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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2002

Chris Eves

Current planning schemes in Australia identify areas that are potentially liable to flooding. This identification of flood‐liable land is based on flood height levels over…

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Abstract

Current planning schemes in Australia identify areas that are potentially liable to flooding. This identification of flood‐liable land is based on flood height levels over time. Throughout New South Wales (NSW) this measure of flood affectivity is determined by three classifications. These classifications also influence the development of residential property within these flood areas. Prospective purchasers are advised of this flood zoning, when a full title search is carried out. However, as these properties are often located on the flood plain, but not within sight of the river, flooding can appear visually remote to the uninformed buyer. This study analyses residential house sales in flood‐prone areas and compares price movements of these houses with similar houses in immediate adjoining areas that are not affected by flooding. The analysis covers the period 1984 to 2000, which includes the last major floods in Sydney during 1990. This study period determines what impact a major flood has on residential housing prices and whether this effect is ongoing or decreases, the longer the area is free from flood affectivity.

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Property Management, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2021

Billie Ann Brotman

Flood damage to uninsured single-family homes shifts the entire burden of costly repairs onto the homeowner. Homeowners in the United States and in much of Europe can…

Abstract

Purpose

Flood damage to uninsured single-family homes shifts the entire burden of costly repairs onto the homeowner. Homeowners in the United States and in much of Europe can purchase flood insurance. The Netherlands and Asian countries generally do not offer flood insurance protection to homeowners. Uninsured households incur the entire cost of repairing/replacing properties damaged due to flooding. Homeowners’ policies do not cover damage caused by flooding. The paper examines the link between personal bankruptcy and the severity of flooding events, property prices and financial condition levels.

Design/methodology/approach

A fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS) regression model is developed which uses personal bankruptcy filings as its dependent variable during the years 2000 through 2018. This time-series model considers the association between personal bankruptcy court filings and costly, widespread flooding events. Independent variables were selected that potentially act as mitigating factors reducing bankruptcy filings.

Findings

The FMOLS regression results found a significant, positive association between flooding events and the total number of personal bankruptcy filings. Higher flooding costs were associated with higher bankruptcy filings. The Home Price Index is inversely related to the bankruptcy dependent variable. The R-squared results indicate that 0.65% of the movement in the dependent variable personal bankruptcy filings is explained by the severity of a flooding event and other independent variables.

Research limitations/implications

The severity of the flooding event is measured using dollar losses incurred by the National Flood Insurance program. A macro-case study was undertaken, but the research results would have been enhanced by examining local areas and demographic factors that may have made bankruptcy filing following a flooding event more or less likely.

Practical implications

The paper considers the impact of the natural disaster flooding on bankruptcy rates filings. The findings may have implications for multi-family properties as well as single-family housing. Purchasing flood insurance generally mitigates the likelihood of severe financial risk to the property owner.

Social implications

Natural flood insurance is underwritten by the federal government and/or by private insurers. The financial health of private property insurers that underwrite flooding and their ability to meet losses incurred needs to be carefully scrutinized by the insured.

Originality/value

Prior studies analyzing the linkages existing between housing prices, natural disasters and bankruptcy used descriptive data, mostly percentages, when considering this association. The study herein posits the same questions as these prior studies but used regression analysis to analyze the linkages. The methodology enables additional independent variables to be added to the analysis.

Details

Property Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

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Publication date: 5 October 2017

Fiona Gleed

Flooding is a frequent problem in the United Kingdom, with 1.8 million people living in homes that are likely to flood at least once in 75 years (Sayers, Horritt…

Abstract

Flooding is a frequent problem in the United Kingdom, with 1.8 million people living in homes that are likely to flood at least once in 75 years (Sayers, Horritt, Penning-Rowsell, & McKenzie, 2015). In 2015, the River Am burst its banks, resulting in up to 1 metre of flooding in Ambridge and causing significant damage and disruption to the village. A ‘4Ps’ approach is proposed to predict, prevent, protect from and prepare for flooding. Applying this model to evidence from Ambridge allows strategies for a flood resilient community to be explored.

