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Article
Publication date: 26 April 2011

Ali Asgary and Abdul Halim

This paper aims to examine people's preferences for alternative cyclone vulnerability reduction measures in cyclone prone areas of Bangladesh.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine people's preferences for alternative cyclone vulnerability reduction measures in cyclone prone areas of Bangladesh.

Design/methodology/approach

A choice experiment (CE) method has been implemented based on the pressure and release (PAR) vulnerability model. Data were collected from a sample of households in two districts of Bangladesh in winter 2008.

Findings

The results of a choice experiment (CE) method conducted in selected areas of Bangladesh prone to cyclone hazards indicated that access to resources is viewed as the most influential factor in cyclone vulnerability reduction options. Findings support the pressure and release model (PAR) of vulnerability analysis. Access to training and education and cyclone warning systems are also found to have significant impacts on households' choices of cyclone vulnerability reduction. Structural mitigation measures and access to power and decision making, though significant, were found to have the least impact.

Research limitations/implications

The paper shows that the choice experiment method is a good technique for understanding people's preferences for vulnerability reduction measures.

Practical implications

The paper concludes with a policy recommendation for governmental and non‐governmental agencies to focus on vulnerability reduction measures that tackle the root causes of vulnerability.

Originality/value

This is the first time that the choice experiment method has been used for cyclone vulnerability analysis, and it provides quantitative supports for the PAR model.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2018

Ilan Kelman, Bayes Ahmed, Md Esraz-Ul-Zannat, Md Mustafa Saroar, Maureen Fordham and Mohammad Shamsudduha

The purpose of this paper is to connect the theoretical idea of warning systems as social processes with empirical data of people’s perceptions of and actions for warning…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to connect the theoretical idea of warning systems as social processes with empirical data of people’s perceptions of and actions for warning for cyclones in Bangladesh.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study approach is used in two villages of Khulna district in southwest Bangladesh: Kalabogi and Kamarkhola. In total, 60 households in each village were surveyed with structured questionnaires regarding how they receive their cyclone warning information as well as their experiences of warnings for Cyclone Sidr in 2007 and Cyclone Aila in 2009.

Findings

People in the two villages had a high rate of receiving cyclone warnings and accepted them as being credible. They also experienced high impacts from the cyclones. Yet evacuation rates to cyclone shelters were low. They did not believe that significant cyclone damage would affect them and they also highlighted the difficulty of getting to cyclone shelters due to poor roads, leading them to prefer other evacuation options which were implemented if needed.

Originality/value

Theoretical constructs of warning systems, such as the First Mile and late warning, are rarely examined empirically according to people’s perceptions of warnings. The case study villages have not before been researched with respect to warning systems. The findings provide empirical evidence for long-established principles of warning systems as social processes, usually involving but not relying on technical components.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article
Publication date: 19 May 2020

Md. Shahin, Maruf Billah, Md. Mozahidul Islam, Ahmed Parvez and A.K.M. Mostafa Zaman

The coastal zone of Bangladesh that is in the front line of the battle against climate change faced over 200 natural disasters in the past 40 years, and most of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The coastal zone of Bangladesh that is in the front line of the battle against climate change faced over 200 natural disasters in the past 40 years, and most of the disasters were cyclones. The inevitable cyclone shelter (CS), the backbone of disaster management (DM), provides short-term safety for the disaster victims in Bangladesh. This study aims to explore the community-based limitations and sustainable development features of CSs including the gender issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire survey was carried out among 230 community people to identify the requirements and sustainable development features of CSs. A field visit was carried out in 23 CSs to capture its existing facilities. Key informant interviews were conducted in the office of Upazila Engineers to strengthen survey data.

Findings

This research found that the plan of CSs, quality of construction, capacity, facilities, entrance and exit, space allocation, management and policy were not capable enough to fulfill the needs and requirements of the community people. Due to lack of separate facilities, women and girls avoided shelters for fear of sexual and mental harassment in CSs, as they had experiences in the earlier events of cyclones. Insufficient facilities discourage community from using the shelters.

