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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Abdul Munir Hidayat Syah Lubis, Bambang Ariwahjoedi and Mustafar Sudin

This study aims to characterize the composition of the tribo-layer formed during sliding of steel in the presence of crude jatropha oil (CJO) and epoxidized jatropha oil…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to characterize the composition of the tribo-layer formed during sliding of steel in the presence of crude jatropha oil (CJO) and epoxidized jatropha oil (EJO) under boundary lubricant application.

Design/methodology/approach

CJO was obtained from a local market and used as received. EJO was obtained by epoxidation process with peroxyformic acid catalyzed by acidic ion exchange resin. The tribological test was conducted by the four ball method according to ASTM 4192. Wear scars generated on the lower balls were used to characterize the tribo-layer. Energy-dispersive X-ray and X-ray photo spectroscopy analysis were conducted to characterize the tribo-layer composition.

Findings

EJO shows a lower friction coefficient compared to CJO. Moreover, EJO also shows better wear preventive properties compared to CJO. The oxidation of CJO and EJO has lead chemisorption of the oil to steel surface to cause formation of protective layers for the steel surface. The layers were constructed from inorganic oxide in the form of iron oxides and silicon oxide together with organic layers in form of aldehyde, ketone and carboxylic acid. The formation and removal of this layer from rubbing sites are considered to affect wear-preventive and friction behaviour of steel lubricated with CJO and EJO.

Originality/value

This works highlights friction and anti-wear characteristics of CJO and EJO. This work also presents the composition of the tribo-layer that formed because of the sliding of steel lubricated with CJO and EJO. The method and result can be used for further investigation and development of lubricant.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 69 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2014

Ramazan Karslioğlu, Hatem Akbulut, Mehmet Uysal and Guray Bağdatli

The objective of the present investigation is to prepare a Zn–Al matrix (73 wt. per cent Zn + 27 wt. per cent Al) reinforced with SiC and graphite (Gr) hybrid composites…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of the present investigation is to prepare a Zn–Al matrix (73 wt. per cent Zn + 27 wt. per cent Al) reinforced with SiC and graphite (Gr) hybrid composites by a rapid current sintering technique. Well-known Zn-based alloys are good candidates for load bearing applications. However, some limitations exist in Zn sublimation during casting and solid-state sintering and low-sliding velocity applications. The purpose is to develop new hybrid composites for self-lubricated bearing alloys by the facile production technique of current-activated sintering for these types of hybrid composites at very short sintering periods.

Design/methodology/approach

Designing a special power unit for current sintering. The hybrid composites of the Zn–Al matrix were reinforced with 20 vol. per cent SiC and different amounts of Gr (2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 weight per cent) and sintered rapidly by current sintering. Tribological tests for wear behaviors and self-lubrication effect were studied. The authors' approach is mainly to produce low-cost load-bearing materials.

Findings

Successful and rapid production of Zn–Al alloy SiC/Gr hybrid composites in this study led to increasing load bearing capacity, decreasing friction coefficient and wear rate and production of good substitutes for conventional bearing applications.

Originality/value

A conventional Zn alloy was reinforced with both SiC and Gr particles. This work is original in two ways. It is noted after the literature survey that this alloy is first reinforced with two different types of reinforcements as a hybrid type of composite. Second, the consolidation of this hybrid material was carried out by a direct current for eliminating Zn sublimation and shortening the production time. In tribological applications demanding strength and lubrication requirements, Zn–Al/SiC/Gr hybrid composites were assessed as good substitutes for conventional materials owing to improved wear resistance as a result of combined reinforcement of SiC and Gr particulates.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 66 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2014

Aleksandar Vencl, Ilija Bobic and Blaza Stojanovic

Aluminium alloys are frequently applied in automotive and other industries, since they provide mass reduction. Besides positive effects, aluminium alloys have their…

Abstract

Purpose

Aluminium alloys are frequently applied in automotive and other industries, since they provide mass reduction. Besides positive effects, aluminium alloys have their shortcomings reflected, first of all, in inappropriate tribological properties of these materials. The aim of this research was to enable the production of cheap aluminium alloy matrix composite with favourable combination of structural, mechanical and tribological properties, focusing on the tribological behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

The A356 Al-Si alloy was used as a matrix for producing metal matrix composites in compocasting process. Three different materials, in form of particles, were added to the matrix (Al2O3, SiC and graphite). Hardness and tribological properties (wear, friction and wear mechanism) of heat-treated (T6) samples were examined and compared. Tribological tests were carried out on ball-on-block tribometer under dry sliding conditions. Sliding was linear (reciprocating). Counter body was alumina ball. Average velocity was 0.038 m/s (max. 0.06 m/s), sliding distance was 500 m and normal load was 1 N.