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Article
Publication date: 5 April 2019

Fredrick Okoth Okaka and Beneah D.O. Odhiambo

Mombasa City in Kenya is one of the most vulnerable towns to flood risk due to its low-lying coastal location. Those at the highest risk in the city are households living…

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Abstract

Purpose

Mombasa City in Kenya is one of the most vulnerable towns to flood risk due to its low-lying coastal location. Those at the highest risk in the city are households living in the flood-prone informal settlements. However, little is known about the perception of these vulnerable households to the flood risks and its health impacts, which is important for developing effective long-term adaptation strategies. The purpose of this paper is to examine the general perception of the residents regarding flood risks, its impact on their health and their adaptation strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

This study surveyed 390 randomly selected households in three informal settlements in the city of Mombasa using a semi-structured questionnaire. This was supplemented with six focus group discussions (FDGs) and six key informant interviews (KIIs).

Findings

The majority of respondent households perceive future flooding as high risk or severe with high negative health impact. Despite this, many do not evacuate their homes because they do not have alternative places to move to. Flooding was indicated to have had a negative physical and mental health impact on members of households. Although majority of households had taken some adaptation measures, most of these were short term, mainly due to financial constraints, lack of knowledge and government support. Perception of flood risk and gender were found to have a strong influence on taking long-term adaptation measures at the household level.

Practical implications

Reducing flood risk and averting its health consequences in flood-prone informal settlements require empowering and supporting those living in these areas with ability to initiate long-term adaptation measures and creating awareness about future risks.

Originality/value

This study provides evidence about how residents of flood-prone informal settlements perceive flood risk and how the exposures to perennial flooding impact their health. The paper augments existing knowledge of flood risk in poor urban neighborhoods of developing countries.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Namrata Bhattacharya Mis, Rotimi Joseph, David Proverbs and Jessica Lamond

This study aims to investigate the level of preparedness among property owners who had experienced flood damage to their properties in two cities in England following the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the level of preparedness among property owners who had experienced flood damage to their properties in two cities in England following the summer floods of 2007. Flooding can have a variety of impacts on residential properties and businesses that may be unprepared and therefore vulnerable to both direct and indirect effects. Research suggests that the focus in analysis of damage to flood plain population (residential and commercial) tends to be on the direct tangible impacts, limiting their ability to recognize the true costs of flooding, thereby leading to unpreparedness to future flooding. Greater understanding of the level of preparedness against different types of flood impacts is likely to contribute towards increased knowledge of the likely resilience of residential and commercial property occupiers.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data obtained through self-administered postal questionnaire survey of floodplain residential and commercial residents provide the basis for the research analysis and findings. The rationale behind choosing the locations for the research was based on the need to investigate areas where a sizeable number of residential and commercial properties were affected during the 2007 event, in this case, Sheffield and Wakefield in the northern part of England were chosen. The data collected were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis.

Findings

The result of the analysis revealed that non-structural measures have been implemented by more people when compared to other measures, which can be linked to the fact that non-structural measures, in most, cases do not have financial implication to the property owners. The uptake of the other measures (resistance and resilience) is very low. It can be concluded from the findings that the level of implementation of measures to reduce damage from potential future flooding among the flood plain residents is relatively low and mainly focussed towards reducing the direct effects of flooding.

Practical implications

The study argues that increased resilience can be sustainable only by developing integrated attitude towards risk reduction not only by enhancing coping strategy by reducing direct impacts of flooding but also equally focussing on indirect effects.

Originality/value

There have been previous studies towards investigating the impacts of flooding on residential and commercial property owners as a separate entity. It is believed that this is the first time in which both residential and commercial properties will be investigated together as one body of research.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2004

Chris Eves

Since the late 1990's‐2003, there have been a number of severe floods in areas that have not been subject to this level of flooding in earlier times. All these recent…

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Abstract

Since the late 1990's‐2003, there have been a number of severe floods in areas that have not been subject to this level of flooding in earlier times. All these recent floods have resulted in two alarming factors for all property markets. This paper is based on a comprehensive survey of property professionals throughout England and Wales and a study of flood‐affected residential property in Sydney, Australia. It provides details of how exposure to flood events impacts on residential property markets and buyer behaviour associated with flood‐prone property, and will also provide some insight into the implications and possible ramifications of flooding on the construction, finance and insurance of residential property in flood‐affected areas.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2017

Phan N. Duy, Lee Chapman, Miles Tight, Phan N. Linh and Le V. Thuong

Flooding is an emerging problem in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, and is fast becoming a major barrier to its ongoing development. While flooding is presently of…

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Abstract

Purpose

Flooding is an emerging problem in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, and is fast becoming a major barrier to its ongoing development. While flooding is presently of nuisance value, there is a growing concern that a combination of rapid urban expansion and climate changes will significantly exacerbate the problem. There has been a trend of population being rapidly accommodated in new urban areas, which are considered highly vulnerable to floods, while the development strategy by the local government still attracts more property investments into the three new districts on the right side of Saigon River. This paper aims to discuss the increase in the number of residences vulnerable to flooding, to underline the need for more appropriate future spatial development. For the vision, an application of compact and resilient theories to strategic planning and management of this city is proposed to reduce vulnerability. This paper also highlights the need to better understand growing vulnerability to floods related to urban expansion over low-lying former wetlands and the more important role of planning spatial development accompanied with transportation investment which can contribute to flooding resilience.

