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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1992

Robert A. Butcher

Defines what varnish is, and traces its history. Outlines thevarious types of varnish and their main uses – alkyds, cellulose,melamine, epoxy, polyurethanes, phenolic…

Abstract

Defines what varnish is, and traces its history. Outlines the various types of varnish and their main uses – alkyds, cellulose, melamine, epoxy, polyurethanes, phenolic, thermoplastic, and natural varnishes. Reviews 15 properties and terminologies associated with varnishes. Supplies two brief examples of proper use of varnish. Concludes with ten ′general rules′ of varnishing.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 5 July 2011

M. Atar, H. Keskin, S. Korkut and D.S. Korkut

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how impregnation with boron compounds affects the surface hardness of varnished wood materials.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how impregnation with boron compounds affects the surface hardness of varnished wood materials.

Design/methodology/approach

Test samples were prepared from Scotch pine, Oriental spruce, and Uludag fir, which met the requirements of ASTM D 358.These samples were impregnated with boric acid (Ba) and borax (Bx) using a vacuum technique, according to ASTM D 1413 guidelines. After impregnation, surfaces were coated with cellulosic, synthetic, polyurethane, water‐based, acrylic, and acid‐hardening varnishes in accordance with ASTM D 3023 guidelines. Surface hardnesses of specimens after the varnishing process were determined, in accordance with ASTM D 4366 guidelines.

Findings

Surface hardness was greatest for samples of spruce treated with Ba and polyurethane varnish, and lowest for samples of Scotch pine treated with Bx and synthetic varnish. With regard to wood type, impregnation material, and varnish type, surface hardness was greatest for Oriental spruce impregnated with Ba and polyurethane varnish and lowest for Scotch pine impregnated with Ba and synthetic varnish. Thus, impregnation with boron compounds increased the surface hardness of the varnished wood.

Research limitations/implications

A protective coating (such as varnish) has limited resistance to external effects and the lifetime of the coating will be determined by the type and severity of conditions to which it is exposed.

Practical implications

Types of varnishes, wood materials, and impregnation chemicals affect surface hardness and can influence the usefulness of wood materials, where surface hardness values are important.

Originality/value

The study results reported in the paper help address the lack of research in this field and should be informative, in particular, for manufacturers and consumers in the furniture and decoration sector.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 40 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2011

Haken Keskin and Musa Atar

The purpose of this paper is to determine the impacts of impregnation with Imersol Aqua to red colour tone (RCT) of some softwood materials and varnishes.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the impacts of impregnation with Imersol Aqua to red colour tone (RCT) of some softwood materials and varnishes.

Design/methodology/approach

For this purpose, test samples prepared from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris Lipsky), Oriental spruce (Picea orientalis Link) and Uludağ fir (Abies Bornmülleriana Mattf.), which met the requirements of ASTM D 358, were impregnated with Imersol Aqua by short‐term, medium‐term and long‐term immersion techniques in accordance with ASTM D 1413 and producer's definition. After impregnation, surfaces were coated by synthetic, acrylic, water‐based and polyurathane varnishes in accordance with ASTM D 3023 standards. RCT values of samples after varnishing process were determined in accordance with ASTM D 2244.

Findings

It was found that RCT was the highest in Scots pine, long‐term dipping and synthetic varnish, and the lowest in Uludağ fir, short‐term dipping and water‐borne varnish. Considering the interaction of wood type, period of impregnation and type of varnish, RCT was the highest in pine, short term of dipping and acrylic varnish and the lowest in Oriental spruce, short term of dipping and synthetic varnish. So, impregnation process, impregnation period and varnishes applied during tests showed increasing impact for RCT value of Scots pine, Oriental spruce and Uludağ fir woods. This result must be taken into care in manufacture of wooden furniture and construction elements where RCT is important.

Research limitations/implications

The endurance of the protective coating (such as varnish) to external effects is limited and the lifetime of the coating is determined by the type and the severity of the effects to which it is exposed.

Practical implications

The impact of varnish type, wood material type and impregnation chemical on RCT can determine the usefulness of the massive wood materials where RCT values are important.

