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Article
Publication date: 28 August 2007

C.A. Smith

The purpose of the paper is to discuss the chemical characterisation of inorganic and organic materials found in electronic systems.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to discuss the chemical characterisation of inorganic and organic materials found in electronic systems.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides an introduction to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, which is used for the chemical characterisation and analysis of materials. Examples from recent case studies are given to illustrate the work.

Findings

It was found that Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy can successfully identify materials at various stages of their lifecycle. By this means any contaminants and their resulting detrimental effects can be eliminated.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates how the chemical analysis of a material is conducted, and what can be learned from the investigation.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Book part
Publication date: 19 October 2012

Dawn T. Robinson, Jody Clay-Warner, Christopher D. Moore, Tiffani Everett, Alexander Watts, Traci N. Tucker and Chi Thai

Purpose – This paper proposes a new procedure for measuring affective responses during social interaction using facial thermographic imaging.Methodology – We first…

Abstract

Purpose – This paper proposes a new procedure for measuring affective responses during social interaction using facial thermographic imaging.

Methodology – We first describe the results of several small pilot experiments designed to develop and refine this new measure that reveal some of the methodological advantages and challenges offered by this measurement approach. We then demonstrate the potential utility of this measure using data from a laboratory experiment (N=114) in which we used performance feedback to manipulate identity deflection and measured several types of affective responses – including self-impressions and emotions.

Findings – We find warming of the brow (near the corrugator muscle) and cheek (near the zygomatic major muscle) related most strongly to emotion valence and self-potency, with those whose brows and cheeks warmed the most feeling less positive emotion and less potent self-impressions. Warming in the eye area (near the orbicularis oculi) related most closely to undirected identity deflection and to positive self-sentiments. Positive self-views and strong identity disruptions both contributed to warming of the eyes.

Implications – The rigor of contemporary sociological theories of emotion exceeds our current ability to empirically test these theories. Facial thermographic imaging may offer sociologists new assessments of affect and emotion that are ecologically valid, socially unreactive, temporally sensitive, and accurate. This could dramatically improve our ability to test and develop affect based theories of social interaction.

Details

Biosociology and Neurosociology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-257-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

M. Bajpai, V. Shukla, D.K. Singh, M. Singh and R. Shukla

Development of new radiation‐curable materials for the application in radiation curing technology is of significant importance. Most of the commercially available radiation

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910

Abstract

Development of new radiation‐curable materials for the application in radiation curing technology is of significant importance. Most of the commercially available radiation‐curable resins are derived from synthetic raw materials. The synthesis of acrylated, epoxidised soybean oil (ESO) from ESO had been carried out by reacting acrylic acid with the oxirane group in ESO. The acrylated ESO products were characterised using a variety of analytical techniques. Thus, the oxygen value, the iodine value, the acid value and the infrared spectra of the acrylated ESO products were obtained. Pigmented acrylated ESO systems were prepared and found to cure on exposure to UV radiation.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1999

Siu Ming Lo

Infrared thermography is said to be a technique that can detect external finishes defects. However, there exist numerous parameters that can affect the accuracy of this…

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835

Abstract

Infrared thermography is said to be a technique that can detect external finishes defects. However, there exist numerous parameters that can affect the accuracy of this technique. Its use should be subject to strict control and the results cannot be considered as conclusive. This paper discusses the complications of the thermal signature and the possible procedures when carrying out the survey. It also indicates that such a technique may be useful to the building control authority for mass‐screening of a large batch of buildings to justify the issuance of statutory orders.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2001

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52

Abstract

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2018

Satakshi Aggarwal and Tanu Jain

Modern thermal and non-thermal pretreatment techniques, namely, enzymatic treatment, gas phase plasma treatment and ohmic heating have become more pronounced over…

Abstract

Purpose

Modern thermal and non-thermal pretreatment techniques, namely, enzymatic treatment, gas phase plasma treatment and ohmic heating have become more pronounced over conventional techniques for enhanced coloured phytochemicals (pigments) extraction. Presently, numbers of pretreatment techniques are available with some unique feature. It is difficult to choose best pretreatment method to be employed for phytochemicals extraction from different sources. Therefore, this paper aims to discuss different modern pretreatment techniques for extraction with their potential results over conventional techniques.

