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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2011

Esther Gyedu‐Akoto

The purpose of this paper is to show how to develop useful products from cashew by‐products, to help expand the income base of cashew farmers in the Savanna area.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show how to develop useful products from cashew by‐products, to help expand the income base of cashew farmers in the Savanna area.

Design/methodology/approach

Investigations into the utilization of some by‐products from cashew were carried out using the apples and gum from the cashew tree. The apples were processed into clarified and non‐clarified juices and jam. Cashew gum, a by‐product of the cashew tree, was used in the development of baked doughnuts as a fat replacer. The gum was used at five different levels in the preparation of the products – 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 per cent of fat used.

Findings

The average yield of cashew juice after extraction with a screw press ranged from 53.0 to 54.6 per cent. Results on chemical and sensory analyses of the two juices showed that clarification with Polyvinylpyrrolidone reduced both the chemical and sensory quality of the juices. Protein content, total sugar concentration and K content reduced from 0.548, 58.23 and 4.23 per cent to 0.443, 18.50 and 3.32 per cent, respectively. Fat contents of the baked doughnuts were 16.72, 14.68, 8.10, 8.24 and 5.82 per cent for products with 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 per cent cashew gum, respectively. Results of sensory analysis showed that decreasing the fat content reduced the flavour, moistness and consumer acceptance of the products. However, there was no significant difference between the products. Therefore, it is suggested that cashew gum can replace fat in baked dough nuts up to 20 per cent.

Originality/value

These findings are important to cashew farmers, processors, nutritionists and consumers as a whole.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 41 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2014

Nnabuk Okon Eddy, Inemesit Udofia and Adamu Uzairu

– The purpose of this study is to determine the physicochemical and rheological parameters of Albizia lebbeck gum.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to determine the physicochemical and rheological parameters of Albizia lebbeck gum.

Design/methodology/approach

Physicochemical analysis was carried out using recommended methods. Gas chromatography mass spectrophotometer and Fourier transformed infra red (FTIR) analyses were carried out using their respective spectrophotometer. Scanning electron microscopy was carried out using scanning electron microscope, while rheological measurements were carried out using Ubbelohde capillary viscometer, digital Brookfield DV 1 viscometer and a rheometer.

Findings

Albizia zygia gum is an ionic gum with unique physical and chemical properties. Scanning electron micrograph revealed that the internal structure of the gum is porous with irregular molecular arrangement. Thermodynamic parameters of viscous flow indicated the existence of few inter- and intra-molecular interactions, and the attainment of transition state was linked to bond breaking. Coil overlap transition studies revealed the existence of dilute and concentrated regimes. The viscosity of the gum was also found to decrease with decrease in the charge of cation (such that Al3+ > Ca2+ > K+) and with increase in ionic strength.

Research limitations/implications

The paper provided information on physicochemical and rheological characteristics/behaviour of Albizia zygia gum, of Nigerian origin. From this information, possible application of this gum in the food and pharmaceutical industries can be deduced.

Originality/value

The paper is original since information concerning Albizia zygia gum of Nigerian origin are not well documented as established in the work. It also adds values on the use of Albizia zygia gum, either on its own or in combination with other gums for industrial purpose.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 43 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2014

Ishmael Owiredu, Damian Laryea and John Barimah

– The aim of this paper is to promote the utilization and diversification of cashew nuts through its use as a substitute for wheat flour in biscuit production.

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Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to promote the utilization and diversification of cashew nuts through its use as a substitute for wheat flour in biscuit production.

Design/methodology/approach

Wheat flour was substituted with cashew nut flour (CNF) at levels of 0, 20, 30 and 40 percent in the production of biscuit. The products obtained were subjected to proximate, mineral and sensory analysis.

Findings

There was a significant increase in protein and fat contents from 7.75 and 22.11 percent to 12.89 and 32.11 percent, respectively, when CNF increased, whiles carbohydrate decreased from 66.67 to 48.04 percent. A significant increase in magnesium (27.93-97.03 mg/100 g), sodium (198.11-228.02 mg/100 g), phosphorus (55.90-149.00 mg/100 g), potassium (290.40-990.00 mg/100 g), zinc (0.72-2.00 mg/100 g) and iron (0.28-1.00 mg/100 g) was also observed as CNF increased. Sensory analysis revealed that there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the 20 and 30 percent substituted samples, in terms of overall acceptability. Therefore, wheat flour could be substituted with CNF up to 30 percent in the production of biscuit.