Originality/value

It is conjectured that especially for the manufacturers and consumers in the furniture, construction and decoration sector, the data obtained in this study will contribute to the making up of the deficiencies in the understanding of the subject.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 40 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 24 May 2011

Hakan Keskin, Musa Atar, Süleyman Korkut and Derya Sevim Korkut

The purpose of this paper is to determine the effect of Imersol Aqua impregnation of Scotch pine, Oriental spruce, and Uludağ fir on the surface adhesion strength of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the effect of Imersol Aqua impregnation of Scotch pine, Oriental spruce, and Uludağ fir on the surface adhesion strength of various types of varnishes. The finding obtained would benefit the manufacturers of building materials and furniture, where the surface adhesion strength of water‐based varnishes is a concern.

Design/methodology/approach

For this purpose, test samples were prepared from Scotch pine, Oriental spruce, and Uludağ fir woods that met the requirements of ASTM D 358. The samples were impregnated with Imersol Aqua using short‐, medium‐, and long‐term immersion techniques according to ASTM D 1413 and the manufacturer's instructions. After impregnation, surfaces were coated with synthetic, acrylic, polyurethane, and water‐based varnishes in accordance with ASTM D 3023 standards. After the varnishing process, the adhesion strength of the samples was determined in accordance with ASTM D 4541.

Findings

It was also found that among the wood samples, the adhesion strength was highest in Scotch pine and lowest in Uludağ fir. The synthetic varnish produced the highest adhesion strength, whereas polyurethane and acrylic varnishes had the lowest adhesion strength. The adhesion strength was highest after medium‐term immersion and lowest after long‐term dipping. The highest adhesion strength (4.299 MPa) was produced by a combination of Scotch pine, medium‐duration immersion, and the use of a wood‐based varnish. The lowest adhesion strength (2.090 MPa) resulted from the combination of Uludağ fir, long‐term immersion, and a water‐based varnish.

Research limitations/implications

Impregnating woods using materials with appropriate water repellent, biotic, and abiotic effects before the application of varnishes and paints is important for long‐term protection against photochemical degradation, dimensional changes, biological factors, and fire.

Practical implications

The effect of a varnish on surface adhesion strength can determine the usefulness of the varnish.

Originality/value

Improving surface adhesion of some varnishes via medium‐term impregnation with Imersol Aqua impregnation should be used on Scotch pine, Oriental spruce, and Uludağ fir woods which could be used in the manufacturing of building materials and furniture, where the surface adhesion strength of water‐based varnishes is a concern.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 40 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1991

D.N. Goswami and Shravan Kumar

Insulating varnishes are widely used for coating of armatures/coils of electric motors, transformers and also for finishing electrical components. Natural resin shellac…

Abstract

Insulating varnishes are widely used for coating of armatures/coils of electric motors, transformers and also for finishing electrical components. Natural resin shellac finds considerable use in the manufacture of insulating varnishes. Improved dielectric properties have been obtained for varnishes prepared from shellac modified with synthetic resins, drying oils etc. The present article provides information about the researchers so far carried out on both the air‐drying and baking type of insulating varnishes based on shellac.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 14 April 2020

Wayan Darmawan, Monica Br. Ginting, Asih Gayatri, Rumanintya L. Putri, Dumasari Lumongga and Aulia Hasanusi

The surface characteristics of wood such as surface roughness, surface free energy (SFE) and wettability are important properties influencing further manufacturing…

Abstract

Purpose

The surface characteristics of wood such as surface roughness, surface free energy (SFE) and wettability are important properties influencing further manufacturing processes such as gluing and coating. The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of surface roughness of ten tropical woods on their SFE, wettability and bonding quality for water-based acrylic and solvent-based alkyd varnishes.

Design/methodology/approach

The woods tested in this study were fast-growing teak, afrika, sungkai, mindi, merbau, durian, lamtoro, pulai, acacia and kempas. Wood surfaces were prepared in unsanded and sanded using an abrasive paper of 120 grits. SFE values were calculated based on the Rabel method. Wettability values were measured based on the contact angle between varnish liquids and wood surfaces using the sessile drop method, and the S/G model was used to evaluate the wettability of the varnishes on the woods surface. The bonding quality of the varnishes was measured using a cross-cut test based on the ASTM 3359-02 standard.