Research limitations/implications

Women and girls were shy to share their experience in CSs. The historical data were limited in the study area. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this research presents the actual community-based outcome. During CCRIP training program, the authors met 3,625 community people, and participatory discussions were made to explore the participants’ experiences and perceptions about the sustainable development of CSs.

Practical implications

South-Asian coastal zones are prone to natural, quasi-natural hazard and disasters, where shelters are required for protecting lives of community people during such disasters such as cyclones, storm surges, and floods. Therefore, this study can help in making sustainable development decisions in terms of constructing shelters in disaster-prone countries like Bangladesh.

Social implications

The outcomes of this investigation are useful for uplifting psychosocial status to protect lives during disasters such as cyclones, storm surges and floods and increase accessibility to shelters, and users will consider CSs as a social asset. In turn, the acceptability of CSs into community level are expected to be increased for combating against cyclones, storm surges, and floods.

Originality/value

This study introduces the bottom-up approach that refers to the community-based decision-making to identify the limitations and sustainable improvement of CSs. This research contributes to bridging the gaps between decision-makers and users of CSs. From the authors’ field experience, it can be said that this is the first fieldwork regarding the objectives.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2014

Muhammad Nateque Mahmood, Subas Prasad Dhakal and Robyn Keast

The purpose of this paper is to explore the state of management practices of existing multi-purpose cyclone shelters (MPCS) facilities across the 16 coastal districts in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the state of management practices of existing multi-purpose cyclone shelters (MPCS) facilities across the 16 coastal districts in the country, in the context of an identified need for 5,500 new MPCS facilities in Bangladesh.

Design/methodology/approach

A “multi-capitals” framework – a conceptual model for appraising the state of MPCS facilities based on seven forms of capital resources – is adopted.

Findings

MPCS facilities are not equitably distributed across the 16 coastal districts to cater to the needs of the highly vulnerable population. Nearly 9 per cent of the existing shelters are unusable in the event of cyclones. Once built, MPCS facilities have no maintenance funding and only around 19 per cent of shelters have a governance mechanism that enables community participation. A strong correlation (r = 0.65) was detected between the availability of maintenance funds and provision for community participation.

Research limitations/implications

The potential of a multi-capitals framework to assess the management practices of existing MPCS facilities in a holistic way was limited by the secondary nature of data on the four forms of capital: built, cultural, financial and political. The significance of the other three forms of capital: human, natural and social and their implications in the context of MPCS facilities are discussed.

Practical implications

If the existing and new MPCS facilities are to become a vital component of disaster management strategies, MPCS governance mechanisms are likely to be enhanced by embracing the principles of community-based facilities management.

Originality/value

The paper introduces the utility of a multi-capitals framework to assess the existing management issues surrounding MPCS facilities and offers potential solutions in the context of developing countries. The value of the framework is in understanding the utility of an MPCS as more than just a facility.

Details

Facilities, vol. 32 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 24 February 2012

Pradeep K. Goyal, T.K. Datta and V.K. Vijay

The purpose of this paper is to present a method for evaluating vulnerability of rural houses to cyclonic wind for countries where systematic documentation and analysis of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a method for evaluating vulnerability of rural houses to cyclonic wind for countries where systematic documentation and analysis of damage data are inadequate. The effects of important parameters such as the ratio of non‐engineered to semi‐engineered houses, types of houses like old, new, etc. wind speed and damage states on the overall probability of failure are investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic procedure is presented for estimating the vulnerability of a cluster of rural houses to cyclones by performing a fragility analysis for different predefined damage states. The method is illustrated with the help of an example in which a hundred rural houses are considered in a region.

Findings

The results of the study show that the ratio (ns) has significant effect on the probability of failure for the middle range of the percentile value. The number of different types of houses does not have significant effect on the probability of failure and for high value of ns, a large number of houses have nearly the same probability of failure.