Findings

The effect of two different ceramic particles and graphite particles on tribological properties of obtained composites was evaluated. Wear resistance of composites reinforced with SiC particles was higher and coefficient of friction was lower compared to the composite reinforced with Al2O3 particles. A dual hybrid composite (with SiC and graphite particles) showed the lowest value of wear rate and friction coefficient. Dominant wear mechanism for all tested material was adhesion.

Research limitations/implications

It seems useful to continue the work on developing hybrid composites containing soft graphite particles with A356 Al-Si alloy as matrix. The major task should be to improve particles distribution (especially with higher graphite content) and to explore tribological behaviour in diverse working conditions.

Originality/value

Particulate composites with A356 aluminium alloy as a matrix produced in compocasting process using ceramic particles (Al2O3, SiC) were investigated in many researches, but there are only few detailed analyses of dual composites (with the addition of ceramic and graphite particles). In some previous studies, it was shown that compocasting process, as relatively cheap technology, can obtain good structural and mechanical characteristics of composites. In this study, it was shown that even a low graphite content, under specified conditions, can improve tribological properties.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 66 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2021

Lokanadham Dharmana and Venkata Subbaiah Kambagowni

This study aims to develop the Al-Si-Mg metal matrix composite, reinforced distinctly with lime stone powder (LSP; 12% by weight) and Al2O3 (12% by weight), and compare…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to develop the Al-Si-Mg metal matrix composite, reinforced distinctly with lime stone powder (LSP; 12% by weight) and Al2O3 (12% by weight), and compare their mechanical properties and tribological performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The composites are fabricated through stir casting process. In view of the previous work, the Al-LSP composite with LSP reinforcement (12 Wt.%) shows enhanced mechanical properties and tribological performance, as compared with other weight percentages.

Findings

Though the Al-LSP composite is less expensive, it shows similar hardness, tensile strength and specific strength, when compared with Al- Al2O3 composite. However, the Al-LSP composite exhibits significant enhancement of above three properties, when compared with Al-Si-Mg metal. The systematic factorial design of experiments is obtained through Taguchi OA [L9]. The tribological performance is estimated through wear rate (WR-mm3/m) and coefficient of friction (CF) by varying the operating parameters of sliding distance (SD), load (L) and sliding velocity (SV). According to ANOVA results, the optimal condition of WR for all the tested materials is L1SD3SV1. Further, the optimal condition of CF is L1SD1SV3 for Al-LSP and Al-Si-Mg metal, while L2SD3SV2 is for Al-Al2O3 composite. The regression equation predicts the measured experimental values within error band of ± 8 percentage.

Originality/value

A comparison of two composite materials (Al-LSP and Al-Al2O3) with same weight fractions (12%) shows almost same trend in both the mechanical and tribological testing process. However, the developed Al-LSP composite exhibited better properties than the Al-Al2O3 and Al-base. Therefore, Al-LSP can be suggested for automotive applications (i.e., connecting rod, cylinder liners, camshaft) and structural applications (such as frames, over hanging supports), without compromising in desirable original with properties of constituents in the new material, which is achievable for looking to the end uses.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 14 July 2021

Mohammed Fahad and Bavanish B.

Aviation field requires a material with greater tribological characteristics to withstand the critical climate conditions. Hence, it is of paramount importance to enhance…

Abstract

Purpose

Aviation field requires a material with greater tribological characteristics to withstand the critical climate conditions. Hence, it is of paramount importance to enhance the wear resistance of material. AZ91D magnesium alloy is a light weight material used in the aviation field for the construction work. The purpose of this study is to augment the wear properties of AZ91D alloy by reinforcing with hard particles such as tungsten carbide (WC) and silicon dioxide (SiO2).

Design/methodology/approach

In this work, three types of composites were fabricated, namely, AZ91D – WC, AZ91D – SiO2 and AZ91D – (WC + SiO2) by ball milling method, and the tribological properties were analyzed using pin-on-disc apparatus.