Findings

The results show that unsanded kempas wood had the roughest surface with a Ra value of 16.24 µm, whereas sanded lamtoro wood has the smoothest surface with a Ra value of 6.86 µm. The unsanded afrika wood had the highest SFE value of 53.61 mJ/m2, whereas sanded fast-growing teak had the lowest SFE value of 36.17 mJ/m2. Sanded merbau woods had the lowest K value of 0.022 for the water-based acrylic varnish, whereas unsanded afrika wood had the highest K value of 9.253 for the alkyd varnish. Afrika wood with the highest K values (highest wettability) for both acrylic and alkyd varnishes produced the highest bonding quality (grade 4-5). Compared to the water-based acrylic varnish, the solvent-based alkyd varnish was more wettable and generated better bonding quality.

Research limitations/implications

Improving the quality of fast-growing wood from plantation by painting could be considered to increase their use for higher value wood products.

Practical implications

Compared to water-based acrylic varnish, solvent-based alkyd varnish was more wettable and generated better bonding quality.

Originality/value

The originality of this research is to evaluate the values of surface free energy. SFE could be used to quantitatively determined the wettability of paints liquid in the surface of wood

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 49 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1999

O. Akaranta and A.O. Aloko

Copolymer resins of peanut skin tannin extract, aldehydes and cashew nut shell liquid were prepared. The resins were blended with bitumen and used in formulating…

Abstract

Copolymer resins of peanut skin tannin extract, aldehydes and cashew nut shell liquid were prepared. The resins were blended with bitumen and used in formulating oleoresinous wood varnishes. The film properties of the varnishes were determined and the results showed that the gloss and scratch hardness of the films increased with increase in the quantity of cashew nut shell liquid/tannin‐aldehyde resins incorporated. The results also showed that the resins improved the chemical resistance of the varnish films. Varnish compositions containing 50:50 of bitumen and the resins gave films with satisfactory physical and chemical properties. The study showed that it is possible to formulate excellent oleoresinous wood varnishes using blends of bitumen and cashew nut shell liquid/tannin‐aldehyde resins.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1984

E. Cawkill

The basic reasons for use of an overprint varnish are generally to afford protection to the inks and/or substrate and to promote gloss. The types of coating available can…

Abstract

The basic reasons for use of an overprint varnish are generally to afford protection to the inks and/or substrate and to promote gloss. The types of coating available can be summarised as follows in approximately an order of increasing gloss level.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2001

A.A. El‐Sanabary, M.M. Elnashar, A. Abdallah Magda and B.M. Badran

Soybean oil was epoxidized in situ under established conditions. The produced epoxidized soybean oil was subjected to a sulfur containing compound of the formula…

Abstract

Soybean oil was epoxidized in situ under established conditions. The produced epoxidized soybean oil was subjected to a sulfur containing compound of the formula (5‐phenyl‐1,3,4‐oxadiazole‐2‐(3H)‐thiones) and four of its derivatives (p‐chloro‐, p‐iodo‐, p‐methyl‐ and p‐methoxy‐) in sealed ampoules under inert atmosphere at 180‐2308C (according to the melting point of each sulfur compound). The produced adducts were added to three varnishes based on alkyd resin, chlorinated rubber and a vinyl chloride copolymer to evaluate them as corrosion inhibitors for steel surfaces. It was found that these adducts can act as good corrosion inhibitors and their efficiencies depend principally on the substituted functional group.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 48 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2020

Đorđe Vujčić, Nemanja Kašiković, Mladen Stančić, Igor Majnarić and Dragoljub Novaković

This paper aims to highlight the importance of braille for visually impaired people and the possibility of printing it by using the ultra-violet (UV) inkjet printing technique.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to highlight the importance of braille for visually impaired people and the possibility of printing it by using the ultra-violet (UV) inkjet printing technique.

Design/methodology/approach

The vision impairment, definitions and statistics, as well as braille letter and standards, are first reviewed. Then, the methods of printing braille have been discussed, with a focus on UV ink-jet printing. Finally, this study indicates a significant role of UV ink-jet printed Braille, its possibilities and its advantages.

Findings

Research studies in the field of UV ink-jet printed braille are showing that it is possible to print good legible braille of the adequate height of dots. This paper highlights some advantages of printing braille with UV ink-jet, like the possibility of achieving greater dot height than embossing and no need for printing form. Printing of additional elements on top of braille dot has also been tested, and possible use for differentiation of the written notation is shown. This paper also indicates the importance of technological and operating conditions in UV inkjet braille printing. It predicts a significant role of UV inkjet in braille printing.

Originality/value

This paper provides a detailed review of UV ink-jet printed braille: possibilities, advantages and application.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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