Design/methodology/approach

Research and review articles targeting to the thermal and non-thermal pretreatment techniques were collected from Google Scholar. The required information has been tabulated and discussed which included qualities of modern pretreatment techniques over conventional techniques, phytochemical extraction and best pretreatment methods for optimized results.

Findings

Every pre-treatment has its own advantages and disadvantages for a particular phytochemical and its extraction from various sources. Enzymes can be used in combinations to enhance final yield like extraction of carotenoids (pectinase, cellulase and hemicellulase) from chillies and lycopene (pectinase and cellulase) from tomato. Utilization of each method depends upon many factors such as source of pigment, cost and energy consumption. CO2 pretreatment gives good results for carotenoid extraction from algae sources. Ohmic heating can yield high anthocyanin content. Modifications in conventional blanching has reduced final waste and improvised the properties of pigment.

Originality/value

This study comprises collective information regarding modern pre-treatment for extraction over conventional pre-treatments. The study also covers future trends and certain new hybrid approaches which are still less flourished.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1999

K.C. McCrae, R.A. Shaw, H.H. Mantsch, J.A. Thliveris, R.M. Das, K. Ahmed and J.E. Scott

Lung cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. Physical and chemical agents such as tobacco smoke are the leading cause of various lung cancers. The intrinsic…

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1245

Abstract

Lung cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. Physical and chemical agents such as tobacco smoke are the leading cause of various lung cancers. The intrinsic heterogeneity of normal lung tissue may be affected in different ways, giving rise to different types of lung cancers classified as either small‐cell lung cancer (SCLC) or non‐small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Adenocarcinoma, a NSCLC, accounts for 40 percent of all lung cancer cases and the incidence is increasing worldwide, especially among women. The survival rate and prognosis is poorest for adenocarcinoma. Therefore, diagnosis at the earliest stage (Stage I, localized) is critical for increasing survival rates of those suffering from lung cancer. However, many factors affect early diagnosis including the variable natural growth of tumors plus technological and human factors associated with manipulation of tissue samples and interpretation of results. This article reviews potential problems associated with diagnosing lung cancer and considers future directions of diagnostic technology.

Details

Leadership in Health Services, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-0756

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2005

John Weatherly

In the southern hemisphere, the Antarctic continent is also experiencing a net loss in ice from the extensive glaciers and ice sheets that cover it. However, the…

Abstract

In the southern hemisphere, the Antarctic continent is also experiencing a net loss in ice from the extensive glaciers and ice sheets that cover it. However, the connection between changes in Antarctic ice sheets and the global warming trend are much more uncertain than in the Arctic. The complex of changes in the Antarctic climate and the ice sheets are described in a later section of this chapter.

Details

Perspectives on Climate Change: Science, Economics, Politics, Ethics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-271-9

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Article
Publication date: 16 January 2017

Hanshan Li

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the detection performance of infrared photoelectric detection system and establish stable tracking platform.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the detection performance of infrared photoelectric detection system and establish stable tracking platform.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper puts forward making use of the finite element analysis method to set up the infrared radiation characteristics calculation model of flying target in infrared photoelectric detection system; researches the target optical characteristics based on the target imaging detection theory; sets up the heat balance equation of target’s surface node and gives the calculation method of total radiation intensity of flying target; and deduces the target detection distance calculation function; studies the changed regulation of radiation energy that charge coupled device (CCD) gain comes from target surface infrared heat radiations under different sky background luminance and different target flight attitude.

Findings

Through calculation and experiment analysis, the results show that when the target’s surface area increases or the target flight velocity is higher, the radiation energy that CCD obtained is higher, which is advantageous to the target stable detection in infrared photoelectric detection system.

Originality/value

This paper uses the finite element analysis method to set up the infrared radiation characteristics calculation model of flying target and give the calculation and experiment results; those results can provide some data and improve the design method of infrared photoelectric detection system, and it is of value.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 11 July 2008

Stephen Todd

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152

Abstract

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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