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Article
Publication date: 24 September 2020

Anna Abelsson, Jari Appelgren and Christer Axelsson

The purpose was to investigate what effect an intervention of low-dose, high-frequency cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training with feedback for one month would have…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose was to investigate what effect an intervention of low-dose, high-frequency cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training with feedback for one month would have on professionals' subjective self-assessment skill of CPR.

Design/methodology/approach

This study had a quantitative approach. In total, 38 firefighters performed CPR for two minutes on a Resusci Anne QCPR. They then self-assessed their CPR through four multiple-choice questions regarding compression rate, depth, recoil and ventilation volume. After one month of low-dose, high-frequency training with visual feedback, the firefighters once more performed CPR and self-assessed their CPR.

Findings

With one month of low-dose, high-frequency training with visual feedback, the level of self-assessment was 87% (n = 33) correct self-assessment of compression rate, 95% (n = 36) correct self-assessment of compression depth, 68% (n = 26) correct self-assessment of recoil and 87% (n = 33) correct self-assessment of ventilations volume. The result shows a reduced number of firefighters who overestimate their ability to perform CPR.

Originality/value

With low-dose, high-frequency CPR training with visual feedback for a month, the firefighters develop a good ability to self-assess their CPR to be performed within the guidelines. By improving their ability to self-assess their CPR quality, firefighters can self-regulate their compression and ventilation quality.

Details

International Journal of Emergency Services, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2047-0894

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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2018

Anna Abelsson, Jari Appelgren and Christer Axelsson

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of the intervention of low-dose, high-frequency cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training with feedback for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of the intervention of low-dose, high-frequency cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training with feedback for firefighters for one month.

Design/methodology/approach

The study had a quantitative approach. Data were collected through an intervention by means of simulation. The data collection consisted of a pre- and post-assessment of 38 firefighter’s CPR performance.

Findings

There was a statistically significant improvement from pre- to post-assessment regarding participants’ compression rates. Compression depth increased statistically significantly to average 2 mm too deep in the group. Recoil decreased in the group with an average of 1 mm for the better. There was a statistically significant improvement in participants’ ventilation volume from pre- to post-assessment.

Originality/value

Prehospital staff such as firefighters, police, and ambulance perform CPR under less than optimal circumstances. It is therefore of the utmost importance that these professionals are trained in the best possible way. The result of this study shows that low-dose, high-frequency CPR training with an average of six training sessions per month improves ventilation volume, compression depth, rate, and recoil. This study concludes that objective feedback during training enhances the firefighters’ CPR skills which in turn also could be applied to police and ambulance CPR training.

Details

International Journal of Emergency Services, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2047-0894

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Article
Publication date: 31 July 2019

Sedef Akgungor, Kamiar Alaei, Weng-Fong Chao, Alexandra Harrington and Arash Alaei

The purpose of this paper is to explore the correlation among health outcomes, and civil and political rights (CPR) and also economic, social and cultural rights.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the correlation among health outcomes, and civil and political rights (CPR) and also economic, social and cultural rights.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses cross-sectional data from 161 countries. The authors use health outcomes and human rights variables in the model. In order to combine dimensions of human rights, this paper uses factor analysis and obtains proxy variables that measure economic, social and cultural rights and CPR. The two proxy variables are used as independent variables to explain variations in health in a regression model. The paper then classifies countries by cluster analysis and explores the patterns of different components of human rights and health outcomes across country clusters.

Findings

The regression model demonstrates that the economic, social and cultural rights variables explain variations in all health outcomes. The relationship between CPR and health is weaker than that of the economic, social and cultural rights. Cluster analysis further reveals that despite the country’s commitment to CPR, those that highly respect economic, social and cultural rights lead to superior health outcomes. The more respect a country has for economic, social and cultural rights, the better the health outcomes for the citizens of that country.

Practical implications

National policies should consider equal emphasis on all dimensions of human rights for further improvements in health.

Originality/value

The sole promotion of CPR such as democracy and empowerment, absence of adequate support of economic, social and cultural rights such as rights to housing, education, food and work can only contribute partially to health.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2018

Robert Lawrence Healy and Spiro Maroulis

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, the authors elaborate on why American businesses are often willing to advocate and deploy corporate political resources for or…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, the authors elaborate on why American businesses are often willing to advocate and deploy corporate political resources for or against specific governmental policies, but largely reluctant to engage in more general political process reform. Second, the authors introduce a set of ideas encouraging a business-driven political process reform in the USA, which the authors refer to as Corporate Political Responsibility (CPR).

