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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1974

Americus

The onslaught of automation in the industrial coatings area is an irreversible one. For this reason, the manufacturers who coat in‐plant seize eagerly upon developments…

Abstract

The onslaught of automation in the industrial coatings area is an irreversible one. For this reason, the manufacturers who coat in‐plant seize eagerly upon developments such as high‐energy radiation curing and ultraviolet curing. Interest in these techniques is developing rapidly as indicated by the large number of patents which are beginning to evolve. The advantages of these methods have been detailed in previous reviews. Some of the more recent literature is described in this article.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1985

William E. Murray

During the past decade, the use of video display terminals (VDTs) in information processing and related applications has grown exponentially. Recent estimates place the…

Abstract

During the past decade, the use of video display terminals (VDTs) in information processing and related applications has grown exponentially. Recent estimates place the number of terminals in the workplace at more than ten million. Along with this rapid growth there has been a concomitant increase in concern about the radiation emissions from the VDT. Several types of radiation can be emitted by the terminal. Cataracts, reproductive problems, and skin rashes have been reported by VDT operators and are alleged to result from radiation exposure. However, measurements of the radiation emissions, when compared to the present occupational exposure standards, lead to the conclusion that the terminal does not present a radiation hazard to the VDT operator.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Article
Publication date: 24 June 2019

Ahmad Fairuz Omar, Wan Long Chiong, Wei Yee Tan and Jia Wen Wong

This paper aims to propose an area under the curve model to represent ultraviolet (UV) exposure doses on EBT3 films (in mJ/cm2). The model was developed on a cross-section…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose an area under the curve model to represent ultraviolet (UV) exposure doses on EBT3 films (in mJ/cm2). The model was developed on a cross-section of the exposed films using visible absorbance method. Ultraviolet–A light emitting diodes (UVA–LEDs) with 20° and 60° half angle with distinctive peak emission wavelengths between 365 to 405 nm are used in this experiment. No similar experimental setup or findings have been reported thus far, though the various application of EBT3 for the measurement of solar UV (A + B) have been published since EBT3 is commercially available.

Design/methodology/approach

Two sets of UVA–LEDs were used as the UV radiation source in the experiment. The first set contains of four 5 mm low power UVA–LEDs with the 20° half angle and peak emission wavelength at 365, 375, 385 and 400 nm. The second set contains of five surface mount high power UVA–LEDs with the 60° half angle and peak emission wavelength at 365, 375, 385, 305 and 400 nm. The illumination setup for the two sets of LEDs is different between each other to obtain sufficient dose distribution on the films for spectroscopy analysis. This is due to the different illumination angle and irradiance intensity by each set of LEDs.

Findings

UV–LED with a peak emission of 365, 375 and 385 nm able to produce UV doses accurately measurable using EBT3 films, UVA–LEDs with peak emission at 395 nm and above produced much lower accuracy with R2. From both set of LEDs, it can be concluded that peak emission wavelength of UVA–LED does influence the discoloration of the films. Shorter wavelength (higher energy) of UVA–LEDs discolors EBT3 films much intense compared to longer wavelength for a given UV dose exposure.

Originality/value

Despite various practical applicability and advantages of UV–LEDs, there are still no standard methods in measuring UV–LED radiation output. The proposed approach not only allows us to obtain the dose of UV–LED, where the sensitivity of measurement is wavelength (energy) depended but also allows us to visually observe the illumination pattern of invisible UV radiation through the application of EBT3 films.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 May 2020

Asfandyar Khan, Ahsan Nazir, Abdur Rehman, Maryam Naveed, Munir Ashraf, Kashif Iqbal, Abdul Basit and Hafiz Shahzad Maqsood

This review deals with the pros and cons of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on human beings and the role of textile clothing and the chemicals used for textiles to protect from…

Abstract

Purpose

This review deals with the pros and cons of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on human beings and the role of textile clothing and the chemicals used for textiles to protect from their harmful effects.

Design/methodology/approach

UV radiation (UVR) which has further divided into UVA, UVB, and UVC. Almost 100% of UVC and major portion of UVB are bounced back to stratosphere by ozone layer while UVA enters the earth atmosphere. Excessive exposure of solar or artificial UVR exhibit potential risks to human health. UVR is a major carcinogen and excessive exposure of solar radiation in sunlight can cause cancer in the lip, skin squamous cell, basal cell and cutaneous melanoma, particularly in people with the fair skin.

Findings

This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the harmful effects of UVR on human skin, factors affecting UV irradiance and factors affecting UV protection offered by textile clothing.