Design/methodology/approach

This research uses combined-methods geographical information system (GIS) analysis based on secondary data of flood records, population distributions, property development (with the details of 270 housing projects compiled as part of this research) and flooding simulation. This allows an integrated approach to the theories of urban resilience and compactness to discuss the implication of spatial planning and management in relevance to flooding vulnerability.

Findings

The flooding situation in HCMC is an evidence of inappropriate urban expansion leading to increase in flooding vulnerability. Although climate change impacts are obvious, the rapid population growth and associated accommodation development are believed to be the key cause which has not been solved. It was found that the three new emerging districts (District 2, 9 and ThuDuc) are highly vulnerable to floods, but the local government still implements the plan for attracted investments in housing without an integrated flooding management. This is also in line with the development pattern of many coastal cities in Southeast Asia, as economic development can be seen as a driving factor.

Research limitations/implications

The data of property development are diversified from different sources which have been compiled by this research from the basic map of housing investments from a governmental body, the Department of Construction. The number of projects was limited to 270 per over 500 projects, but this still sufficiently supports the evidence of increasing accommodation in new development districts.

Practical implications

HCMC needs neater strategies for planning and management of spatial development to minimize the areas vulnerable to floods: creating more compact spaces in the central areas (Zone 1) protected by the current flooding management system, and offering more resilient spaces for new development areas (Zone 2), by improving the resilience of transportation system. Nevertheless, a similar combination of compact spaces and resilient spaces in emerging districts could also be incorporated into the existing developments, and sustainable drainage systems or underground water storage in buildings could also be included in the design to compensate for the former wetlands lost.

Social implications

This paper highlights the need to better understand growing vulnerability to floods related to urban expansion over low-lying former wetlands and emphasizes the more important role of planning spatial development accompanied with transportation investment which can contribute to flooding resilience. Coastal cities in southeast countries need to utilize the former-land, whereas feasibility of new land for urban expansion needs to be thoroughly considered under risk of natural disasters.

Originality/value

A combination of compact spaces with improved urban resilience is an alternative approach to decrease the flooding risk beyond that of traditional resistant systems and underlines the increasingly important role of urban planning and management to combat the future impacts of floods.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Yu-Shou Su

This paper aims to propose the practice of urban resilience to flooding in a vulnerable Asian city, Taipei. It conducts Geographic Information System (GIS)-based…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose the practice of urban resilience to flooding in a vulnerable Asian city, Taipei. It conducts Geographic Information System (GIS)-based simulations to assess Taipei’s vulnerability under a set of varying flooding scenarios and likelihoods. This research concludes by proposing remedies to fill the gaps these flood simulations reveal and, in doing so, promotes urban resilience in Taipei. This paper provides an example of urban resilience to flooding for other cities in Asia.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper undertakes a case study of Taipei to survey current practices and historic analyses as a tool to evaluate a chronology of policies implemented to make Taipei resilient to flooding. It also conducts flood simulation and scenario analysis through the technology of GIS by using ArcMap 10.2.2 software to gauge the vulnerabilities in Taipei. These GIS-based data sets are collected from Taiwan’s central and local governments. This paper analyzes the vulnerability of population, land value, residential properties, GDP and critical facilities, such as major subway stations, medical centers, public schools, major public buildings, electric power substations and gas/oil stations. Additionally, it analyzes the likelihood and cost and benefit of different flooding scenarios based on typhoon and rainfall data sets in 1975-2014 period. After a thorough analysis of vulnerability, likelihood of flooding and cost–benefit analyses, this research develops Taipei resilience policies to address the vulnerabilities.