Findings

Results showed that the hardness of AZ91D alloy was greatly improved due to the reinforcing effects of WC and SiO2 particles. Wear study showed that wear rate of AZ91D alloy and its composites increased with the increase of applied load due to ploughing effect and decreased with the increase of sliding speed owing to the formation of lubricating tribolayer. Further, the AZ91D – (WC + SiO2) composite exhibited the lower wear rate of 0.0017 mm3/m and minimum coefficient of friction of 0.33 at a load of 10 N and a sliding speed of 150 mm/s due to the inclusion of hybrid WC and SiO2 particles. Hence, the proposed AZ91D – (WC + SiO2) composite could be a suitable candidate to be used in the aviation applications.

Originality/value

This work is original which deals with the effect of hybrid particles, i.e. WC and SiO2 on the wear performance of the AZ91D magnesium alloy composites. The literature review showed that none of the studies focused on the reinforcement of AZ91D alloy by the combination of carbide and metal oxide particles as used in this investigation.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 73 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 27 March 2020

Zhengfeng Cao, Yanqiu Xia, Chuan Chen, Kai Zheng and Yi Zhang

This paper aims to explore polyaniline (PANI) as a lubricant additive to improve the anti-corrosion and tribological properties of ionic liquids (ILs) for actual applications.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore polyaniline (PANI) as a lubricant additive to improve the anti-corrosion and tribological properties of ionic liquids (ILs) for actual applications.

Design/methodology/approach

ILs were synthesized by dissolving lithium salts in synthetic oil and were used as a base oil to prepare ILs-based greases. PANI was used as an additive. The tribological properties were investigated in detail and the anti-corrosion ability was also assessed via salt spray test. After friction test, the worn surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to analyze the lubrication mechanisms.

Findings

PANI not only reduces the corrosion but also improves the friction reduction and anti-wear abilities of the ILs-based greases. The analysis indicates that the protective films generated on the worn surfaces were responsible for the preferable anti-corrosion and tribological properties.

Originality/value

This paper provides an effective approach to improve the anti-corrosion and tribological properties of ILs for actual applications.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/ILT-11-2019-0469/

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 72 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 25 November 2019

Jibin T. Philip, Deepak Kumar, S.N. Joshi, Jose Mathew and Basil Kuriachen

Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is well-known for its credibility in the processing of advanced materials, which are electrically conductive. The strenuous effort…

Abstract

Purpose

Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is well-known for its credibility in the processing of advanced materials, which are electrically conductive. The strenuous effort associated with machining of Ti6Al4V (Ti64) using conventional methods, and its low tribological behavior, present an immediate need to develop solutions to monitor and improve the compatible techniques such as EDM.

Design/methodology/approach

The present work includes following: monitoring the ED process parameters, namely, current (I) and pulse on time (Ton), in controlling the material removal rate and surface roughness (Ra and Sa) for development of tribo-adaptive surfaces; and investigation on the role of oxides pertinent to the tribo-behavior of Ti64 (bare and EDMed) surfaces.

Findings

The tribological behavior of Ti6Al4V surfaces got remarkably improved through ED machining, which points to the credibility of the process to establish itself as a surface alloying technique. The recast layer (RL, alloyed matrix) acted as a protective coating; stable enough to assist the developed tribo-oxides such as TiO and Ti8O15 in rendering improved sliding performance at load = 50 N and speed = 0.838 ms−1.

Originality/value

The surface modification through ED machining was experimentally proven to improve the wear behavior of Ti6Al4V surfaces.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 72 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 27 November 2020

Fangfang Zhang, Fengyun Yan, Tijun Chen, Xiaohong Li and Zhen Wang

This paper aims to study the effect of load on the tribological behaviour of Cu-based composites, so as to obtain a suitable applied load on these composites.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the effect of load on the tribological behaviour of Cu-based composites, so as to obtain a suitable applied load on these composites.

Design/methodology/approach

Cu-based composites were prepared by powder sintering with direct current electric current heating and tested by Universal Mechanical Test-3 with a ball-on-disk at room temperature.

Findings

The results showed that Cu-based composites are might suitable for working under low load. There is only mild damage on the surface under a load of 2 N. While it has microcracks and shows signs of cavitation at a certain depth at 20 N and 50 N. In addition, it is evident that there are three zones in the cross-section of the matrix, namely, a mechanical mixing layer, ceramic layer and substrate, respectively.