Originality/value

This study was done to ascertain the potential use of CNF as a substitute for wheat flour and a nutrient enrichment in biscuit production, in order to diversify its use; since it still remains an underutilized raw material in Ghana.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 44 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 23 January 2019

Poorva Sharma, Bababode Adesegun Kehinde, Shubhneet Kaur and Pratibha Vyas

This paper aims to update with information about edible coating on minimally processed and fresh fruits, focussing on the composition, active ingredients, antimicrobial…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to update with information about edible coating on minimally processed and fresh fruits, focussing on the composition, active ingredients, antimicrobial concentration and their effect on ripening rate, phytonutrients retention and shelf-life of fruits. In future, the data will be helpful for the processors to select the best coating material and its effective concentration for different fresh and minimally processed fruits.

Design/methodology/approach

Major scientific information was collected from Scopus, Web of Science, Mendeley and Google Scholar. Several key words such as postharvest, edible coating, phytonutrients, shelf-life enhancement, bioactive compounds, minimally processed fruits and antimicrobial compounds were used to find the data. Relevant information was collected by using 90 recent research and review articles.

Findings

The main findings of this comprehensive review are to improve the quality of fruits, to meet the next-generation food security needs. However, in the process of achieving the goal of improving quality of food produce, embrace of synthetic, non-biodegradable packaging materials have increased, creating serious pollution problem. Amidst several alternatives for replacement of synthetic packaging, the option of biodegradable films and coatings showed promising results.

Originality/value

The paper represents recent information about the edible coating used for the enhancement of shelf-life of fresh and minimally processed fruits.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2019

Nishant Kumar and Neeraj

The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of functional properties of the polysaccharide-based component and their application in developing edible film and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of functional properties of the polysaccharide-based component and their application in developing edible film and coating for the food processing sector.

Design/methodology/approach

In this review study, approximately 271 research and review articles focusing on studies related to polysaccharide-based components and their film-forming properties. This article also focused on the application of polysaccharide-based edible film in the food sector.

Findings

From the literature reviewed, polysaccharide components and components-based edible film/coating is the biodegradable and eco-friendly packaging of the materials and directly consumed by the consumer with food. It has been reported that the polysaccharide components have excellent properties such as being nontoxic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antifungal and with good nutrients. The polysaccharide-based edible film has lipid and gas barrier properties with excellent transparency and mechanical strength. In various studies, researchers worked on the development of polysaccharide-based edible film and coating by incorporating plant based natural antioxidants. This was primarily done for obtaining improved physical and chemical properties of the edible film and coating. In future, the technology of developing polysaccharide-based edible film and coating could be used for extending the shelf life and preserving the quality of fruits and vegetables at a commercial level. There is more need to understand the role of edible packaging and sustainability in the food and environment sector.

Originality/value

Through this review paper, possible applications of polysaccharide-based components and their function property in the formation of the edible film and their effect on fruits, vegetables and other food products are discussed after detailed studies of literature from thesis and journal article.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 49 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Karina Scatolino Mesquita, Vanessa Rios de Souza, Jéssica Ferreira Rodrigues, Camila Carvalho Menezes, Soraia Vilela Borges, João de Deus Souza Carneiro and Ana Carla Marques Pinheiro

People are increasingly concerned about food and health and seek for functional and sugar-free products. However, there are technological challenges when adding functional…

Abstract

Purpose

People are increasingly concerned about food and health and seek for functional and sugar-free products. However, there are technological challenges when adding functional components and substituting sugar in foods. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to evaluate the influence of packaging and storage time on the sensory profile of functional diet guava preserve added with prebiotics, supporting the development of functional and sugar-free products and contributing to the product variety in the market.

Design/methodology/approach

A two-factor full factorial design was conducted in triplications that evaluated transparent and opaque packaging vs storage time (six months). The products were stored in packages with different light permeability (transparent and opaque). Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and acceptance tests were performed.

