with epoxidised novolac resin for its use as coating material for metal surfaces.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to improve the properties of shellac by blending with epoxidised novolac resin for its use as coating material for metal surfaces.

Design/methodology/approach

Epoxidised-novolac resin was synthesised by epoxidation of novolac resin, which in turn was synthesised by reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. The epoxidised-novolac resin was blended with different weight ratios of shellac ranging 10-50 weight per cent with an interval of 10 weight per cent. Films of the blends were studied for different coating properties using standard procedure.

Findings

Significant improvement in coating properties of shellac such as gloss, scratch hardness and impact resistance was observed on blending with epoxidised novolac resin. Resistance towards water and alkali increased, while acid resistance decreased, with the increase in concentration of epoxidised novolac resin in the blends. Contact angle measurement revealed that blends showed more resistance towards polar solvent than non-polar ones.

Research limitations/implications

Epoxidised-novolac resin used in the study was synthesised of epoxy equivalent of 187. Epoxidised-novolac resin of different epoxy equivalent can also be synthesised and used for blending and studying the properties.

Practical implications

Blending of shellac with epoxidised-novolac resin improved the coating properties of shellac, which was further enhanced with the treatment of butylated melamine formaldehyde resin. The formulation can be used as coating material for metal surfaces.

Originality/value

Blending of shellac with epoxidised-novolac resin was done for the first time. The formulation can be utilised for developing coating material for metal surfaces.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 43 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2005

S.H. El‐Sabbagh, A.I. Hussain and M.A. Abd El‐Ghaffar

To evaluate the performance of the compatibiliser of epoxidised soyabean oil‐free fatty acid prepared on the NBR/EPDM blends compared with maleic anhydride and also to…

Abstract

Purpose

To evaluate the performance of the compatibiliser of epoxidised soyabean oil‐free fatty acid prepared on the NBR/EPDM blends compared with maleic anhydride and also to explore the effect of loading the compatibiliser NBR/EPDM rubber blend with unmodified and modified polypropylene fibres on the mechanical properties of the blend.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve desirable rheological and physico‐mechanical properties of NBR/EPDM rubber blend, various compositions were made by incorporating different doses of the compatibiliser of epoxidised soyabean oil‐free fatty acid prepared and maleic anhydride to form NBR/EPDM blends. The effect of loading the compatibiliser rubber blend with unmodified and modified polypropylene fibres on the mechanical properties of the blend was investigated.

Findings

The incorporation of epoxidised soyabean oil‐free fatty acid or maleic anhydride into NBR/EPDM blend greatly enhanced their compatibility improved the rheological, as well as physical properties of rubber blends. The addition of NBR to EPDM improved the motor oil swelling resistance of EPDM. Blending of the two individual rubbers without a compatibiliser generally exhibited a non‐synergistic effect with respect to the physical properties. The strain energy, tensile strength, Young's modulus and strain at yield varied linearly with composition in the presence of compatibiliser, but deviated from linearity in the absence of compatibiliser. Reinforcement of the NBR/EPDM blend with modified polypropylene fibres enhanced the physical properties more significantly than with the unmodified ones.

Research limitations/implications

The compatibiliser of epoxidised soyabean oil was prepared by reacting in situ soyabean oil‐free fatty acid with per‐acetic acid.

Practical implications

The method developed provided a simple and practical solution to improving the rheological and physico‐mechanical properties of the NBR/EPDM rubber blend.

Originality/value

The method for enhancing rheological and physico‐mechanical properties of NBR/EPDM rubber blend loaded with modified polypropylene fibres was very important and showed a synergistic effect and could find numerous applications in the rubber and plastic industries.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1994

P. Muturi‐Mwangi, S. Dirlikov and P.M. Gitu

Yellowing of vegetable oils in coatings continue to be a problem to paint formulators and users and to resin manufacturers. This characteristic occurs in coatings where…

Abstract

Yellowing of vegetable oils in coatings continue to be a problem to paint formulators and users and to resin manufacturers. This characteristic occurs in coatings where there is unsaturation in the triglyceride fatty acid residues of the oils used in the resin or binder. Yellowing is the single most important factor which limits the use of linseed oil‐based white paints and enamels for external use in buildings. A thorough understanding of this phenomenon is necessary to the resin manufacturer and paint formulator. Unfortunately, yellowing of vegetable oils in coatings is still a controversial subject. The chemistry behind the process is not yet known. Many factors have been attributed to causing or related to the onset and degree of yellowing. These include:

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2018

Greta Miezinyte, Jolita Ostrauskaite, Egidija Rainosalo, Edvinas Skliutas and Mangirdas Malinauskas

The purpose of this paper is the design and investigation of novel acrylated epoxidized soybean oil-based photocurable systems as candidate materials for optical 3D printing.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is the design and investigation of novel acrylated epoxidized soybean oil-based photocurable systems as candidate materials for optical 3D printing.

Design/methodology/approach

Aromatic dithiols, benzene-1,3-dithiol or benzene-1,4-dithiol, were used as cross-linking agents of acrylated epoxidized soybean oil in these systems. Kinetics of photocross-linking was investigated by real-time photorheometry using two different photoinitiators, 2, 2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone or 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropiophenone, in different quantities. The effect of the initial composition on the rate of photocross-linking, mechanical, thermal properties and swelling of obtained polymers was investigated.

