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Book part
Publication date: 16 July 2018

Kaylee J. Hackney and Pamela L. Perrewé

Research examining the experiences of women in the workplace has, to a large extent, neglected the unique stressors pregnant employees may experience. Stress during…

Abstract

Research examining the experiences of women in the workplace has, to a large extent, neglected the unique stressors pregnant employees may experience. Stress during pregnancy has been shown consistently to lead to detrimental consequences for the mother and her baby. Using job stress theories, we develop an expanded theoretical model of experienced stress during pregnancy and the potential detrimental health outcomes for the mother and her baby. Our theoretical model includes factors from multiple levels (i.e., individual, interpersonal, sociocultural, and community) and the role they play on the health and well-being of the pregnant employee and her baby. In order to gain a deeper understanding of job stress during pregnancy, we examine three pregnancy-specific organizational stressors (i.e., perceived pregnancy discrimination, pregnancy disclosure, and identity-role conflict) that are unique to pregnant employees. These stressors are argued to be over and above the normal job stressors experienced and they are proposed to result in elevated levels of experienced stress leading to detrimental health outcomes for the mother and baby. The role of resilience resources and learning in reducing some of the negative outcomes from job stressors is also explored.

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Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-322-3

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Book part
Publication date: 10 August 2017

Jacob Chao-Lun Huang

Since health behaviors of elderly Asian Americans are often underreported, the study, based on the health behavioral model (Andersen’s model), was to examine if there is a…

Abstract

Since health behaviors of elderly Asian Americans are often underreported, the study, based on the health behavioral model (Andersen’s model), was to examine if there is a reciprocal relationship between healthcare utilization and health outcomes, and how social characteristics play their role in this relationship between US-born and foreign-born elderly Asian Americans.

Using structural equation modeling, this research examined the proposed hypotheses which consisted of direct and indirect effects among health outcomes, healthcare utilization and social characteristics, as well as the disparities of the effects between US-born and foreign-born elderly Asian Americans (65 + ). A sample size of elderly Asian Americans was divided into a US-born group (N = 1,305) and a foreign-born group (N = 4,902) from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 1998–2012. Health outcomes consisted of current health status and health change. Healthcare utilization included general doctor visit, ER, and mental health professional visit. Social characteristics of population included predisposing characteristics (such as age, sex, marital status, and region of residency) and enabling resources (such as education, family size, and family income).

Results from the study indicated that first, there was a reciprocal relationship between health outcomes and healthcare utilization for both groups. Second, predisposing characteristics had a direct effect on health outcomes, and enabling resources had an indirect effect on health outcomes via healthcare utilization. In addition, living in the West had both direct and indirect effects on health outcomes. Third, regarding disparities of the effects between both groups, the US-born elderly are more likely to attain health benefits from healthcare utilization and their social characteristics than the foreign-born. As a result, the interactive relationship between health outcomes, healthcare utilization, and social characteristics, as well as disparities of healthcare outcomes through health utilization and social characteristics for elderly Asian Americans is highlighted.

First, due to the design of NHIS, this research was limited to fully present the needs and more characteristics of elderly Asian Americans. This shows the great need for a large scale, representative study for health behaviors of elderly Asian Americans. Second, in the dataset, the study was limited to explore health behaviors of elderly Asian Americans into each Asian ethnic subgroup. Since the culture of Asian Americans is heterogeneous, it is recommended that future research can explore differences and commonalities of the health behaviors between Asian subgroups. Third, based on the health behavioral model and the design of the dataset, this study was limited to illustrate variations of life experiences between both groups. These differences regarding their needs and desires for healthcare services and health outcomes can become an important foundation for service providers and policy makers to provide appropriate services that improve the quality of the later lives of elderly Asian Americans.

First, the study applied the health behavioral model and proved that the effect of healthcare utilization and social characteristics on health outcomes is greater for the US-born elderly Asian Americans than for the foreign-born. Second, this study confirmed that the healthcare services in US society are still beneficial for the health outcomes of elderly Asian Americans. Third, the study found that when family is used to explain the social behaviors of elderly Asian Americans, researchers need to be more careful to identify various family factors in accordance to its dynamics, such as interpersonal relationship, material supply, and emotional support.

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Health and Health Care Concerns Among Women and Racial and Ethnic Minorities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-150-8

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Article
Publication date: 27 January 2021

Cleopatra Oluseye Ibukun

Despite the global attempt at achieving goal 3 of the Sustainable Development Goals by improving health outcomes, some countries (West African countries inclusive) still…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the global attempt at achieving goal 3 of the Sustainable Development Goals by improving health outcomes, some countries (West African countries inclusive) still do not spend a significant proportion of their income on health and they exhibit health outcomes that are still far below that of developed countries. Besides countries like Nigeria, Chad and Guinea-Bissau are experiencing worsening insecurity and political instability. This study, therefore, examines the effect of health expenditure on three health outcomes in the West African sub-region, while investigating the effect of the quality of governance in this nexus.