Findings

The packaging material did not affect the sensory changes of functional diet guava preserve during the six months of storage. QDA test showed that from three months of storage the original characteristics of the product were lost and a slight decrease in overall acceptance was observed after four and six months. However, during the six months the products had good acceptance; consequently, it was not possible to establish their rejection before this period.

Research limitations/implications

More detailed studies regarding a longer storage period, including the physical and chemical measurements must be done to clarify other points about the influence of packaging and storage time on the sensory profile of functional diet guava preserve added with prebiotics. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to test the proposed propositions further.

Practical implications

The development of a functional and sugar-free preserve is a good alternative to provide a product that meets the actual consumer desires and adds value to the product. However, there are technological challenges when adding functional components and substituting sugar in foods. Thus, this study provides important information for the development of sugar-free and functional products, and to prolong their shelf life.

Originality/value

There are few studies with respect to the sensory aspects during the storage of functional preserves. Thus, this work will aid future studies, supporting the development of functional and sugar-free products and contributing to the product variety in the market.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 119 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1981

Ann J. Walton

The liquid extract obtained from the natural cashew nutshell is rich in phenolic substances which are derived from anacardic acid C6H3(OH) (CO2H) (C15H31‐n), where n may…

Abstract

The liquid extract obtained from the natural cashew nutshell is rich in phenolic substances which are derived from anacardic acid C6H3(OH) (CO2H) (C15H31‐n), where n may have values of 0, 2, 4 or 6 and represents various degrees of unsaturation in the aliphatic C15 side‐chain. Industrial decarboxylation of this material affords cardanol C6H4(OH) (C15H31‐n) plus other substituted phenols and polymeric residues. Tyman et al. (197, 198) have studied the analysis of all these products using GC, molecular distillation, TLC and mass spectrometry. After hydrogenation and the formation of the corresponding methyl esters, the products were analysed by GC using glass columns (5ft × 3/16in) packed with acid washed and silanized Diatomite as support material and which was coated with non‐polar stationary phases such as SE30, SE25 or APL, or semi‐polar phases such as 0V17, Dexil 300 or PEGA. Alternatively, the samples were subjected to an acetylation procedure prior to GC examination on columns containing Dexil 300, SE30 or SE52. The GC equipment consisted of a Pye‐Unicam model 104 instrument operated with nitrogen carrier gas (flow rate 45cm3 min−1) and equipped with FID.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

Vighneswara Swamy and Dharani M

The global demand for food is expected to increase by 60 percent by 2050 when the world’s population reaches 9.1 billion. To meet this challenge significant investment in…

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3483

Abstract

Purpose

The global demand for food is expected to increase by 60 percent by 2050 when the world’s population reaches 9.1 billion. To meet this challenge significant investment in the agricultural sector is required to embrace innovative financing mechanisms that can benefit sustainable agricultural development, food security and nutrition. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the agricultural value chain (AVC) financing approaches and tools in India. It presents a proper understanding of the different case studies of Indian AVC financing models and related instruments. It also offers some useful recommendations to improve their efficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors employ the multiple case studies approach to research which allows for a purposive sample and the potential for generalizability of findings. This provides a more rigorous and inclusive approach than a single case study research due to the triangulation of evidence. Subsequently, the authors offer an explicit description of AVC financing models. In the next phase, a thorough assessment of these models is made. Finally, the authors formulate some useful policy recommendations based on the findings of the analysis.

Findings

There is a need to review the value chain models that exist in the context of – lead actors, business model and sustainability strategy. Determining actual and critical points of finance such as the current flows of funds and their sources of financing, what is needed and in what point in time is significant to enhance the effectiveness of the models. Further, there is a need to analyze and compare financing options such as their relative strengths, risks and costs of financing for each level of participant in the chain. The authors observe that rather than investing in one component of the chain, the financial institution can grow expertise in the chain, share this knowledge and provide financing to support services. This not only benefits clients, but also expands lending opportunities while lowering the risks.

Research limitations/implications

The study primarily focusses on AVC financing approaches and tools in India and attempts to analyze the inadequacies in the value chain models. The case study approach is adopted as the accurate data on value chain financing are not available for the analysis.