Originality/value

The method is useful in finding an initial estimate of the overall probability of failure of a cluster of houses for different damage states and accordingly, in deciding the optimal allocation of resources for cyclone disaster mitigation.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2019

Behrooz Balaei, Suzanne Wilkinson and Regan Potangaroa

In March 2015 Vanuatu experienced Tropical Cyclone (TC) Pam, a category 5 cyclone with estimated wind speeds of 250 kph and one of the worst disasters in Vanuatu’s…

Abstract

Purpose

In March 2015 Vanuatu experienced Tropical Cyclone (TC) Pam, a category 5 cyclone with estimated wind speeds of 250 kph and one of the worst disasters in Vanuatu’s history. Prior to the cyclone, one-third of water in Vanuatu was collected by means of rainwater harvesting systems; around one quarter of these systems were damaged due to the cyclone and no longer functional. The purpose of this paper is to investigate social and organisational complexities in the resilience of water systems in Vanuatu following TC Pam, focussing on rural areas.

Design/methodology/approach

The resilience of water supply in rural responses to TC Pam was examined using the three following approaches: review of existing documents, a case study of a village and interviews with specialist local and international non-governmental organisation staff working in Vanuatu.

Findings

People’s reaction to the cyclone and its consequences at the village or community level in Vanuatu was impressive. The capacity of the locals, their involvement in the community and the low level of violence and high level of trust within society contributed to a quicker water supply restoration than expected. Despite severe shortages of water in some areas due to physical vulnerability of the system, the communities dealt with the issue calmly and the country did not experience any chaos due to water shortages.

Originality/value

The research results provide a benchmark for planners and decision makers in the South Pacific based on the social, organisational and technical dimensions of rural areas in Vanuatu that can be generalised to other countries in the region. This study also recommends potential tools to improve assessment of the role of social capital in fostering water supply resilience.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 28 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Gayan Wedawatta, Udayangani Kulatunga, Dilanthi Amaratunga and Ahmed Parvez

Development of effective disaster risk reduction (DRR) strategies for communities at risk of being affected by natural disasters is considered essential, especially in the…

Abstract

Purpose

Development of effective disaster risk reduction (DRR) strategies for communities at risk of being affected by natural disasters is considered essential, especially in the wake of devastating disaster events reported worldwide. As part of a wider research study investigating community perspectives on existing and potential strategies for enhancing resilience to natural disasters, community perspectives on infrastructure and structural protection requirements were investigated. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Patuakhali region in South-Western Bangladesh is a region significantly at risk of multiple natural hazards. In order to engage local communities and obtain their perspectives, focus group discussions were held with local community leaders and policy makers of at-risk communities in Patuakhali region, South-Western Bangladesh.

Findings

Infrastructure and structural protection requirements highlighted included multi-purpose cyclone shelters, permanent embankments and improved transport infrastructure. Much of the discussions of focus group interviews were focused on cyclone shelters and embankments, suggesting their critical importance in reducing disaster risk and also dependence of coastal communities on those two measures.

Originality/value

The research design adopted sought to answer the research questions raised and also to inform local policy makers on community perspectives. Local policy makers involved in DRR initiatives in the region were informed of community perspectives and requirements, thus contributing to community engagement in implementing DRR activities.

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2007

Lee Bosher

The paper seeks to assess the influence and effectiveness of non‐governmental organisations (NGOs) in targeting and aiding “communities” to reduce their socio‐economic…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper seeks to assess the influence and effectiveness of non‐governmental organisations (NGOs) in targeting and aiding “communities” to reduce their socio‐economic vulnerability to infrequent large‐scale and common everyday crises in coastal Andhra Pradesh.

Design/methodology/approach

Data collection included 342 questionnaires with village inhabitants, local and regional government officials and personnel managing and working for local NGOs. To add qualitative detail to the quantitative data that were collected, 308 “everyday” sociograms, 294 “crisis” sociograms, and 34 semi‐structured interviews were also conducted.

