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Article
Publication date: 24 September 2020

Anna Abelsson, Jari Appelgren and Christer Axelsson

The purpose was to investigate what effect an intervention of low-dose, high-frequency cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training with feedback for one month would have…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose was to investigate what effect an intervention of low-dose, high-frequency cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training with feedback for one month would have on professionals' subjective self-assessment skill of CPR.

Design/methodology/approach

This study had a quantitative approach. In total, 38 firefighters performed CPR for two minutes on a Resusci Anne QCPR. They then self-assessed their CPR through four multiple-choice questions regarding compression rate, depth, recoil and ventilation volume. After one month of low-dose, high-frequency training with visual feedback, the firefighters once more performed CPR and self-assessed their CPR.

Findings

With one month of low-dose, high-frequency training with visual feedback, the level of self-assessment was 87% (n = 33) correct self-assessment of compression rate, 95% (n = 36) correct self-assessment of compression depth, 68% (n = 26) correct self-assessment of recoil and 87% (n = 33) correct self-assessment of ventilations volume. The result shows a reduced number of firefighters who overestimate their ability to perform CPR.

Originality/value

With low-dose, high-frequency CPR training with visual feedback for a month, the firefighters develop a good ability to self-assess their CPR to be performed within the guidelines. By improving their ability to self-assess their CPR quality, firefighters can self-regulate their compression and ventilation quality.

Details

International Journal of Emergency Services, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2047-0894

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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2018

Anna Abelsson, Jari Appelgren and Christer Axelsson

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of the intervention of low-dose, high-frequency cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training with feedback for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of the intervention of low-dose, high-frequency cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training with feedback for firefighters for one month.

Design/methodology/approach

The study had a quantitative approach. Data were collected through an intervention by means of simulation. The data collection consisted of a pre- and post-assessment of 38 firefighter’s CPR performance.

Findings

There was a statistically significant improvement from pre- to post-assessment regarding participants’ compression rates. Compression depth increased statistically significantly to average 2 mm too deep in the group. Recoil decreased in the group with an average of 1 mm for the better. There was a statistically significant improvement in participants’ ventilation volume from pre- to post-assessment.

Originality/value

Prehospital staff such as firefighters, police, and ambulance perform CPR under less than optimal circumstances. It is therefore of the utmost importance that these professionals are trained in the best possible way. The result of this study shows that low-dose, high-frequency CPR training with an average of six training sessions per month improves ventilation volume, compression depth, rate, and recoil. This study concludes that objective feedback during training enhances the firefighters’ CPR skills which in turn also could be applied to police and ambulance CPR training.

Details

International Journal of Emergency Services, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2047-0894

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2000

Nadezhda Ivanovna Ryabokon, Igor Ivanovich Smolich and Rose Iosiphovna Goncharova

Dynamics of population mutagenesis during 22 consecutive generations of animals, as well as genetic radioadaptation were studied in natural populations of small mammals…

Abstract

Dynamics of population mutagenesis during 22 consecutive generations of animals, as well as genetic radioadaptation were studied in natural populations of small mammals (bank voles) under chronic low‐intensive irradiation due to the Chernobyl accident. The data obtained point to oppositely directed processes in irradiated populations: accumulation of mutations (genetic load of populations) and formation of genetic radioadaptation. It is suggested that the frequencies of genetic damages in populations could be higher in the absence of radioadaptation process. A relationship between the frequencies of cytogenetic injuries and low doses of radiation was revealed in animal generations studied. The non‐linear dose‐effect curves are most likely to be defined by the complicated microevolutionary processes in populations. The results obtained indicate the absence of genetic effect threshold of low dose radiation. Besides, they show that a dependence of cytogenetic effects on radiation low doses in series of irradiated generations cannot be revealed using linear equations.

Details

Environmental Management and Health, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-6163

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1994

R. van Wijk, H. Ooms, F.A.C. Wiegant, J.E.M. Souren, J.H. Ovelgönne, J.M. van Aken and A.W.J.M. Bol

In the past many scientists have published papers on hormesis, onmolecular stress responses, and on the similia principle in homoeopathy.Very few, however, have stressed a…

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Abstract

In the past many scientists have published papers on hormesis, on molecular stress responses, and on the similia principle in homoeopathy. Very few, however, have stressed a common base of interdependence of these fields. Reviews the most important of these studies to demonstrate their evolution and their mutual importance. Furthermore, a multidisciplinary approach is chosen to demonstrate research into the beneficial effects of subharmful doses of toxicants administered in suboptimal conditions (such as in stressed or injured organisms and cells).

