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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Rodolfo Jr. Espada, Armando Apan and Kevin McDougall

The purpose of this paper is to present a novel approach that examines the vulnerability and interdependency of critical infrastructures using the network theory in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a novel approach that examines the vulnerability and interdependency of critical infrastructures using the network theory in geographic information system (GIS) setting in combination with literature and government reports. Specifically, the objectives of this study were to generate the network models of critical infrastructure systems (CISs), particularly electricity, roads and sewerage networks; to characterize the CISs’ interdependencies; and to outline the climate adaptation (CA) and flood mitigation measures of CIS.

Design/methodology/approach

An integrated approach was undertaken in assessing the vulnerability and interdependency of critical infrastructures. A single system model and system-of-systems model were operationalized to examine the vulnerability and interdependency of the identified critical infrastructures in GIS environment. Existing CA and flood mitigation measures from government reports were integrated in the above-mentioned findings to better understand and gain focus in the implementation of natural disaster risk reduction (DRR) policies, particularly during the 2010/2011 floods in Queensland, Australia.

Findings

Using the results from the above-mentioned approach, the spatially explicit framework was developed with four key operational dimensions: conceiving the climate risk environment; understanding the critical infrastructures’ common cause and cascade failures; modeling individual infrastructure system and system-of-systems level within GIS setting; and integrating the above-mentioned results with the government reports to increase CA and resilience measures of flood-affected critical infrastructures.

Research limitations/implications

While natural DRR measures include preparation, response and recovery, this study focused on flood mitigation. Temporal analysis and application to other natural disasters were also not considered in the analysis.

Practical implications

By providing this information, government-owned corporations, CISs managers and other concerned stakeholders will allow to identify infrastructure assets that are highly critical, identify vulnerable infrastructures within areas of very high flood risk, examine the interdependency of critical infrastructures and the effects of cascaded failures, identify ways of reducing flood risk and extreme climate events and prioritize DRR measures and CA strategies.

Originality/value

The individualist or “pigeon-hole” approach has been the common method of analyzing infrastructures’ exposure to flood hazards and tends to separately examine the risk for different types of infrastructure (e.g. electricity, water, sewerage, roads and rails and stormwater). This study introduced an integrated approach of analyzing infrastructure risk to damage and cascade failure due to flooding. Aside from introducing the integrated approach, this study operationalized GIS-based vulnerability assessment and interdependency of critical infrastructures which had been unsubstantially considered in the past analytical frameworks. The authors considered this study of high significance, considering that floodplain planning schemes often lack the consideration of critical infrastructure interdependency.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 February 2010

Eun Ho Oh, Abhijeet Deshmukh and Makarand Hastak

Natural disasters, such as Hurricane Katrina (the most destructive natural calamity in US history), have destructive impact on residents, critical infrastructure, as well…

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Abstract

Purpose

Natural disasters, such as Hurricane Katrina (the most destructive natural calamity in US history), have destructive impact on residents, critical infrastructure, as well as, functions and services of associated industries in the affected areas. In addition, due to a lack of both understanding of natural disaster impacts and preparedness to the hurricane, it was revealed that the emergency‐related organizations were not prepared to maximize the use of the critical infrastructure to mitigate the impacts. The purpose of this paper is to help those organizations have more understanding of disaster impacts and facilitate their decision making in order to prepare better mitigation plans.

Design/methodology/approach

A disaster impact mechanism and inter‐relationships based on the main functions of associated industries are derived through an extensive literature review and case analyses. Based on these inter‐relationships, a decision support system is developed and evaluated using a winter flood disaster event in the USA as a case study. The level of inter‐relation is chosen as a metric to measure the weights for inter‐relationships between critical infrastructure and associated industries. These weights are obtained through expert interviews and surveys.

Findings

The healthcare industry, for example, is revealed as the most dependent industry and the electricity and transportation infrastructure are the most significant to the communities and the associated industries.