Originality/value

There are two wear mechanisms at different loads, and the evolution of worn surfaces with sliding time is also involved. Thus, the developed material can be used for light load sliding electrical contact material applications.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 73 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Christian Engelhardt, Jochen Witzig, Thomas Tobie and Karsten Stahl

Water can alter the performance of modern gear lubricants by influencing the flank load carrying capacity of gears significantly. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

Water can alter the performance of modern gear lubricants by influencing the flank load carrying capacity of gears significantly. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of water contaminations in different kinds of base oils on the micro-pitting and wear performance of case carburized gears.

Design/methodology/approach

Concerning micro-pitting and wear, tests, based mostly on the following standardized tests, are performed on a Forschungsstelle fuer zahnraeder und getriebebau (FZG)-back-to-back gear test rig: micro-pitting short test Graufleckenkurztest (GFKT) according to DGMK 575 (screening test), micro-pitting test Graufleckentest (GT) according to FVA 54/7 (load stage test and endurance test) and Slow-speed wear test according to DGMK 377. To investigate the effect of water on the gear load carrying capacity dependent on different types of base oils, two polyglycol oils (PG1 and PG2), a polyalphaolefin oil, a mineral oil and an ester oil E are used. Each of these oils are common wind turbine gear oils with a viscosity ISO VG-220. Additionally, a manual transmission fluid with a viscosity of society of automotive engineers (SAE) 75W-85 is tested.

Findings

Considering the micro-pitting and wear performance, a significant decrease caused by water contaminations could not be detected. Regarding pitting damages, a generally negative influence was observed. This influence was differently distinctive for different base oil types. Especially non-polar lubricants seem to be affected negatively. The documented damages of the tooth flanks confirm this observation. While typical pitting damages appeared in test runs with polar lubricants, the disruption in test runs with non-polar lubricants was more extensive. Based on the experimental investigations, a general model of the damaging mechanisms of water contaminations in lubricants was derived. It is split into three partitions: interaction lubricant–water (effect of water on the molecular structure of base oils and additives), chemical-material-technological (especially corrosive reactions) and tribological influence (effect of water droplets in the contact zone). It has to be considered that the additive package of lubricants affects the influence of water contaminations on the flank load carrying capacity distinctively. An influence of water on the micro-pitting and wear performance in other than the given lubricants cannot be excluded.

Originality/value

While former research work was focused more on the effects of water in mineral oils, investigations concerning different types of base oils as well as different types of damages were carried out within this research project.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 69 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Blaza Stojanovic, Jasmina Blagojevic, Miroslav Babic, Sandra Velickovic and Slavica Miladinovic

This research aims to describe the influence of weight per cent of graphite (Gr), applied load and sliding speed on the wear behavior of aluminum (Al) alloy A356…

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to describe the influence of weight per cent of graphite (Gr), applied load and sliding speed on the wear behavior of aluminum (Al) alloy A356 reinforced with silicon carbide (SiC) (10 Wt.%) and Gr (1 Wt.% and 5 Wt.%) particles. The objective is to analyze the effect of the aforementioned parameters on a specific wear rate.

Design/methodology/approach

These hybrid composites are obtained by means of the compo-casting process. Tribological analyses were conducted on block-on-disc tribometer at three different loads (10, 20 and 30 N) and three different sliding speeds (0.25, 0.5 and 1 m/s), at the sliding distance of 900 m, in dry sliding wear conditions. Optimization of the tribological behavior was conducted via the Taguchi method, and ANOVA was used for the analysis of the specific wear rate. Confirmation tests are used to foresee and check the experimental results. Examined samples were analyzed via a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Regression models for predicting specific wear rate were developed with Taguchi and ANN (artificial neural network) methods.

Findings

The biggest impact on value of specific wear rate has the load (43.006%), while the impact of Wt.% Gr (31.514%) was less. After comparison of the results, i.e. regression models, for predicting the specific wear rate, it was observed that ANN was more efficient than the Taguchi method. The specific wear rate of Al alloy A356 with SiC (10 Wt.%) and Gr (1 Wt.% and 5 Wt.%) decreases with a decrease in the load and weight per cent of Gr-reinforcing material, as well as with a decrease in sliding speed.

Originality/value

The results obtained in this paper using the Taguchi method and the ANN method are useful for improving and further investigating the wear behavior of the SiC- and Gr-reinforced Al alloy A356.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 69 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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