Design/methodology/approach

This study conducts an instrumental variable approach (two-stage least squares regression) on a panel of 15 West African countries over the period 2000–2018. This study uses three proxies to measure health outcomes and six measures of the quality of governance were also considered.

Findings

The result of this study shows that all forms of health expenditures significantly influenced health outcomes. That is, there is a negative relationship between health expenditure, infant mortality and under-five mortality, but a positive relationship between health expenditure and life expectancy at birth. Besides, the general effect of the same quantity of public health spending is subject to the quality of governance because countries with a higher quality of governance benefit better from their public health spending.

Originality/value

This study, to the authors' knowledge, is the first empirical attempt to examine the role of governance in the health expenditure-health outcomes nexus in 15 ECOWAS countries, using different measures of health outcomes and governance.

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 48 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2000

Douglas Amyx, John C. Mowen and Robert Hamm

An experiment was conducted to examine the relationship between patient satisfaction and patients’ freedom to choose a physician and the outcome of a health service…

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2177

Abstract

An experiment was conducted to examine the relationship between patient satisfaction and patients’ freedom to choose a physician and the outcome of a health service encounter. Each construct with corresponding measurements is discussed and their relationship with satisfaction is reviewed. Hypotheses were developed and tested for each relationship using pencil and paper scenarios of a patient’s service encounter at a health clinic. The study yielded four major findings. First, patients who experienced a good health outcome were significantly more satisfied than patients who received a bad health outcome. Second, patient satisfaction ratings differed significantly only in the bad outcome condition, suggesting an outcome bias. Third, patients who were given the freedom to select a physician but did not receive their chosen physician were least satisfied. Fourth, there was no difference in satisfaction between patients who had a choice of physician and those who did not.

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Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 14 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 31 October 2018

Julie Ridley, Karen Newbigging and Cathy Street

The purpose of this paper is to address a knowledge gap on advocacy outcomes from mental health service users’ perspective, and the implications for evaluating advocacy…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address a knowledge gap on advocacy outcomes from mental health service users’ perspective, and the implications for evaluating advocacy impact. The studies discussed highlight challenges for measuring the outcomes of advocacy, but underline the importance of doing so, and of involving service users alongside other stakeholders in co-designing evaluation systems.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses findings from three qualitative studies of independent advocacy involving focus groups and interviews with: 30 African and African Caribbean men who were mental health service users; 90 “qualifying patients” in a study of Independent Mental Health Advocate services; and nine young women in children and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS).

Findings

A comparative analysis and synthesis of findings from three studies identifies four common dimensions: how mental health advocacy is conceptualised and understood; how service users define advocacy outcomes; wider impacts; and, user involvement in evaluating advocacy outcomes. Advocacy outcomes were conceptualised as increasing involvement, changing care and treatment and supporting personal development. There was evidence of advocacy acting to empower mental health service users, and of broader impacts on service regimes and policies. However, there was limited evidence of transformational impact. Evaluating advocacy outcomes is increasingly seen as important.

Originality/value

Few researchers have focused primarily on the perspectives of people using independent mental health advocacy, or on the experience of “advocacy as empowerment”, and none have done so across diverse groups. This analysis adds insight into the impact of independent advocacy. Data from empirical studies attest to the important role independent advocacy plays in modern mental health systems.

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Mental Health Review Journal, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

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Article
Publication date: 31 July 2019

Sedef Akgungor, Kamiar Alaei, Weng-Fong Chao, Alexandra Harrington and Arash Alaei

The purpose of this paper is to explore the correlation among health outcomes, and civil and political rights (CPR) and also economic, social and cultural rights.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the correlation among health outcomes, and civil and political rights (CPR) and also economic, social and cultural rights.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses cross-sectional data from 161 countries. The authors use health outcomes and human rights variables in the model. In order to combine dimensions of human rights, this paper uses factor analysis and obtains proxy variables that measure economic, social and cultural rights and CPR. The two proxy variables are used as independent variables to explain variations in health in a regression model. The paper then classifies countries by cluster analysis and explores the patterns of different components of human rights and health outcomes across country clusters.

Findings

The regression model demonstrates that the economic, social and cultural rights variables explain variations in all health outcomes. The relationship between CPR and health is weaker than that of the economic, social and cultural rights. Cluster analysis further reveals that despite the country’s commitment to CPR, those that highly respect economic, social and cultural rights lead to superior health outcomes. The more respect a country has for economic, social and cultural rights, the better the health outcomes for the citizens of that country.

Practical implications

National policies should consider equal emphasis on all dimensions of human rights for further improvements in health.

