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In this paper, we define and examine the concept of a fuzzy recognizer. If L(M) is the language recognized by an incomplete fuzzy recognizer M, we show that there is a completion M of M such that L(M) = L(M). We also show that if A is a recognizable set of words, then there is a complete accessible fuzzy recognizer MA such that L(MA) = A. We lay groundwork to determine rational decompositions of recognizable sets.
Profit analysis of a two non‐identical unit cold standby system model with mutual changeover of the units is carried out in this paper. With mutual changeover of the unit…
Profit analysis of a two non‐identical unit cold standby system model with mutual changeover of the units is carried out in this paper. With mutual changeover of the unit, the operating unit, after functioning for some random amount of time, becomes standby to take rest, and the standby unit becomes operative. The failure and repair times of each unit are jointly distributed as bivariate exponential (BVE) with different parameters. Various measures of system effectiveness useful to system engineers and designers are obtained by using the regenerative point technique. Behaviour of the mean time to system failure (MTSF) and availability have also been studied graphically.
This is the third in a series of papers aimed at providing models effective in predicting the degree of pain and discomfort in canines. The first two papers provided…
This is the third in a series of papers aimed at providing models effective in predicting the degree of pain and discomfort in canines. The first two papers provided benchmarking and examination of dogs suffering from osteoarthritis (OA). In this chapter, we extend the study to include dogs suffering from OA, sarcoma, and oral mucositis (a side effect of chemotherapy and radiation treatments). The R programming language and SAS JMP are used to clean data, generate ANOVA, LSR regression, decision tree, and nominal logistic regression models to predict changes in activity levels associated with the progression of arthritis. The predictive models provide a diagnostic basis for determining the degree of disease in a dog (based on demographics and activity levels) and provide forecasts that assist in establishing appropriate medication dosages for suffering dogs.
The objective of this paper is to characterize the changes in the rankings of the top ten results of major search engines over time and to compare the rankings between…
The objective of this paper is to characterize the changes in the rankings of the top ten results of major search engines over time and to compare the rankings between these engines.
The papers compare rankings of the top‐ten results of the search engines Google and AlltheWeb on ten identical queries over a period of three weeks. Only the top‐ten results were considered, since users do not normally inspect more than the first results page returned by a search engine. The experiment was repeated twice, in October 2003 and in January 2004, in order to assess changes to the top‐ten results of some of the queries during the three months interval. In order to assess the changes in the rankings, three measures were computed for each data collection point and each search engine.
The findings in this paper show that the rankings of AlltheWeb were highly stable over each period, while the rankings of Google underwent constant yet minor changes, with occasional major ones. Changes over time can be explained by the dynamic nature of the web or by fluctuations in the search engines' indexes. The top‐ten results of the two search engines had surprisingly low overlap. With such small overlap, the task of comparing the rankings of the two engines becomes extremely challenging.
The paper shows that because of the abundance of information on the web, ranking search results is of extreme importance. The paper compares several measures for computing the similarity between rankings of search tools, and shows that none of the measures is fully satisfactory as a standalone measure. It also demonstrates the apparent differences in the ranking algorithms of two widely used search engines.
This research aims to demonstrate the possible link between the sociodemographic profile of visitors motivated by the visit to flamenco shows and the city of Córdoba…
This research aims to demonstrate the possible link between the sociodemographic profile of visitors motivated by the visit to flamenco shows and the city of Córdoba (Spain), and the preferences and sensations regarding these experiences.
The methodology used (multilayer perceptron) is based on the development of an artificial neural network.
The results show that the variables age and educational level are determining factors in the profile of the visitor. Also, as the level of income increases, so does the interest in flamenco, a fact that can be useful to determine the target audience for this type of shows.
Flamenco is an art that originated in the Andalusian region that arouses the interest of the visitor due to its music, way of singing and dance. Flamenco is a popular art that excites and awakens the senses of those who attend this dance, song and guitar show. Its recognition as Intangible Heritage of Humanity by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) since 2010, makes it a tourist product that motivates visitors to travel to the city of Córdoba (Spain), being also one of flamenco's places of origin. Córdoba has this art in its tourist offer so that the identity of the city has two aspects: patrimonial and immaterial, among the flamenco highlighted.
The global demand for agricultural commodities may more than double in the second half of the twenty-first century. It has been suggested that rapidly growing world needs…
The global demand for agricultural commodities may more than double in the second half of the twenty-first century. It has been suggested that rapidly growing world needs in food and agriculture can be met by expanding the acreage or cultivation of existing farmland. Because available land for farming is limited, about 90% of future production growth is expected to result from yield growth, with only 10% realized at the cost of acreage expansion.
In this chapter, we analyze the multitude of social benefits of modern agriculture. We also expand the traditional analysis of the return to research methodology by explicitly including environmental and other benefits of crop yield growth.
A key result of our analysis is that the environmental benefits of productivity growth far exceed the direct economic benefits to consumers and producers from an expansion of production. Hence, restricting analysis solely to price and quantity effects seriously underestimates the social benefits of modern agriculture.
The environmental benefits of yield growth in modern agriculture far exceed the traditional measure of social welfare.