Findings

The findings indicate that Taipei case study, a chronology of policies implemented to prevent flooding, explains that costly engineering structures, rebuilding and fortification against floods eventually created a false sense of security, which has encouraged more intensive residential and commercial developments in flood-prone areas, and led to a higher level of vulnerability. Additionally, flooding simulations indicate that 40 per cent of Taipei City is located in flood risk areas in an extreme weather scenario. This percentage is higher than other global cities such as London’s 15 per cent, Tokyo’s 10 per cent and New York City’s 25 per cent. Based on the 10 per cent of total flooding areas above 0.5 m, the vulnerable population is estimated at 200,000 people, or 7 per cent of the total population. The GDP impact will be more than $28bn. More than $67bn of land value is vulnerable. A least one million subway passengers will be affected each day. Further, there is little evidence that the urban poor are particularly vulnerable to floods. On the contrary, some neighborhoods with high-income households face a higher risk of floods. Very few medical centers, oil and gas stations and electrical power substations are located in flood-prone areas, but a large number of public schools, administrative buildings and major subway stations are susceptible. Additionally, the likelihood analysis of flooding in an extreme rainfall scenario concludes that the possibility will be five times that of the existing assumption with a flood in every 200 years. Thus, Taipei City’s infrequent once-in-two-century floods are likely to occur more frequently.

Originality/value

This paper provides a thorough analysis of vulnerability, likelihood of flooding and cost–benefit analyses in Taipei. It also develops Taipei resilience policies to address the vulnerabilities. In the future, rather than strengthening and rebuilding costly structures, Taipei should focus on land-use and environmental planning for resilience. Urban policies should include environmentally responsible development in the face of continued population and economic growth, and being resilient regarding natural disasters. Most important is the need for a strong political commitment and leadership to initiate and implement urban policies toward resilience.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 8 no. 02
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

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Article
Publication date: 24 August 2012

Gayan Wedawatta and Bingunath Ingirige

The UK has experienced a number of flood events in recent years, and the intensity and frequency of such events are forecast to further increase in future due to changing…

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2269

Abstract

Purpose

The UK has experienced a number of flood events in recent years, and the intensity and frequency of such events are forecast to further increase in future due to changing climatic conditions. Accordingly, enhancing the resilience of small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) – which form an important segment in a society – to flood risk, has emerged as an important issue. However, SMEs often tend to underestimate the risk of flooding which tends to have a low priority in their business agenda. The purpose of this paper is to undertake an investigation of adaptation to the risk of flooding considering community‐level measures, individual‐level property protection, and business continuity and resilience measures.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of four short case studies were conducted among SMEs to identify their response to flood risk, and what measures have been undertaken to manage the risk of flooding.

Findings

It was observed that SMEs have implemented different property‐level protection measures and generic business continuity/risk management measures, based on their requirements, to achieve a desired level of protection.

Practical implications

SMEs are likely to positively respond to property‐level adaptation following a post‐flood situation. It is important that information such as costs/benefits of such measures and different options available are made accessible to SMEs affected by a flood event.

Social implications

Implementation of property‐level adaptation measures will contribute towards the long term adaptation of the existing building stock to changing climatic conditions.

Originality/value

The paper contributes towards policy making on flood risk adaptation and SME decision making, and informs policy makers and practitioners.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article
Publication date: 19 April 2013

Aaron Mullins and Robby Soetanto

The purpose of this research is to investigate ethnic differences in perceptions of social responsibility, in relation to flooding, for householders, local businesses and…

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1033

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to investigate ethnic differences in perceptions of social responsibility, in relation to flooding, for householders, local businesses and policy makers.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were obtained via a questionnaire survey of three communities in Birmingham and one community in South East London, UK. A total of 481 responses were received and used in the statistical analysis. The interpretation of the findings was aided by cognitive mapping to synthesise the data transcripts from 174 responses to the open‐ended questions. Comparisons were made between communities in different locations and with different experience of flooding.

Findings

Ethnic differences consistently exist within the perceptions of householder and business groups within communities (in different locations) which have recent experience of flooding, but not in the policy maker group or in a community without recent flood experience. The finding also suggests three different levels of resilience and their association with different ethnic groups.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should conduct further analysis with equal ethnic representation throughout each community group so that more ethnic groups can be investigated and compared. For a more comprehensive understanding, further investigation should be conducted across different communities in different countries with different environmental hazards.

Practical implications

The findings contribute to the understanding of the influence of demographic factors in disaster management field, and can provide useful knowledge for targeted and tailored strategies of communication of flood information.

Originality/value

The research represents the first attempt to investigate ethnic differences in perceptions of social responsibility of householders, small businesses and policy makers for the community resilience to flooding.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

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