Findings

The rate of photocross-linking was higher, more cross-links and shorter polymer chains between cross-linking points of the network were formed when benzene-1,4-dithiol and 2, 2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone were used in compositions. The higher yield of insoluble fraction, glass transition temperatures and values of compressive modulus were obtained when benzene-1,3-dithiol and 2, 2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone were used in compositions.

Originality/value

This is the first study of acrylated epoxidized soybean oil-based thiol-ene system by real-time photorheometry. The designed novel photocurable systems based on acrylated epoxidized soybean oil and benzenedithiols are promising renewable photoresins for rapid optical 3D printing on demand.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2001

A.A. El‐Sanabary, M.M. Elnashar, A. Abdallah Magda and B.M. Badran

Soybean oil was epoxidized in situ under established conditions. The produced epoxidized soybean oil was subjected to a sulfur containing compound of the formula…

Abstract

Soybean oil was epoxidized in situ under established conditions. The produced epoxidized soybean oil was subjected to a sulfur containing compound of the formula (5‐phenyl‐1,3,4‐oxadiazole‐2‐(3H)‐thiones) and four of its derivatives (p‐chloro‐, p‐iodo‐, p‐methyl‐ and p‐methoxy‐) in sealed ampoules under inert atmosphere at 180‐2308C (according to the melting point of each sulfur compound). The produced adducts were added to three varnishes based on alkyd resin, chlorinated rubber and a vinyl chloride copolymer to evaluate them as corrosion inhibitors for steel surfaces. It was found that these adducts can act as good corrosion inhibitors and their efficiencies depend principally on the substituted functional group.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 48 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

M. Bajpai, V. Shukla, D.K. Singh, M. Singh and R. Shukla

Development of new radiation‐curable materials for the application in radiation curing technology is of significant importance. Most of the commercially available…

Abstract

Development of new radiation‐curable materials for the application in radiation curing technology is of significant importance. Most of the commercially available radiation‐curable resins are derived from synthetic raw materials. The synthesis of acrylated, epoxidised soybean oil (ESO) from ESO had been carried out by reacting acrylic acid with the oxirane group in ESO. The acrylated ESO products were characterised using a variety of analytical techniques. Thus, the oxygen value, the iodine value, the acid value and the infrared spectra of the acrylated ESO products were obtained. Pigmented acrylated ESO systems were prepared and found to cure on exposure to UV radiation.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1994

S.M. El‐Sawy, A.A. El‐Sanabary and B.M. Badran

Introduction The application of organic coatings is the most extensive way of protecting metal products from corrosion. Developments of organic coatings and their…

Abstract

Introduction The application of organic coatings is the most extensive way of protecting metal products from corrosion. Developments of organic coatings and their applications are subject to the effects of many factors at present. The most important among these factors are ecological requirements aimed at the protection of the living and working environments, and the lack of raw materials and energy.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 41 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Abdul Munir Hidayat Syah Lubis, Bambang Ariwahjoedi and Mustafar Sudin

This study aims to characterize the composition of the tribo-layer formed during sliding of steel in the presence of crude jatropha oil (CJO) and epoxidized jatropha oil…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to characterize the composition of the tribo-layer formed during sliding of steel in the presence of crude jatropha oil (CJO) and epoxidized jatropha oil (EJO) under boundary lubricant application.

Design/methodology/approach

CJO was obtained from a local market and used as received. EJO was obtained by epoxidation process with peroxyformic acid catalyzed by acidic ion exchange resin. The tribological test was conducted by the four ball method according to ASTM 4192. Wear scars generated on the lower balls were used to characterize the tribo-layer. Energy-dispersive X-ray and X-ray photo spectroscopy analysis were conducted to characterize the tribo-layer composition.

Findings

EJO shows a lower friction coefficient compared to CJO. Moreover, EJO also shows better wear preventive properties compared to CJO. The oxidation of CJO and EJO has lead chemisorption of the oil to steel surface to cause formation of protective layers for the steel surface. The layers were constructed from inorganic oxide in the form of iron oxides and silicon oxide together with organic layers in form of aldehyde, ketone and carboxylic acid. The formation and removal of this layer from rubbing sites are considered to affect wear-preventive and friction behaviour of steel lubricated with CJO and EJO.

Originality/value

This works highlights friction and anti-wear characteristics of CJO and EJO. This work also presents the composition of the tribo-layer that formed because of the sliding of steel lubricated with CJO and EJO. The method and result can be used for further investigation and development of lubricant.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 69 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1996

M.S. Ibrahim, R.M. Mohsen and S.M. El‐Sawy

Reports on the preparation of some organic corrosion inhibitors, carried out by the reaction of epoxidized linseed oil free fatty acids with different aliphatic amines…

Abstract

Reports on the preparation of some organic corrosion inhibitors, carried out by the reaction of epoxidized linseed oil free fatty acids with different aliphatic amines under the effect of γ‐ray irradiation. Notes that chemical and instrumental methods were used for identification of the reaction products and that the prepared inhibitors were tested for corrosion protection of steel surfaces by incorporating them in some chlorinated rubber varnishes. Reports that the physical, chemical and corrosion protective properties of the varnish films were studied. Concludes that the prepared inhibitors can be used in small quantities to provide varnishes of excellent adhesion and superior protective properties. Contends, also, that increase of the radiation dose during preparation of the inhibitors and/or during the drying process of the varnish films increases the protective properties of the formed films.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 43 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

1 – 10 of 111