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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1999

D.S. Malik and John N. Mordeson

In this paper, we define and examine the concept of a fuzzy recognizer. If L(M) is the language recognized by an incomplete fuzzy recognizer M, we show that there is a…

Abstract

In this paper, we define and examine the concept of a fuzzy recognizer. If L(M) is the language recognized by an incomplete fuzzy recognizer M, we show that there is a completion M of M such that L(M) = L(M). We also show that if A is a recognizable set of words, then there is a complete accessible fuzzy recognizer MA such that L(MA) = A. We lay groundwork to determine rational decompositions of recognizable sets.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1999

Rakesh Gupta, S.Z. Mumtaz and R Nitin Rastogi

Profit analysis of a two non‐identical unit cold standby system model with mutual changeover of the units is carried out in this paper. With mutual changeover of the unit…

Abstract

Profit analysis of a two non‐identical unit cold standby system model with mutual changeover of the units is carried out in this paper. With mutual changeover of the unit, the operating unit, after functioning for some random amount of time, becomes standby to take rest, and the standby unit becomes operative. The failure and repair times of each unit are jointly distributed as bivariate exponential (BVE) with different parameters. Various measures of system effectiveness useful to system engineers and designers are obtained by using the regenerative point technique. Behaviour of the mean time to system failure (MTSF) and availability have also been studied graphically.

Details

Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2511

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 June 2022

Monica Billio, Roberto Casarin and Fausto Corradin

This chapter studies the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the economic structure of the US and EU economies by measuring its impact on some reference macro-economic…

Abstract

This chapter studies the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the economic structure of the US and EU economies by measuring its impact on some reference macro-economic variables. We use a factor model approach on a set of variables available at different frequencies (daily, weekly, monthly, and quarterly) and provide evidence of instability in the primary factors driving the economy. A sequential analysis of the factors allows us to evaluate the model's forecasting performance and extract some instability measures based on the factor model's eigenvalues. Finally, we show how to use COVID-related variables, such as policy, economic, and health indicators, to compute conditional forecasts with factor models, and perform a scenario analysis on the variables of interest to understand economic instability.

Details

The Economics of COVID-19
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-694-0

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 18 July 2016

Virginia M. Miori, Zhenpeng Miao and Yingdao Qu

This is the third in a series of papers aimed at providing models effective in predicting the degree of pain and discomfort in canines. The first two papers provided…

Abstract

This is the third in a series of papers aimed at providing models effective in predicting the degree of pain and discomfort in canines. The first two papers provided benchmarking and examination of dogs suffering from osteoarthritis (OA). In this chapter, we extend the study to include dogs suffering from OA, sarcoma, and oral mucositis (a side effect of chemotherapy and radiation treatments). The R programming language and SAS JMP are used to clean data, generate ANOVA, LSR regression, decision tree, and nominal logistic regression models to predict changes in activity levels associated with the progression of arthritis. The predictive models provide a diagnostic basis for determining the degree of disease in a dog (based on demographics and activity levels) and provide forecasts that assist in establishing appropriate medication dosages for suffering dogs.

Details

Advances in Business and Management Forecasting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-534-8

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 2006

Judit Bar‐Ilan, Mark Levene and Mazlita Mat‐Hassan

The objective of this paper is to characterize the changes in the rankings of the top ten results of major search engines over time and to compare the rankings between…

1131

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this paper is to characterize the changes in the rankings of the top ten results of major search engines over time and to compare the rankings between these engines.

Design/methodology/approach

The papers compare rankings of the top‐ten results of the search engines Google and AlltheWeb on ten identical queries over a period of three weeks. Only the top‐ten results were considered, since users do not normally inspect more than the first results page returned by a search engine. The experiment was repeated twice, in October 2003 and in January 2004, in order to assess changes to the top‐ten results of some of the queries during the three months interval. In order to assess the changes in the rankings, three measures were computed for each data collection point and each search engine.

Findings

The findings in this paper show that the rankings of AlltheWeb were highly stable over each period, while the rankings of Google underwent constant yet minor changes, with occasional major ones. Changes over time can be explained by the dynamic nature of the web or by fluctuations in the search engines' indexes. The top‐ten results of the two search engines had surprisingly low overlap. With such small overlap, the task of comparing the rankings of the two engines becomes extremely challenging.

Originality/value

The paper shows that because of the abundance of information on the web, ranking search results is of extreme importance. The paper compares several measures for computing the similarity between rankings of search tools, and shows that none of the measures is fully satisfactory as a standalone measure. It also demonstrates the apparent differences in the ranking algorithms of two widely used search engines.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 62 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 November 2022

Romanus Osabohien

Post-harvest losses are becoming a huge issue worldwide and are predominantly severe in developing countries. Seeking ways to control post-harvest losses is important…

Abstract

Purpose

Post-harvest losses are becoming a huge issue worldwide and are predominantly severe in developing countries. Seeking ways to control post-harvest losses is important because losses decrease farm income by more than 15% for approximately 480 million small-scale farmers.

