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Article
Publication date: 26 January 2010

L.E. Yahaya, O.M. Aliyu, L.A. Hammed and S.O. Aroyeun

The purpose of this paper is to determine the physicochemical characteristics of yellow and red apples cultivars of cashew. This is with a view to harnessing the quality…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the physicochemical characteristics of yellow and red apples cultivars of cashew. This is with a view to harnessing the quality attributes of the different cultivars of cashew. Parameters investigated include pH, refractive index, specific gravity, vitamin C content, juice astringency, chlorophyll and juice yield.

Design/methodology/approach

The methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) are employed in assaying the physicochemical properties, while the astringency is determined spectrophotometrically according to standard methods.

Findings

Results showed that percentage juice yield increases linearly with maturity for both cultivars. A maximum of 79.5 per cent is obtained for the yellow apple cultivars, while 74.1 per cent juice yield is obtained in the red apple cultivar. The pH ranged from 3.73‐4.5 and 3.64‐4.55 for red and yellow apple cultivars, respectively, with a marked fall between seven and eight weeks after pollination (WAPo). Specific gravity and refractive index are of the order 0.999‐1.007 and 1.34‐1.89 for both selected samples. Highest refractive index is obtained in red and yellow cultivars at seven and eight WAPo. The changes in ascorbic acid followed a linear pattern and the maximum values of 249.5 mg/100 ml and 185.5 mg/100 ml are obtained for yellow and red apple cultivars, respectively. Meanwhile, the juice astringency level decreased steadily with maturity and at the ninth WAPo, values obtained are 0.47 and 0.86 mg/100 ml tannin for yellow and red apple cultivars, respectively. Generally, pH, astringency, refractive index, juice content, ascorbic acid and chlorophyll contents showed marked variations between six and eight WAPo, confirming physiological maturity and ripening in the crop species.

Originality/value

Cashew farmers and industrialists will know the best time to harvest the crop when the quality is at its peak.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 112 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2011

Esther Gyedu‐Akoto

The purpose of this paper is to show how to develop useful products from cashew by‐products, to help expand the income base of cashew farmers in the Savanna area.

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494

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show how to develop useful products from cashew by‐products, to help expand the income base of cashew farmers in the Savanna area.

Design/methodology/approach

Investigations into the utilization of some by‐products from cashew were carried out using the apples and gum from the cashew tree. The apples were processed into clarified and non‐clarified juices and jam. Cashew gum, a by‐product of the cashew tree, was used in the development of baked doughnuts as a fat replacer. The gum was used at five different levels in the preparation of the products – 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 per cent of fat used.

Findings

The average yield of cashew juice after extraction with a screw press ranged from 53.0 to 54.6 per cent. Results on chemical and sensory analyses of the two juices showed that clarification with Polyvinylpyrrolidone reduced both the chemical and sensory quality of the juices. Protein content, total sugar concentration and K content reduced from 0.548, 58.23 and 4.23 per cent to 0.443, 18.50 and 3.32 per cent, respectively. Fat contents of the baked doughnuts were 16.72, 14.68, 8.10, 8.24 and 5.82 per cent for products with 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 per cent cashew gum, respectively. Results of sensory analysis showed that decreasing the fat content reduced the flavour, moistness and consumer acceptance of the products. However, there was no significant difference between the products. Therefore, it is suggested that cashew gum can replace fat in baked dough nuts up to 20 per cent.

Originality/value

These findings are important to cashew farmers, processors, nutritionists and consumers as a whole.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 41 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2004

S.O. Aroyeun

Cashew apple was used as a nutritional additive in the production of yogurt. The yogurt so produced (CAY‐A) had a higher vitamin C content of 53.70g/100ml than both…

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Abstract

Cashew apple was used as a nutritional additive in the production of yogurt. The yogurt so produced (CAY‐A) had a higher vitamin C content of 53.70g/100ml than both samples B and C with values 14.1/100ml and 19.2g/100ml of vitamin C respectively. The cashew apple fortified yogurt was evaluated for physicochemical parameters like pH, refractive index, dpecific gravity, titratable acidity, ash, moisture, protein and fat and the values 4.10 (pH), 20° Brix soluble solid content, specific gravity 1.023, titratable acidity (0.78g/100ml lactic acid), 0.84 per cent ash, 77.0 per cent moisture, 3.22 per cent protein and 3.2 per cent fat were obtained. The three yogurts produced were presented to ten regular tasters of yogurt for sensory evaluations using Fan Milk yogurt as the reference sample C. Assessors were asked to identify the odd sample. This method was used to determine if ingredient substitution or some other change in the manufacturing process could result in a detectable difference in products. The result obtained indicated that the yogurt into which cashew apple had been added compared favorably with the reference sample in all the attributes evaluated and there was no significant difference at p ≤ 0.05.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 27 January 2021

Esther Gyedu-Akoto, Eric Kumi Asare, Stephen Yaw Opoku, Abu Mustapha Dadzie and Emmanuel Ofosu-Agyei

Roasted coffee provides a complex blend of different flavours which produce a range of sensory qualities. With the development of protocols for the production of fresh…

Abstract

Purpose

Roasted coffee provides a complex blend of different flavours which produce a range of sensory qualities. With the development of protocols for the production of fresh juices, jams and marmalades from cocoa and cashew pulp juices at Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana, this paper aims to study the effects of roasted coffee powder on fermented cocoa and cashew juices to diversify the uses of these two juices.