Originality/value

The sole promotion of CPR such as democracy and empowerment, absence of adequate support of economic, social and cultural rights such as rights to housing, education, food and work can only contribute partially to health.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2008

Daryl May and James Pinder

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent to which practicing National Health Service (NHS) facilities managers thought that the contribution of facilities…

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1574

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent to which practicing National Health Service (NHS) facilities managers thought that the contribution of facilities management (FM) could be measured in terms of health outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire was distributed to NHS facilities or estate managers from the majority of NHS trusts in England and Wales.

Findings

In general, there is little or no evidence from pre‐existing research to prove the contribution of FM in terms of health outcomes. However, in spite of this, 59 per cent of facilities managers in the NHS believe that the contribution of FM could be measured yet only a relatively small number of Trusts (16 per cent) have attempted to measure the contribution of FM. The analysis of the secondary data does not show any conclusive evidence of a correlation between FM and health outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

The scope of the study did not extend to collecting empirical evidence to prove the contribution of FM to health outcomes – it was only focusing on whether facilities managers thought it was possible, and if so how they would measure the contribution. However, as part of the project some secondary data were tested for a relationship between FM services and health outcomes.

Originality/value

This is the first time any study has gathered opinion from facilities managers as to whether they believe their contribution can be measured in terms of organisational outcomes, in this case patient care or health outcomes. It provides a useful starting point in order to develop a future study to prove the contribution from FM to health outcomes.

Details

Facilities, vol. 26 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Michael James Ormshaw, Sami Petteri Kokko, Jari Villberg and Lasse Kannas

The purpose of this paper is to utilise the collective opinion of a group of Finnish experts to identify the most important learning outcomes of secondary-level…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to utilise the collective opinion of a group of Finnish experts to identify the most important learning outcomes of secondary-level school-based health education, in the specific domains of physical activity and nutrition.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a Delphi survey technique to collect the opinions of a group (panel) of Finnish experts. A list of learning outcomes was compiled via an extensive literature review of documents from all levels of health education (physical activity and nutrition) policy development and implementation. A general inductive analysis method was conducted, resulting in education themes which were then compiled into health literacy-constructed learning outcomes to present to the panel in the two Delphi rounds.

Findings

The study question is answered in the form of a ranked list of the 24 most important learning outcomes of physical activity and nutrition education in Finnish schools. The analysis of variance pair-wise comparisons with Bonferroni indicated that six items were statistically possibly more important than the 18 others. The three most important items being: first, understand the importance of a varied and balanced diet; second, the ability to analyse their own lifestyle; third, understand the link between physical activity and health. The study also identified topics/themes which could be either under-represented or over-represented in the current literature and teaching.

Originality/value

This study is the only one of its type, and researches an as yet unknown area of health education. The value of this study lies in its role in the further development of school health education, in terms of identifying the “most important” contemporary issues to teach in the classroom, and may also be used as a topic prioritisation and curriculum planning tool.

Details

Health Education, vol. 116 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1986

A.Y. Ellencweig and O. Grafstein MPH

The paper defines the concept of inequity in health care and reviews the various approaches to identify causal relationships which lead to inequitable health outcomes

Abstract

The paper defines the concept of inequity in health care and reviews the various approaches to identify causal relationships which lead to inequitable health outcomes. Notably, the input and process of health care delivery, the medical and social need factors, the external environment and the indirect influences channeled through ‘mediating’ factors. It further proposes a comprehensive model which integrates the combined effects of the several categories of components involved in determining inequitable outcomes between groups and individuals. While not exhaustive, the model provides a systematic attempt to define and trace inequities in health and potential causes of such, in operational terms. It can be used, therefore, for practical measurement of levels of inequity in outcomes.

Details

Journal of Management in Medicine, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-9235

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2021

Tahmina Sultana, Faroque Ahmed and Mohammad Tareque

Bangladesh is applauded for its achievement in various health and social outcomes though criticized for its failure in properly dealing with governance issues. The purpose…

Abstract

Purpose

Bangladesh is applauded for its achievement in various health and social outcomes though criticized for its failure in properly dealing with governance issues. The purpose of this paper is intends to see how the health outcomes (in case of life expectancy, under-five mortality and adolescent fertility) are impacted by health expenditure (both public and private), per capita income in presence of overall governance and female education. This paper assumes that rapid progress in female education reflects the Bangladeshis’ social responsiveness to change.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses autoregressive distributed lag technique to estimate the models with data ranges from 1990 to 2016 under two different scenarios.

Findings

This study has found that all the explanatory variables exert significant impact on health outcomes. Furthermore, public health expenditure is augmented with a composite governance issue, and this enhances robustness as well as statistical significance of the models. These suggest that the governance issues play a very crucial role to achieve the expected health outcomes. Female secondary enrolment ratio appears with improved coefficients in terms of sign and magnitude for all the health indicators.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the existing literature showing econometric evidence that highlights the importance of governance and female education in improving health outcomes of Bangladesh apart from health expenditure and per capita gross domestic product.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

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