Design/methodology/approach

The study engaged Wave 4 (2018/2019) of the Living Standards Measurement Studies–Integrated Survey on Agriculture, to examine the impact of soil technology such as fertilisers, herbicides, pesticides and certified crops on post-harvest losses in Nigeria. The study engaged descriptive statistics, logit regression and propensity score matching (PSM) to analyse the data.

Findings

The study found that approximately 38% of the household harvest was lost along the value chain. In addition, the results showed that among the indicators of soil technology, crop certification has a significant impact on the reduction of post-harvest losses. The implication is that from the nearest neighbour and kernel-based matching, the use of certified crops by households contributed to 1.62 and 1.36% reduction in post-harvest losses, respectively. In contrast, pesticide, herbicide and fertiliser use had no significant impact on post-harvest losses.

Research limitations/implications

One of the limitations is that this study applied the PSM, the model did not account for endogeneity. Therefore, in examining this concept, further studies should consider applying other impact model such as the difference-in-difference to account for endogeneity.

Originality/value

While previous studies have examined how ICT adoption, storage mechanisms and value chain among others help to minimise post-harvest losses, the aspect of how soil technology can reduce post-harvest losses has been a subject of exclusion in the extant literature. This study empirically examines the impact of soil technology adoption on post-harvest losses in Nigeria.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Circular Economy in Developed and Developing Countries: Perspective, Methods and Examples
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-982-4

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Circular Economy in Developed and Developing Countries: Perspective, Methods and Examples
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-982-4

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 12 January 2016

Harald von Witzke and Steffen Noleppa

The global demand for agricultural commodities may more than double in the second half of the twenty-first century. It has been suggested that rapidly growing world needs…

Abstract

Purpose

The global demand for agricultural commodities may more than double in the second half of the twenty-first century. It has been suggested that rapidly growing world needs in food and agriculture can be met by expanding the acreage or cultivation of existing farmland. Because available land for farming is limited, about 90% of future production growth is expected to result from yield growth, with only 10% realized at the cost of acreage expansion.

Methodology/approach

In this chapter, we analyze the multitude of social benefits of modern agriculture. We also expand the traditional analysis of the return to research methodology by explicitly including environmental and other benefits of crop yield growth.

Findings

A key result of our analysis is that the environmental benefits of productivity growth far exceed the direct economic benefits to consumers and producers from an expansion of production. Hence, restricting analysis solely to price and quantity effects seriously underestimates the social benefits of modern agriculture.

Practical implications

The environmental benefits of yield growth in modern agriculture far exceed the traditional measure of social welfare.

Details

Food Security in a Food Abundant World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-215-3

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 September 2022

Anastasia A. Sozinova, Elena N. Makarenko, Elena Y. Zolochevskaya and Evgeny N. Tishchenko

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to scientifically test the credibility (proof or refutation) of the existing argument for a technological leap in the COVID-19…

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to scientifically test the credibility (proof or refutation) of the existing argument for a technological leap in the COVID-19 pandemic and the post-pandemic period.

Design/Methodology/Approach: The conducted review of existing sources of research literature showed that they have formed an insufficient scientific background for a clear understanding of digital deprivation of services, social contradictions and conflict management as components of technological leap amid the COVID-19 pandemic and in the post-pandemic period. To fill the identified gap in the system of scientific knowledge, this work uses the method of comparative analysis of statistical data. Some countries of the world, the EU countries and the United States, which are characterized by the largest population and the largest contribution of investments to the digitalization of value chains and the development of innovations, were selected as objects for this study.

Findings: Research has shown that rapid digitalization is impacting all aspects of life, including not only how value is created and exchanged, but also how we interact, operate, purchase and receive services. In this process, data and its international flows are becoming increasingly important for development. The usual digital gap associated with connectivity, reflecting significant differences between and within countries in readiness to use the power of data, is exacerbated by what might be termed the data gap. Countries with limited opportunities to transform digital data into digital analytics and entrepreneurial opportunities, and to use them for economic and social development, are obviously at a disadvantage.

Originality/Value: Digital data have been proven to be one of the top strategic assets for creating both private and public value. Our ability to meet the Sustainable Development Goals (The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, 2015) depends a lot on how these data are applied. The idea of sustainable development arose, as it is known, for overcoming significant fluctuations in the positive transformation of society, and for the alignment in the pace and results of the transition of various countries to the post-industrial scenario of progress. There are many obstacles on the path of sustainable development, which hinder the transition to this vector of transformation. First, the gap in economic and social development between the countries of the ‘golden billion’ and many other countries has not been reduced. Second, the digital gap continues to deepen. But a new and extremely threatening danger on the path to the transition to sustainable development has become the global crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic that emerged in early 2020 and is still ongoing.

Determining the right course for the future is a difficult task, but its solution cannot be postponed. Data are multidimensional, and their use has an impact not only on trade and economic development but also on human rights, peace and security. In addition, measures should be taken to reduce the risk of misuse and unauthorized use of digital data by states, non-states or the private sectors to avoid the possibility of global social conflict.

1 – 10 of 93