Details

Environmental Management and Health, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-6163

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2010

Emma Derbyshire

Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a common problem in pregnancy and may influence the health of both mother and child. The purpose of this paper is to discuss current…

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Abstract

Purpose

Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a common problem in pregnancy and may influence the health of both mother and child. The purpose of this paper is to discuss current prevention and treatment strategies for pregnancy IDA and describe alternative methods, such as food‐based approaches that may be another way forward.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review was conducted to locate and summarise up‐to‐date published studies within the field.

Findings

There is good evidence that iron supplements may be used to prevent and treat IDA in pregnancy. However, there is much debate about “the optimal” dose to recommend. High doses may contribute to oxidative stress and cause gastrointestinal symptoms while there still remain problems with compliance, even for lower dose iron supplements. Encouraging the daily consumption of functional foods containing suitable levels of iron may therefore be an alternative way to improve pregnancy iron status.

Research limitations/implications

There is a wealth of important studying the health implications of iron supplements in pregnancy. More work is needed to establish whether functional foods containing iron could be an alternative way to help improve iron status.

Originality/value

Most papers and research focus on supplement use as a preventative measure and treatment for IDA; few discuss other approaches.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 40 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 19 March 2018

Pamela Miles Homer and Sayantani Mukherjee

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of supplement form and dosage level on consumers’ perceptions of dietary supplement efficacy.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of supplement form and dosage level on consumers’ perceptions of dietary supplement efficacy.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors draw upon literature on dietary supplements and accessibility–diagnosticity theory to derive their hypotheses. Hypotheses are tested through two experiments that use a 2 (supplement form: single-ingredient [SI] vs multi-ingredient [MI]) × 2 (dosage level: low vs high) factorial design.

Findings

The findings show that consumers perceive that lower dose MI supplements are more effective than lower dose SI supplements, consistent with a “more is better” heuristic. In contrast, under high doses, the supplement form effect is insignificant; that is, MI and SI supplements are perceived to be comparable in terms of efficacy.

Practical implications

Dietary supplements are not regulated the same way as prescription drugs. Consumers often draw inferences about supplement efficacy based on their perceptions rather than objective evidence. This may leave consumers vulnerable to potentially harmful consequences. This research has implications for designing supplement marketing efforts and public policy, which could help consumers to make informed choices when purchasing dietary supplements.

Originality/value

A growing awareness of the importance of maintaining a healthy lifestyle has motivated consumers of all ages to consider alternative remedies, most notably using dietary supplements. Past research offers little insight into understanding consumer reactions to dietary supplement form such as SI and MI supplements and their dosage levels. The studies reported here address this gap in research. Public policy and marketing implications are also discussed.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 28 March 2008

S. O'Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis and A.I. Al‐Shamma'a

The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed review of radiation dosimetry techniques based on optical fibre dosimeters. It presents a comprehensive bibliography of…

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2698

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed review of radiation dosimetry techniques based on optical fibre dosimeters. It presents a comprehensive bibliography of the current research activities in the area.

Design/methodology/approach

A range of published work on optical fibre radiation dosimeters are presented, with the merits and limitations discussed. Each radiation dosimetry technique is discussed in turn, providing examples of dosimeters using such techniques reviewed. The main focus is on gamma radiation although other radiation dosimeters are considered.

Findings

This paper provides information on the wide range of research activity into radiation dosimeters. The dose ranges of these dosimeters are presented, along with the advantages and disadvantages of different dosimetry techniques.

Originality/value

A comprehensive review of published research in the area of solid radiation dosimetry is presented in this paper. It provides an individual with a review of the various techniques used and most recent research in that field.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 27 November 2018

Fatima Bensalah, Nour el Imane Harrat, Fouad Affane, Hadjera Chekkal and Myriem Lamri-Senhadji

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of whole oat, oat bran and refined oat incorporation in a high-fat diet (HFD) on cardio-metabolic risk biomarkers in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of whole oat, oat bran and refined oat incorporation in a high-fat diet (HFD) on cardio-metabolic risk biomarkers in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Design/methodology/approach

T2DM was induced by feeding male rats with an HFD for 10 weeks, followed by a low dose of streptozotocin. T2DM rats were then divided into four homogeneous groups. Three groups consumed an HFD containing 45 per cent (g/100 g diet) whole oat, oat bran or refined oat. The fourth untreated group (control) received the HFD.