Originality/value

The cell model of the disaster impact mechanism, the inter‐relationship approach, and the use of the concept of level‐of‐service in this paper will contribute to improving the methodology in the area of disaster impact analysis and mitigation.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

David O. Baloye and Lobina Gertrude Palamuleni

The purpose of this paper is to map the cascade effects of emergencies on critical infrastructure in a fast-growing city of a developing country. The paper specifically…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to map the cascade effects of emergencies on critical infrastructure in a fast-growing city of a developing country. The paper specifically seeks to refocus the attention of decision makers and emergency managers towards a more effective way of reducing risk and costs associated with contingencies.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was based on a 2D representation of the three initiating events of fire, flood and automobile crashes. Detailed analysis was undertaken of the effects on the critical infrastructure, based on the probability of occurrence, frequency, spatial extent and degree of damage for the emergencies studied. Subsequently, a cascade matrix was generated to analyse the level of interaction or interdependencies between the participating critical infrastructures in the study area. A model of the cascade effects under a typical emergency was also generated using a software model of network trace functions.

Findings

The results show that while different levels of probability of occurrence, frequency and extent of damage was observed on the evaluated critical infrastructure under different emergency events, damage to the electricity distribution components of the critical infrastructure recorded the highest cascade effect for all emergency events.

Originality/value

This paper underlines the need to pay greater attention to providing protection to critical infrastructure in the rapidly growing cities, especially in developing countries. Findings from this study in Abeokuta, Nigeria, underscore the needs to expand the prevailing critical infrastructure protection beyond the current power and oil sectors in the national development plan. They also highlight the urgency for greater research attention to critical infrastructure inventories. More importantly, the results stress the need for concerted efforts towards proactive emergency management procedures, rather than maintaining the established “fire brigade, window dressing” approach to emergency management, at all levels of administration.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 November 2011

Abhijeet Deshmukh, Eun Ho Oh and Makarand Hastak

The purpose of this paper is to assess the severity of social and economic impact of floods on the communities and industries with respect to their reliance on the flood…

2083

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the severity of social and economic impact of floods on the communities and industries with respect to their reliance on the flood impacted critical infrastructure. This paper illustrates a severity assessment tool to determine the reduced serviceability level of critical infrastructure after a disaster, how the change in serviceability impacts activities of associated communities and industries, and the resulting social and economic impact.

Design/methodology/approach

The results presented in this paper are a part of a larger research designed to develop a decision support system for disaster impact mitigation. This research evaluated the impact of floods as a natural hazard on infrastructure and the related industries and communities in terms of criticality and vulnerability of infrastructure and the severity of social and economic impact if the critical infrastructure were to be affected. The overall research focused on the 2008 Midwest floods for the required data collection (including the cities of Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Terre Haute, Indiana, St Louis, Missouri, Gulfport and Des Plaines, Illinois). Relevant data were collected through questionnaire surveys, personal interviews, and site visits.

Findings

The data collected through this research highlighted the importance of relationship between infrastructure, communities and industries with respect to technical, social and economic aspects. While the overall research resulted in a Decision Support System with three modules, to assess criticality, vulnerability and severity, this paper only elaborates the Severity Assessment Tool (SAT). Serviceability of an infrastructure plays an important role in post disaster recovery and response. Reduction in the serviceability of an infrastructure also affects the functionality of the activities that depend on the affected infrastructure resulting in social and economic impact. The tool presented in this paper determines the severity of social and economic impact by evaluating the reduction in the functionality of the affected activities.

Originality/Value

The model (SAT) presented in this paper determines the social and economic impact on communities and industries due to natural disaster when the serviceability of disaster impacted critical infrastructure is impaired. This tool can be effectively used by city managers as well as emergency planners for industries and communities in developing mitigation strategies based on the severity of social and economic impact due to the affected critical infrastructure. The results would also help the decision makers in arriving at more effective investment decisions to repair/rehabilitate certain critical infrastructure.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 March 2022

Ankit Jaiswal, Anil Kumar, Indrajit Pal, Bhushan Raisinghani and Tushar H. Bhoraniya

To minimize risk of coastal communities arising from cyclones, several risk mitigation initiatives have been taken in countries. Cyclone shelters have proven to be an…

40

Abstract

Purpose

To minimize risk of coastal communities arising from cyclones, several risk mitigation initiatives have been taken in countries. Cyclone shelters have proven to be an important critical infrastructure in saving lives from cyclones. A large number of coastal critical infrastructure in the form of multi-purpose cyclone shelters (MPCS) are built to provide safe shelter during disasters. Often observed, such critical infrastructures are non-operational during the normal period, which makes them difficult to use during any disaster. Efforts have been made to keep these infrastructures in working condition. This research paper aims to bring together various management practices adopted for the MPCS in the South-Asian region with a focus on Bangladesh, and India. It also suggests ways to improve these practices for sustainable management of the MPCS.