Originality/value

Effect of fiber properties, yarn properties, fabric construction, fabric treatments and laundering has been reviewed along with the identification of gaps in the reported research. A comparison of inorganic and organic UV absorbers has also been given along with different testing and evaluation methods for UV protective clothing.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1985

Americus

The importance of radiation curing was emphasised in the United States in 1984 when over 11,000 people specialising in this area — either a manufacturer or user attended a…

Abstract

The importance of radiation curing was emphasised in the United States in 1984 when over 11,000 people specialising in this area — either a manufacturer or user attended a conference on the subject. Obviously interest is high.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 14 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1973

Ultraviolet radiation may hold the key to the development of an essentially pollution‐free process for creating decorative, protective and insulating coatings on…

Abstract

Ultraviolet radiation may hold the key to the development of an essentially pollution‐free process for creating decorative, protective and insulating coatings on industrial products.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Article
Publication date: 27 June 2008

Robert Bogue

The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the industrial sensing applications of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with an emphasis on wavelengths other than…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the industrial sensing applications of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with an emphasis on wavelengths other than visible light. The paper is in two parts. This, the first, considers radiations with shorter wavelengths than visible light, i.e. γ radiation, X‐rays and ultra‐violet (UV).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper discusses the sensing applications of short wavelength EMR through reference to the techniques employed, products and their uses.

Findings

The paper shows that γ radiation, X‐rays and UV radiation are used in a wide range of industrial sensors for the measurement of physical variables, chemical compounds and gases. The phenomena employed include absorption, backscatter, photoionisation, fluorescence and reflection. Applications are extremely varied and embrace a diversity of industries.

Originality/value

The paper provides a detailed, technical review of the sensing uses of short wavelength EMR.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

M. Bajpai, V. Shukla, D.K. Singh, M. Singh and R. Shukla

Development of new radiation‐curable materials for the application in radiation curing technology is of significant importance. Most of the commercially available radiation

916

Abstract

Development of new radiation‐curable materials for the application in radiation curing technology is of significant importance. Most of the commercially available radiation‐curable resins are derived from synthetic raw materials. The synthesis of acrylated, epoxidised soybean oil (ESO) from ESO had been carried out by reacting acrylic acid with the oxirane group in ESO. The acrylated ESO products were characterised using a variety of analytical techniques. Thus, the oxygen value, the iodine value, the acid value and the infrared spectra of the acrylated ESO products were obtained. Pigmented acrylated ESO systems were prepared and found to cure on exposure to UV radiation.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 March 2020

Negar Hassanizadeh, Esmatullah Noorzai and AbdolReza Mohseni

The purpose of this study is to identify effective lighting criteria in the museum from two theoretical and practical points of view.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to identify effective lighting criteria in the museum from two theoretical and practical points of view.

Design/methodology/approach

Assessment of theoretical and practical weight of criteria was taken with the aim of concurrent attention in scientific and executive. Finally, ten effective criteria were identified by the Pareto chart.

Findings

The findings of this study represents a centralized reference source of the most important criteria and also effective guidance to improve the lighting quality and effective guideline to improve the lighting quality and operational fluency.

Practical implications

The paper can help the lighting experts, contemporary designers and future researchers to enhance the lighting function in art museums and design based on needs as well as up-to-date techniques.

Originality/value

Lighting as a fundamental element in the existing art museum has a significant impact on the better understanding of the artworks by the viewers. On the other hand, according to the importance of protecting valuable museum artefacts, lighting can have an effective or destructive impact on them directly. But with consideration of different museum lighting, there is a large range of effective lighting criteria that can choose the right methods harder.

Details

Journal of Facilities Management , vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-5967

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 July 2020

Gülçin Baysal, Gizem Keleş, Berdan Kalav, F. Seniha Güner and Burçak Karagüzel Kayaoğlu

In this study, it is aimed to synthesize ultraviolet (UV)-curable water-borne polyurethane acrylate (WPUA) binders using different types of polyols (poly (propylene…

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, it is aimed to synthesize ultraviolet (UV)-curable water-borne polyurethane acrylate (WPUA) binders using different types of polyols (poly (propylene glycol), PPG1000 and PPG2000 and poly (ethylene glycol), PEG1000 and PEG2000) at different molecular weights, DMPA (2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl) propionic acid) at different amounts and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) and use for pigment printing on synthetic leather.

Design/methodology/approach

UV-cured films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The effect of binder structure on printing performance was determined with hardness, crock fastness, abrasion resistance and color measurements.

Findings

The highest abrasion resistance (60,000 cycles) and crock fastness values (dry crock and wet crock: 3/4) were obtained with binder PEG-C synthesized with PEG2000 and lower DMPA amount of 4.89 wt%; however, PEG-C binder showed lower hardness values. Due to lower urethane groups in PEG-C binder, more flexible films were obtained which imparted good adhesion property to printing film. Synthesized binders provided lower crock fastness and abrasion resistance properties than commercial WPUA binder.

Originality/value

Pigmented formulations including UV-curable water-borne synthesized PUA binder were developed and for the first time applied onto synthetic leather using screen printing method. Within this context, a new environmentally friendly printing method was proposed in this study including binder synthesis in the preparation of printing formulations.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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