Design/methodology/approach

Cocoa and cashew juices were fermented with the incorporation of 2% roasted coffee powder using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast starter. The fermenting juices were monitored by measuring pH, temperature, specific gravity and titratable acidity. At the end of the fermentation, the juices were poured into clean, sterilized containers to mature. They were then analysed for their physicochemical, microbiological and sensory qualities. These were repeated with cocoa and cashew juices without coffee powder to determine the effects of the roasted coffee on the fermented juices.

Findings

The addition of roasted coffee powder to cocoa and cashew juices did not have any significant effect on the fermentation performance of the juices. Three out of the four juices took a total of 13 days to complete fermentation with an average final specific gravity of 0.99. The quality of the fermented juices was not compromised by microbial activities. However, the addition of roasted coffee powder reduced the alcohol content of fermented cocoa juice from 9.0 to 5.0% and that of cashew from 11.0% to 7.5%. Sensory analysis using untrained panellists, who were ordinary consumers, showed significant differences among the four fermented juices in terms of appearance, taste and aroma. Their mean scores for coffee aroma ranged from 0.3 to 2.0 with coffee incorporated fermented juices having higher rankings.

Originality/value

These findings have shown the possibility of processing cocoa and cashew juices, which under normal circumstances would have been discarded along their value chains, into coffee-flavoured wines. They are also important to cocoa, cashew and coffee farmers, processors, as well as wine enthusiasts.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2010

S.J. Ojolo, O. Damisa, J.I. Orisaleye and C. Ogbonnaya

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the physical and mechanical characteristics of the roasted cashew nut during fracture, by subjecting the nut to varying impact…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the physical and mechanical characteristics of the roasted cashew nut during fracture, by subjecting the nut to varying impact load tests at different orientations to ascertain the critical impact load that fractures the shell without damaging the kernel within. This load value was correlated with other parameters; shell/kernel moisture content level, average nut mass, to determine the required projection velocity to achieve this force. This projection velocity is the critical factor in sizing and design of the optimum configurations of the shelling impeller.

Design/methodology/approach

Mechanical properties of roasted cashew nut were first determined to know their fracture points. Each component of the shelling machine was designed. The components were assembled and the machine was tested for performance.

Findings

Machine throughput capacity was determined as 15.57 kg/h; shelling efficiency was 95 per cent; and whole kernel recovery was 70 per cent.

Practical implications

The efficiency in terms of whole kernel recovery could be improved by improving the pretreatment measures on the nuts.

Originality/value

The paper presents a machine which is affordable to peasant farmers and requires little or no training for operation and maintenance. The advantage of reduced unit cost can be derived from large‐scale commercial production of this sheller.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 24 April 2020

Richard Kwasi Bannor, Helena Oppong-Kyeremeh, Steffen Abele, Frank Osei Tutu, Samual Kwabena Chaa Kyire and Dickson Agyina

The unavailability and inadequate use of cashew seedlings for propagation are part of the challenges facing the cashew sub-sector in Ghana. However, promoting investment…

Abstract

Purpose

The unavailability and inadequate use of cashew seedlings for propagation are part of the challenges facing the cashew sub-sector in Ghana. However, promoting investment into cashew seedling production should be based on the analysis of the profitability and viability of such a venture as well as the respective determinants of farmers' demand for the planting material.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used gross margin/contribution, net margin and contribution ratios to analyse the profitability of cashew seedling production under four different business models. Also, the determinants of choice of planting material for cashew plantation among farmers was analysed via a multinomial probit regression.

Findings

The study revealed that cashew seedling production is profitable with a gross margin of $8,474, $2,242, $1,616 and $1,797 and contribution to sales of 31–53% for the various business models. The positive determinants of the use of cashew seedlings were off-farm job participation and extension contact, whereas farm size and age of plantation negatively influenced the use of seedlings. Land acquisition method also influenced the use of both seedlings and seeds negatively.

Practical implications

The findings provide empirical evidence of the viability and profitability of cashew seedling production as a viable business venture and off-farm opportunity in rural areas. The information from the study will help major stakeholders in cashew production to understand the type of farmers who use seeds and seedlings as well as the reasons for using or otherwise.

Originality/value

Significant research in the cashew value chain had focussed on the profitability of cashew plantation with little literature on profitability and viability analysis of cashew seedling production. Similarly, this study provides a significant value chain job opportunity as well as literature on the choice of cashew seedlings among current and prospective end-users.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2014

Ishmael Owiredu, Damian Laryea and John Barimah

– The aim of this paper is to promote the utilization and diversification of cashew nuts through its use as a substitute for wheat flour in biscuit production.

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338

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to promote the utilization and diversification of cashew nuts through its use as a substitute for wheat flour in biscuit production.