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews existing literature on why firms generally avoid advocating for political process reform to identify several firm-level impediments to such action. As an outcome of that review, a CPR governance concept – a derivative from the corporate responsibility literature – is proposed and unpacked as a proposition that if adopted by firms would encourage and support business-driven process reform advocacy.

Findings

The primary findings are that American firms lack a rationale justifying business political activity into the political process arena; a willingness to assume a high level of political risk associated with political process intervention; and an executable corporate mechanism for doing so.

Research limitations/implications

A second stage build out of the paper would involve at a minimum multiple research interviews with corporate executives and trade association officials to test the viability of the CPR proposal as to whether or not the proposed governance statement would liberate firms to advocate political process reform. This paper sets the predicate for additional research.

Originality/value

This paper may well be the first to identify the concept of CPR as a key corporate governance proposition. It is also likely the first to conceptualize CPR as more than a theoretical rendering – it is executable. Corporations can put CPR into practice through a firm’s Board of Directors endorsing a governance statement – Corporate Political Responsibility Protocol (CPR/P) – that transforms the CPR concept into a sanctioned firm activity, giving executives significant latitude to spend corporate resources advocating political process change. This paper suggests a variety of reform possibilities – electoral, campaign finance and legislative – that could benefit from business reform advocacy.

Details

Society and Business Review, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5680

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2007

Julie Z. Sneath

To illustrate the challenges involved in communicating cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation information and providing lay person training to improve the…

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337

Abstract

Purpose

To illustrate the challenges involved in communicating cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation information and providing lay person training to improve the chance of survival for persons suffering out‐of‐hospital cardiac arrest.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 78 lay persons employed by manufacturing firms in an industrial park were surveyed and asked to identify their attitudes toward and knowledge of lifesaving techniques and willingness to participate in CPR and AED training programs.

Findings

Findings suggest that most employees were interested in learning how to administer CPR and defibrillation. However, few had received training. The data also showed that training and relationship with a victim are determinants of level of comfort and willingness to engage in behaviors that would save a life.

Research limitations/implications

Results are not necessarily representative of all programs or employees in industrial settings. Sample is US based, which may limit its generalizability.

Practical implications

Although few people have been formally trained, awareness levels and willingness to participate in these programs are high. Opportunities for training exist, even though resuscitation programs' communications and training may be falling short of the intended outcomes.

Originality/value

Lay persons' attitudes toward and experience with CPR and defibrillation training programs are examined and implications for training and marketing communications are discussed.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

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Article
Publication date: 21 November 2008

Govinda R. Timilsina and Ram M. Shrestha

The purpose of this paper is to examine potential demand side management (DSM) programs in terms of their impacts to the overall economy in Thailand.

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1582

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine potential demand side management (DSM) programs in terms of their impacts to the overall economy in Thailand.

Design/methodology/approach

A multi‐sector computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of Thailand has been developed to accomplish the objectives of this study. The potential DSM program considered refers to replacement of less efficient electrical appliances with their efficient counterparts in the household sector in Thailand.

Findings

The study finds that the economy‐wide impacts of the DSM program (e.g., economic welfare, GDP, international trade) depend on three key factors: the project economics of the DSM option or the ratio of unit cost of electricity savings to price of electricity (CPR); the implementation strategy of the DSM option; and scale or size of the DSM option. This paper shows that the welfare impacts of the DSM programs would improve along with the project economics of the DSM programs. If the DSM program is implemented under the CDM, the welfare impacts would increase along with the price for certified emission reductions units. On the other hand, the welfare impacts would increase up to the optimal size or scale of the program, but would start to deteriorate if the size is increased further.

Research limitations/implications

The welfare function considered in this paper does not account for benefits of local air pollution reductions. The study provides crucial insights on designing DSM projects in Thailand to ensure that DSM programs are beneficial for the economy as a whole.