Practical implications

The study has come out with the following policy recommendations: the governments (union government as well as state governments) – in partnership with the private sector need to spearhead and develop measures aimed at making the operation of the value chain efficient, fair, profitable and sustainable; governments have to focus on creating an enabling policy and regulatory environment and, providing the necessary support services in order to attract more investments. These will lower the transaction costs, facilitate the smooth flow of finance along the chain and ultimately increase value-added; financing for processing and marketing is particularly crucial for growth and expansion of the chain; bank finance should not be limited to short-term production loans, but also include big-ticket loans with longer maturities to finance investments in farming equipment and machinery, transportation, storage, mills and other processing/post-harvest facilities.

Originality/value

This study is the first of its kind as it is based on a multiple case studies approach in understanding and analyzing the efficiency and effectiveness of AVC financing models in India by evaluating eight of such models. Besides, it offers quite useful policy recommendations to improve their efficiency.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 76 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the chemical and functional composition of acerola, guava and cashew freeze-dried pomaces.

Design/methodology/approach

Fruit pomaces were obtained from the pulp juice industrial sector and submitted to freeze-drying. Samples were analysed for composition (macronutrients, micronutrients, moisture and ash), technological attributes (morphological, hygroscopicity, retention of oil and water and solubility), bioactive compounds (total phenolics, flavonoids, proanthocyanins, anthocyanins, carotenoids and ascorbic acid), antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Total phenolics, brown pigments and antioxidant activity of thermally treated samples were evaluated. Results were presented as mean and standard deviation, and submitted to Shapiro–Wilk normality test, and ANOVA statistical significance follows by Tukey’s post hoc test (p<0.05). Also, Pearson correlation coefficients were used to test the relationship between selected parameters.

Findings

Guava pomace had the highest insoluble fibre (40.6 per cent), protein (13.8 per cent) and lipid (9.3 per cent) contents and acerola higher soluble fibre (14.2 per cent) and water and oil holding capacity (12 and 5.4 g/g, respectively). Cashew pomace had higher solubility (45.3 per cent) and hygroscopicity (11.2 per cent). Acerola pomace had the highest phenolic content (5,331.7 mg AGE/100 g), DPPH and oxygen radical absorbance capacity antioxidant activity (63.3 and 756.6 µmol TE/g). Despite of that none of extracts showed antibacterial activity. All pomaces presented good antioxidant activity retention after thermal treatments (> 70 per cent), which might be correlated to thermally induced brown pigments.

Originality/value

This investigation was motivated by the large amounts of pomaces produced by the fruit pulp and juice processing industries, which represents a waste of residual phytochemicals and cause potential environmental problems. Overall, it was demonstrated that freeze-dried acerola, guava and cashew pomaces are promising ingredients for multiple food applications.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 15 October 2019

Daniela Mariana de Lima Bragion and Helena Maria André Bolini

Carob has been proposed as a healthy, stimulant-free alternative to chocolate in frozen desserts. In order to make carob a viable and attractive alternative, food…

Abstract

Purpose

Carob has been proposed as a healthy, stimulant-free alternative to chocolate in frozen desserts. In order to make carob a viable and attractive alternative, food producers need to know how it interacts with sweeteners and frozen dessert dispersion matrices. The purpose of this paper is to find the optimal sweetener concentration in three plant-based frozen desserts and carob-flavoured milk dispersion matrix ice cream.

Design/methodology/approach

The ideal sucrose concentrations (per cent) were determined through an affective test using the “just-about-right” scale for carob-flavoured frozen desserts made with cashew nut, coconut and soy beverage, as well as milk dispersion matrix. The sweetness equivalence of artificial sweeteners relative to sucrose was determined by the magnitude estimation test.

Findings

The authors identified the concentrations of sucrose, stevia and sucralose that produced ideal sweetness in carob-flavoured frozen desserts. Concentrations for soy-based frozen desserts differed from the other dispersion mediums tested. Plant-based frozen desserts exhibited a higher ratio of sweetening power of stevia and sucralose to sucrose compared to milk-based ice cream by a factor of 1.18 and 1.14, respectively.

Originality/value

This study undertook a comprehensive survey of a dairy-free and chocolate-free alternative to chocolate ice cream and found new sweetener interactions with dispersion matrices in carob-flavoured frozen desserts. The findings in this study can be applied in the development of carob-flavoured soybean-, coconut-, cashew nut- and milk-based frozen desserts.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 121 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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