Findings

The results showed that whole oat and oat bran, compared with refined oat and control, effectively reduced food intake (p < 0.007), arterial blood pressure (p = 0.0001), glycemia (p < 0.001), insulinemia (p < 0.01), glycosylated haemoglobin (p < 0.001) as well as homeostasis insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p < 0.001). They also improved blood lipid levels and reverse cholesterol transport by reducing serum total cholesterol (p = 0.0001), triacylglycerols (p < 0.05), very-low- (p = 0.0001) and low-density lipoproteins cholesterol contents (p < 0.02) increasing lipids (p < 0.002) and cholesterol excretion (p = 0.0001), and high-density lipoprotein cholesteryl esters (HDL2-CE) concentrations (p = 0.0001) and stimulating lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity (p = 0.0001). Moreover, they attenuated lipid peroxidation by increasing paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) atheroprotective activity (p < 0.05).

Originality/value

In T2DM rats, whole oat and particularly, its bran incorporated into an HFD improves arterial blood pressure, glycemic balance and lipid metabolic pathway by reducing hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia and increasing atheroprotective activities of LCAT and PON-1. In contrast, refined oat accentuates the risk factors associated with diabetes.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2017

Maureen van Eijnatten, Ferco Henricus Berger, Pim de Graaf, Juha Koivisto, Tymour Forouzanfar and Jan Wolff

Additive manufactured (AM) skull models are increasingly used to plan complex surgical cases and design custom implants. The accuracy of such constructs depends on the…

Abstract

Purpose

Additive manufactured (AM) skull models are increasingly used to plan complex surgical cases and design custom implants. The accuracy of such constructs depends on the standard tessellation language (STL) model, which is commonly obtained from computed tomography (CT) data. The aims of this study were to assess the image quality and the accuracy of STL models acquired using different CT scanners and acquisition parameters.

Design/methodology/approach

Images of three dry human skulls were acquired using two multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) scanners, a dual energy computed tomography (DECT) scanner and one cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanner. Different scanning protocols were used on each scanner. All images were ranked according to their image quality and converted into STL models. The STL models were compared to gold standard models.

Findings

Image quality differed between the MDCT, DECT and CBCT scanners. Images acquired using low-dose MDCT protocols were preferred over images acquired using routine protocols. All CT-based STL models demonstrated non-uniform geometrical deviations of up to +0.9 mm. The largest deviations were observed in CBCT-derived STL models.

Practical implications

While patient-specific AM constructs can be fabricated with great accuracy using AM technologies, their design is more challenging because it is dictated by the correctness of the STL model. Inaccurate STL models can lead to ill-fitting implants that can cause complications after surgery.

Originality/value

This paper suggests that CT imaging technologies and their acquisition parameters affect the accuracy of medical AM constructs.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2018

Nour el Imane Harrat, Sabrine Louala, Fatima Bensalah, Fouad Affane, Hadjera Chekkal and Myriem Lamri-Senhadji

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica (OFI)) nopalitos on body weight, food consumption, arterial blood pressure…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica (OFI)) nopalitos on body weight, food consumption, arterial blood pressure, glucidic homeostasis, cholesterol metabolic pathway and tissues redox status in type 2 diabetic (T2D) rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD).

Design/methodology/approach

Rats were fed by a HFD containing 30 per cent sheep fat for 10 weeks, after which they were rendered diabetic by an injection of a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (35 mg/kg). The diabetic rats were then divided into two groups. The first group consumed the HFD supplemented with 5 per cent (g/100 g diet) of freeze-dried OFI nopalitos (HFD-OFI), and the second group received the HFD without supplementation (HFD).

Findings

OFI nopalitos treatment decreased significantly arterial diastolic (−20%; p = 0.0001) and systolic (−16%; p = 0.0001) pressures, glycemia (−14%; p = 0.03), insulinemia (−50%; p = 0.04), glycated hemoglobin (−49%; p = 0.003), homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (−67%; p = 0.03), cholesterolemia (−31%; p = 0.003), very-low and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (−38%; p = 0.002 and −63% p = 0.0002, respectively); thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and lipid hydroperoxide contents, respectively, in liver (−26% p = 0.02, −20% p = 0.02), adipose tissue (−30% p = 0.002, −25% p = 0.001), muscle (−29% p = 0.003, −25% p = 0.008) and kidney (lipid hydroperoxides only (−28%; p = 0.001) but increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL2) cholesteryl esters (+61%; p = 0.0001), serum lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase activity (+21%; p = 0.006) and antioxidant enzymes activities (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase) of some tissues (liver, adipose tissue, muscle and kidney).

Originality/value

Freeze-dried OFI nopalitos improves arterial blood pressure, glycemic control, metabolic pathway of cholesterol and redox status in T2D rats.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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