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XPS characterization of tribo-layer formation on the steel lubricated with crude and epoxidized jatropha oil under boundary lubrication

Abdul Munir Hidayat Syah Lubis (Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Durian Tunggal, Malaysia, and Centre for Advanced Research on Energy, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Durian Tunggal, Malaysia)
Bambang Ariwahjoedi (Department of Fundamental and Applied Science, University Technology Petronas, Tronoh, Malaysia)
Mustafar Sudin (Department of Engineering, School of Engineering Science and Technology, Nilai University, Nilai, Malaysia)

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology

ISSN: 0036-8792

Article publication date: 8 May 2017

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to characterize the composition of the tribo-layer formed during sliding of steel in the presence of crude jatropha oil (CJO) and epoxidized jatropha oil (EJO) under boundary lubricant application.

Design/methodology/approach

CJO was obtained from a local market and used as received. EJO was obtained by epoxidation process with peroxyformic acid catalyzed by acidic ion exchange resin. The tribological test was conducted by the four ball method according to ASTM 4192. Wear scars generated on the lower balls were used to characterize the tribo-layer. Energy-dispersive X-ray and X-ray photo spectroscopy analysis were conducted to characterize the tribo-layer composition.

Findings

EJO shows a lower friction coefficient compared to CJO. Moreover, EJO also shows better wear preventive properties compared to CJO. The oxidation of CJO and EJO has lead chemisorption of the oil to steel surface to cause formation of protective layers for the steel surface. The layers were constructed from inorganic oxide in the form of iron oxides and silicon oxide together with organic layers in form of aldehyde, ketone and carboxylic acid. The formation and removal of this layer from rubbing sites are considered to affect wear-preventive and friction behaviour of steel lubricated with CJO and EJO.

Originality/value

This works highlights friction and anti-wear characteristics of CJO and EJO. This work also presents the composition of the tribo-layer that formed because of the sliding of steel lubricated with CJO and EJO. The method and result can be used for further investigation and development of lubricant.

Keywords

Citation

Lubis, A.M.H.S., Ariwahjoedi, B. and Sudin, M. (2017), "XPS characterization of tribo-layer formation on the steel lubricated with crude and epoxidized jatropha oil under boundary lubrication", Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, Vol. 69 No. 3, pp. 371-377. https://doi.org/10.1108/ILT-09-2016-0203

Publisher

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Emerald Publishing Limited

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