Design/methodology/approach

India and Bangladesh are the most vulnerable countries in the South Asian region. As per the Global Climate Index, India and Bangladesh come in the list of “in extreme risk” countries in the world and are vulnerable to several natural hazards, especially climate-induced hydrometeorological hazards. India has a vast coastline and out of 7,516 km of coastline, a large extent, i.e. 5,700 km is prone to cyclones and that keeps 40% of the population vulnerable living within 100 km of the coastline. On the other hand, Bangladesh has a coastline of 580 km, which is equally vulnerable to tropical cyclones. Safeguarding communities from impending coastal risk through coastal cyclone shelters are of prime concern. This paper uses a qualitative approach to analyze secondary data, and literature in the field of critical infrastructure, sustainability, cyclone shelter, and management practice for cyclone shelters.

Findings

To provide sustainability and community ownership of the MPCS, various service plans are adopted in different countries. This paper provides insights on service and sustainability efforts made for the proper functioning of the MPCS in India and Bangladesh. It also provides insight into the roles played by different institutions involved in maintaining the MPCSs.

Originality/value

The research reiterates understanding of the cyclone shelter management from different geographic locations in the South Asian region. Various gaps identified in shelter management practices are discussed in the paper and key recommendations are proposed for better management of cyclone shelters.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 6 September 2021

Robert C. Kenter and Michael Goldsmith

The system of critical infrastructure in the United States is vast in size and geographic layout. These two factors along with the American system of Federalism impose…

Abstract

The system of critical infrastructure in the United States is vast in size and geographic layout. These two factors along with the American system of Federalism impose great challenges in protecting these systems. Much of the physical protection of these assets is left to state and local governments making protection more difficult is that a large number of these critical infrastructures are owned by multinational corporations. It is through a complex coordinated effort spanning across all three levels of government that these systems are kept secure in the United States.

Details

The Role of Law Enforcement in Emergency Management and Homeland Security
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-336-4

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 November 2021

Richard Ohene Asiedu, Patrick Manu, Abdul-Majeed Mahamadu, Colin Anthony Booth, Paul Olomolaiye, Kofi Agyekum and Mohamed Abadi

Effective procurement of infrastructure is partly dependent on infrastructure procurement personnel having the skills that are important for the discharge of their role…

Abstract

Purpose

Effective procurement of infrastructure is partly dependent on infrastructure procurement personnel having the skills that are important for the discharge of their role. Addressing the infrastructure deficits in developing countries, therefore, calls for an understanding of the skills that are important for the discharge of the roles of public personnel that are involved in infrastructure procurement. This study aims to investigate these skills from the perspective of public infrastructure procurement personnel in the sub-Saharan African region.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire survey of procurement personnel yielded 590 useable responses, which were analysed using t-tests and exploratory factor analysis (EFA).

Findings

EFA established eight key components of important infrastructure procurement skills to include skills related to: project success factors; social and environmental sustainability; marketing and e-procurement; project phase management, the application of procurement laws and procedures; soft skills, ICT and communication; and data analysis and team building.

Originality/value

The findings are crucial in developing infrastructure procurement capacity building programmes that would be appropriate for infrastructure procurement personnel in developing country contexts. Infrastructure procurement personnel ought to engage more in capacity development training that is aligned to enhancing skills within the eight components.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 February 2019

Erika A. Parn and David Edwards

Smart cities provide fully integrated and networked connectivity between virtual/digital assets and physical building/infrastructure assets to form digital economies…

5443

Abstract

Purpose

Smart cities provide fully integrated and networked connectivity between virtual/digital assets and physical building/infrastructure assets to form digital economies. However, industrial espionage, cyber-crime and deplorable politically driven cyber-interventions threaten to disrupt and/or physically damage the critical infrastructure that supports national wealth generation and preserves the health, safety and welfare of the populous. The purpose of this paper is to present a comprehensive review of cyber-threats confronting critical infrastructure asset management reliant upon a common data environment to augment building information modelling (BIM) implementation.

Design/methodology/approach

An interpretivist, methodological approach to reviewing pertinent literature (that contained elements of positivism) was adopted. The ensuing mixed methods analysis: reports upon case studies of cyber-physical attacks; reveals distinct categories of hackers; identifies and reports upon the various motivations for the perpetrators/actors; and explains the varied reconnaissance techniques adopted.