Originality/value

Analyses of DSM options under the CDM using CGE models are not available in the literature. This is the first paper in this area.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1994

Allan H. Church

Although a large contingency of theory and research has been conducted in the area of individual and interpersonal communication, relatively few theoreticians have focused…

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1026

Abstract

Although a large contingency of theory and research has been conducted in the area of individual and interpersonal communication, relatively few theoreticians have focused on the broader character of communication at the organizational level of analysis. With the increasing emphases on total quality, leadership, adaptive cultures, process reengineering, and other organizational change and development efforts, however, the need to understand the process and function of organizational communication at a broader, more systemic level is paramount. The following paper attempts to address this issue by providing: (1) a comparative review and critique of three “classic” theoretical approaches to describing the importance of communication in organizations and the relationship between communication and organizational functioning (open systems theory, the information‐processing perspective, and the communication as culture framework); and (2) a new integrative framework—the CPR model of organizational communication—for conceptualizing and understanding the nature of communication in organizations based on constructs adapted from these three perspectives. The model is then used both in an applied example to help diagnose an organizational system and to stimulate suggestions for future research.

Details

The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1055-3185

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2008

Ash Samanta and Jo Samanta

The purpose of this paper is to provide a viewpoint on decision making in do not attempt resuscitation (DNAR) orders from the perspective of a competent patient who…

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1143

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a viewpoint on decision making in do not attempt resuscitation (DNAR) orders from the perspective of a competent patient who requests cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) when their clinical prognosis is poor. This issue will be examined from the position of patient autonomy and self determination.

Design/methodology/approach

The literature is reviewed including academic commentary, case law and statute.

Findings

The paper finds that factors such as futility and quality of life that engage in DNAR considerations should be gauged from the patient's perspective. There is a definite argument for supporting a competent patient's positive autonomous choice for CPR. This should feature clearly within the framework of clinical governance.

Research limitations/implications

Presents a viewpoint designed to stimulate debate based on a contemporary perspective of patient autonomy.

Practical implications

End‐of‐life care is assuming a greater importance as evidenced by an increase in reported complaints. Decisions regarding CPR need to form part of the clinical governance agenda.

Originality/value

This paper provides an original viewpoint on the tension between a competent positive choice for CPR against opposing medical opinion, and argues for a resolution on a principled basis to protect patients from arbitrary decision making with regard to resuscitation.

Details

Clinical Governance: An International Journal, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7274

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Article
Publication date: 7 May 2019

Nader Habibi

Most Middle Eastern countries suffer from high rates of unemployment and underemployment among university graduates. This condition is known as overeducation and it is…

Abstract

Purpose

Most Middle Eastern countries suffer from high rates of unemployment and underemployment among university graduates. This condition is known as overeducation and it is observed in many countries around the world. Two countries, Singapore and Hong Kong, have been able to prevent overeducation. The purpose of this paper is to identify political and institutional factors that have allowed these two countries to succeed.

Design/methodology/approach

The author has relied on published government documents, online short articles and academic publications to collect evidence on higher education policies in Hong Kong and Singapore. The author has also received some valuable insight by e-mail communication with scholars and some government institutions in these countries. In addition, the author has generated tables and charts based on official government statistics from both countries to show the trends in higher education and the labor market outcomes for university graduates.

Findings

First, in Singapore and Hong Kong, the labor ministry and the private sector industries are able to influence the higher education enrollment policy based on economic demand for skilled labor. Second, in both countries, the political leadership is committed to preventing graduate surplus and has enough political strength to resist populist pressures for increasing the enrollment into higher education. Third, both countries have been able to direct a large number of high school graduates to vocational and two-year associate degrees.

Originality/value

Overeducation is a very costly and undesirable outcome that leads to a large amount of wasted investment in human capital. It is very valuable for developing countries to learn about policies that have been successfully used by Singapore and Hong Kong to prevent overeducation because the same policies can be used in the affected countries.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2007

Derek Kauneckis and Mark T. Imperial

This paper examines the emergence of collaborative watershed management in Lake Tahoe by focusing on how institutions managing coordination and conflict have changed over…

Abstract

This paper examines the emergence of collaborative watershed management in Lake Tahoe by focusing on how institutions managing coordination and conflict have changed over time. It begins by describing the evolution of watershed governance and examines the extent to which the institutional arrangement demonstrates the eight design principles proposed by Elinor Ostrom for successful common pool resource (CPR) management. The paper then develops the concept of a complex environmental commons (CEC) to differentiate the situation of Lake Tahoe from the simpler CPR dilemmas frequently discussed in the CPR literature. We then propose five additional principles that contribute to collaborative management of a CEC.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

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