Findings

The research identifies that NGOs in the study areas do not operate in multi‐caste villages, apparently because they prefer to operate in relatively homogeneous single‐caste villages. The implications are that some of the most vulnerable members of society, such as the marginalised “communities” that partially constitute multi‐caste villages, do not receive the support they need.

Research limitations/implications

This study focuses on a specific region of Andhra Pradesh with the consequence that the findings are potentially very context‐specific. Nonetheless, the findings highlight a fundamental flaw in the way many NGOs operate in this region, through the targeting of perceived “easy cases”, and this is a matter that development agencies should consider and further investigate.

Originality/value

This paper will be of value to researchers and practitioners seeking to gain a better understanding of NGOs and the way some of them operate. The paper recommends a number of ways that the observed inefficiencies could be addressed.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 34 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2021

Sujit Mohanty, Ambika Dabral, Ranit Chatterjee and Rajib Shaw

The concept of multi-purpose cyclone shelters has been found effective in saving various lives during past cyclones. The recent cyclone Amphan, which hit the Indian states…

Abstract

Purpose

The concept of multi-purpose cyclone shelters has been found effective in saving various lives during past cyclones. The recent cyclone Amphan, which hit the Indian states of Odisha and West Bengal in the middle of pandemic COVID-19 has posed severe issues related to cyclone shelter management in the rural areas. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the case of Odisha in a pandemic and draw some key lessons of cyclone shelter management, which can be useful for future cascading risks in other parts of the country and the region.

Design/methodology/approach

Cyclone shelters are critical infrastructures in the management of cyclones, associated hazards and saving crucial lives. The effective management of shelters during emergencies is dependent on the existing institutional mechanism, local stakeholders and their understanding of the key functions of the emergency shelters. This paper reviews the key challenges through literature, reports and direct interviews of field professionals and practitioners.

Findings

In normal times, cyclone shelters are used as schools and their management lies with the local communities and/or elected bodies. Some of the key emerging issues include: the convincing population at risk for evacuation with proper care, existing emergency shelters being repurposed as COVID-19 facilities, need for hygiene and safety material, special arrangement and segregation of population at higher risk of COVID-19 and large destruction of social infrastructures.

Originality/value

During cascading disasters, adaptive governance becomes important. With the study of cyclones during the pandemic period, the paper draws key decision-making and governance points of cyclone shelter management. This case analysis can be useful to other similar situations during the prolonged pandemic time.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Devendra K. Yadav and Akhilesh Barve

The purpose of this paper is to explore and analyse the critical success factors (CSFs) of humanitarian supply chains in mitigating the impact of cyclones in the Indian…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore and analyse the critical success factors (CSFs) of humanitarian supply chains in mitigating the impact of cyclones in the Indian context using the fuzzy Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) approach.

Design/methodology/approach

The selection of CSFs of humanitarian supply chains has been done through several secondary sources and discussion with 12 disaster experts. Thereafter, DEMATEL, an expert judgement-based technique, has been used for selecting, building and analysing a structural model that involves causal relationships between the set of identified CSFs. Furthermore, to accommodate the vagueness involved in human judgement, fuzzy logic is incorporated with the DEMATEL.

Findings

Based on a literature survey and expert judgement, total 16 CSFs of humanitarian supply chains have been segmented into cause and effect groups based upon their relative influencing scores. The analysis shows that the out of 16 CSFs, ten CSFs have been categorised into cause group CSFs and six as the effect group CSFs.

Practical implications

The findings of this study will help disaster management institutions, humanitarian agencies, logisticians, NGOs and cyclone-prone countries to improve the critical ingredients in designing and executing an effective cyclone response operation.

Originality/value

In this study, fuzzy DEMATEL has been applied to identify and analyse the CSFs of humanitarian supply chains for the cyclone disaster response in the Indian context, which is a novel contribution widening the existing knowledge in humanitarian relief domain.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

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