Findings

The paper concludes with direction for future research work and a recommendation to utilize innovative block chain technology as a potential risk mitigation measure for digital built environment vulnerabilities.

Originality/value

While cyber security and digitization of the built environment have been widely covered within the extant literature in isolation, scant research has hitherto conducted an holistic review of the perceived threats, deterrence applications and future developments in a digitized Architecture, Engineering, Construction and Operations (AECO) sector. This review presents concise and lucid reference guidance that will intellectually challenge, and better inform, both practitioners and researchers in the AECO field of enquiry.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 June 2019

Hakeem Owolabi, Lukumon Oyedele, Hafiz Alaka, Muhammad Bilal, Saheed Ajayi, Olugbenga Akinade and Alirat Agboola

Although the UK Guarantee Scheme for Infrastructures (UKGSI) was introduced in 2012 to address the huge financing gap for critical infrastructures, PFI sponsors have so…

Abstract

Purpose

Although the UK Guarantee Scheme for Infrastructures (UKGSI) was introduced in 2012 to address the huge financing gap for critical infrastructures, PFI sponsors have so far guaranteed only few projects. Many stakeholders in the project finance industry have blamed this situation on lack of general understanding of strategies for harnessing the benefits of the government guarantee scheme. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the perspectives of UK’s PFI/PPP stakeholders on critical factors influencing approval for government guarantees using the UKGSI as a focal point.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a mixed methodology approach, this study identified 26 important criteria used in evaluating government guarantee applications through focus group discussions with PFI stakeholders. The identified criteria were then put in questionnaire survey to 195 respondents within the UK PFI/PPP industry.

Findings

Through factor analysis, five critical factors determining successful government guarantee application were unravelled. These include: compliance with UK National Infrastructure Plan; demonstration of project bankability and risk management; value for money; proof of projects’ dependence on government guarantee; and certainty of planning commission’s approval.

Originality/value

Results of this study will facilitate an in-depth understanding of critical factors necessary for accessing government guarantee scheme for PFI/PPPs, while also improving the bankability of potential PFI projects.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 February 2012

Todd White, Samuel T. Ariaratnam and John Michael

The consideration of all aspects of the systems that support a community is necessary to accomplish adequate long range asset planning and protection. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

The consideration of all aspects of the systems that support a community is necessary to accomplish adequate long range asset planning and protection. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the addition of a subterranean infrastructure reconnaissance emphasis to an existing series of vulnerability assessment tools used by the State of Arizona, and investigate economic impact (disaster recovery) estimation methods for potential incorporation. The intent is to provide a framework for model development and suggest data to be collected.

Design/methodology/approach

Through modifications of existing system components, a subterranean infrastructure reconnaissance emphasis is proposed for the State of Arizona's current vulnerability assessment tools. Although they can be adjusted as needed, the modifications presented herein include 11 subterranean assets and ten threats to subterranean assets. Furthermore, existing methods for estimating the economic impact of disasters are investigated via literature reviews, e‐mails, and telephone correspondence.

Findings

Regarding the subterranean infrastructure reconnaissance component, a number of emerging technologies are currently available to monitor the various infrastructure elements from the identified potential threats. The process of linking the various data collection elements into a comprehensive surveillance system is currently underway in Arizona. Interim reconnaissance techniques using local statistic models will be applied incrementally while the data integration process is underway. With respect to the economic impact estimation module, the Federal Emergency Management Agency's HAZUS‐MH loss estimation model was identified as a top prospect for testing.

Research limitations/implications

The research focuses on examining the interdependencies and vulnerabilities of critical subterranean infrastructure. Therefore, critical surface or above ground infrastructure components are not primarily discussed. Additionally, this paper presents only a plan; there are no empirical results to date.

Practical implications

The methodology discussed may be utilized to support the decision‐making process for managing resources used to sustain subterranean infrastructure operations, with the goal of providing resiliency to community support mechanisms.

Originality/value

The specific focus on developing a subterranean infrastructure reconnaissance emphasis in a State's disaster management program is a novel tool for Arizona. The value is to enhance preparation, response, resilience, and recovery from hazards and disasters affecting the State's critical subterranean infrastructure. It is theorized that value will further be generated in a resulting subterranean infrastructure reconnaissance template, which can be adopted by other emergency and disaster management organizations.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

Keywords

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