Design/methodology/approach

Wheat flour was substituted with cashew nut flour (CNF) at levels of 0, 20, 30 and 40 percent in the production of biscuit. The products obtained were subjected to proximate, mineral and sensory analysis.

Findings

There was a significant increase in protein and fat contents from 7.75 and 22.11 percent to 12.89 and 32.11 percent, respectively, when CNF increased, whiles carbohydrate decreased from 66.67 to 48.04 percent. A significant increase in magnesium (27.93-97.03 mg/100 g), sodium (198.11-228.02 mg/100 g), phosphorus (55.90-149.00 mg/100 g), potassium (290.40-990.00 mg/100 g), zinc (0.72-2.00 mg/100 g) and iron (0.28-1.00 mg/100 g) was also observed as CNF increased. Sensory analysis revealed that there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the 20 and 30 percent substituted samples, in terms of overall acceptability. Therefore, wheat flour could be substituted with CNF up to 30 percent in the production of biscuit.

Originality/value

This study was done to ascertain the potential use of CNF as a substitute for wheat flour and a nutrient enrichment in biscuit production, in order to diversify its use; since it still remains an underutilized raw material in Ghana.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 44 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1991

B. Beharrell and J.H. MacFie

The apparent conflict between what is scientifically known and whatis perceived concerning food acceptability by consumers provides aninteresting paradox. Some of the…

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2987

Abstract

The apparent conflict between what is scientifically known and what is perceived concerning food acceptability by consumers provides an interesting paradox. Some of the leading international contributions concerned with organic farming system food products are thus reviewed in the light of consumer beliefs and attitudes. It is concluded that, in a market economy, consumer opinion will gradually prevail and that agricultural farming systems will have to adjust to more extensive lower input farming approaches.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 93 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 17 September 2020

Fernanda Silva Farinazzo, Tiago Bervelieri Madeira, Maria Thereza Carlos Fernandes, Carolina Saori Ishii Mauro, Adriana Aparecida Bosso Tomal, Suzana Lucy Nixdorf and Sandra Garcia

The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of Saccharomyces boulardii on the kinetics of fermentation for organic and conventional apple pulp and to verify…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of Saccharomyces boulardii on the kinetics of fermentation for organic and conventional apple pulp and to verify the effect of the antioxidant quercetin on the response to cellular oxidative stress.

Design/methodology/approach

The kinetic parameters, the content of phenolic compounds, the quantity of quercetin and the antioxidant activity were determined during the fermentation process. The effect of quercetin on cellular oxidative stress was also investigated.

Findings

The content of phenolic compounds, the antioxidant activity and the quercetin concentration were higher in the organic fermented apple pulp (ORG) than in the conventional fermented apple pulp (CON). However, both apple pulps were considered ideal substrates for the growth of S. boulardii, suggesting that they are potentially probiotic. After fermentation, the quercetin concentration in the ORG treatment and YPDQ treatment (YPD broth with 0.1 mg quercetin rhamnoside/mL) increased viability by 9%, while in the CON treatment generated there was an increase of 6% in viability, compared to the YPD control treatment (YPD broth).

Originality/value

The high concentration of quercetin in the organic apple pulp supports the proposal that quercetin reduces the oxidative stress mediated by reactive oxygen species through its antioxidant action on S. boulardii that have similarities to mammalian eukaryotic cells. These findings suggest that fermented organic apple pulp could be consumed as a potential non-dairy probiotic product.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Idris Nasiru Medugu, M. Rafee Majid, Foziah Johar and Ibijoke Sinami Taiwo

The purpose of this paper is to assess the sustainability of a forestry management strategy in checkmating desert encroachment and it also examines the impacts of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the sustainability of a forestry management strategy in checkmating desert encroachment and it also examines the impacts of the Forestry II program on agricultural productivity in the rural communities.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted a quantitative approach in assessing the rural farmers’ level of participation in the Forestry II program in which 201 respondents were interviewed in the study area. Structured questionnaires’ were also administered to afforestation officials/extension workers in the two states regarding the different components of the projects and probable cause(s) of failures/successes as well as the level of involvement of the community in the project. Field observations of the project sites were also carried out with a view to examining the level of achievements on the physical components of the projects.

Findings

The findings of this study revealed that, involvement of the stakeholders and participation of the community was lacking at the early stage of the program and the negligence of indigenous knowledge as well as the influence of bottom up approach was not incorporated in the project. The study further revealed that, appreciable positive impacts have been recorded at various levels of its implementation. The improvement of livelihood of the rural people through increased forest products supply was noted, fuel-wood and poles supply were also increased and this had gone a long way in creating employment for the rural dwellers.

Research limitations/implications

The study involved the establishment of shelterbelts, windbreaks, woodlots, orchards and nurseries which were complimented by social forestry, and which raised public awareness through campaigns such as school forestry programs, forestry extension services and a fuel-wood conservation program.

Originality/value

The study articulated success and failure as well as a detailed assessment of the Forestry II project. The study showed that government could significantly combat desertification in the arid zones through sustainable afforestation if adequate resources were employed.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

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