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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2019

Michelle Brown, Maria L. Kraimer and Virginia K. Bratton

Using job demands–resources (JD–R) theory, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of job demands (difficult performance appraisal (PA) objectives) and job…

Abstract

Purpose

Using job demands–resources (JD–R) theory, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of job demands (difficult performance appraisal (PA) objectives) and job resources (performance feedback and leader member exchange (LMX)) on employee reports of PA cynicism. The paper also investigates the consequences of PA cynicism on intent to quit and bad sportsmanship.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data on PA demands and resources, PA cynicism and turnover intentions were obtained from employees. Supervisors rated their employees’ level of sportsmanship.

Findings

Contrary to the predictions of JD–R theory, the authors found that employees are most likely to be cynical when they experience high levels of job resources (LMX and performance feedback) and high levels of job demands (difficult objectives).

Research limitations/implications

The study demonstrates that PA cynicism matters – employees with higher levels of PA cynicism were more likely to contemplate leaving the organization; employees with high levels of PA cynicism are rated as bad sports by their supervisors.

Practical implications

Employees are sensitive to gaps between the description and reality of a PA process which can trigger thoughts of organizational exit and ineffective work behaviors. human resource managers need to ensure that employees regard the PA process as valuable, useful and worth their time and effort.

Originality/value

The authors contribute to the PA literature by investigating the role of both job resources and demands. PA research has focused on the specification of job demands, underplaying the role of job resources in employee attitudes toward PA.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 49 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

J.S. Busby

Investigates the feedback to product designers of engineering and production costs in five industrial equipment firms. Reports that, despite the ubiquity of cost as an…

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390

Abstract

Investigates the feedback to product designers of engineering and production costs in five industrial equipment firms. Reports that, despite the ubiquity of cost as an important design criterion, and the role that feedback should play in both individual and organizational learning, there were several significant problems: (1) Cost feedback was given as the difference between outcome and estimate in order to remove the effect of external factors, but this feedback then confounded the performance of estimation and design activities. (2) Distributional information in historical cost feedback was usually overlooked. The result was an excessive attention to detailed planning, consistent under‐estimation, and persistently negative feedback. (3) Designers and supervisors disagreed about the predictability of costs. Supervisors drew stronger inferences from feedback because they believed particular outcomes were more representative. (4) Engineering cost outcomes had poor reliability owing to the incentives to smooth cost discrepancies over different elements of the design; as a result it was unclear which were the problematic elements and opportunities were lost for calibrating the estimating process. This calibration also suffered from cost measurements being made at a higher level of aggregation than cost estimates. (5) The considerable delays between making design decisions and observing cost outcomes made it hard to learn cost‐effective design strategies through experience. There were instances where designers simply never found out how much it cost to engineer and produce their designs.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 17 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

W. David Rees and Christine Porter

The problems of operating employee appraisal schemes effectively are identified in this two‐part article. Appraisal of formal appraisal schemes suggests that most do not…

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3437

Abstract

The problems of operating employee appraisal schemes effectively are identified in this two‐part article. Appraisal of formal appraisal schemes suggests that most do not operate satisfactorily. Multipurpose schemes can be cumbersome and include conflicting objectives. The feedback process can also cause major problems. Such problems can be exacerbated with schemes of 360‐degree appraisals, according to their complexity and the role conflicts that they precipitate. In the second part of the article, the level of organisational investment needed for schemes to operate effectively is considered. The ways in which competencies, self‐appraisal and peer audit can be constructively used are examined. The crucial link between formal and informal appraisal processes is considered as is the importance and skills involved in an informal appraisal. Finally, the way in which the training needs of appraisees need to be realistically identified and assessed is also explained.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 35 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

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Article
Publication date: 24 September 2020

Anna Abelsson, Jari Appelgren and Christer Axelsson

The purpose was to investigate what effect an intervention of low-dose, high-frequency cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training with feedback for one month would have…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose was to investigate what effect an intervention of low-dose, high-frequency cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training with feedback for one month would have on professionals' subjective self-assessment skill of CPR.

Design/methodology/approach

This study had a quantitative approach. In total, 38 firefighters performed CPR for two minutes on a Resusci Anne QCPR. They then self-assessed their CPR through four multiple-choice questions regarding compression rate, depth, recoil and ventilation volume. After one month of low-dose, high-frequency training with visual feedback, the firefighters once more performed CPR and self-assessed their CPR.

Findings

With one month of low-dose, high-frequency training with visual feedback, the level of self-assessment was 87% (n = 33) correct self-assessment of compression rate, 95% (n = 36) correct self-assessment of compression depth, 68% (n = 26) correct self-assessment of recoil and 87% (n = 33) correct self-assessment of ventilations volume. The result shows a reduced number of firefighters who overestimate their ability to perform CPR.

Originality/value

With low-dose, high-frequency CPR training with visual feedback for a month, the firefighters develop a good ability to self-assess their CPR to be performed within the guidelines. By improving their ability to self-assess their CPR quality, firefighters can self-regulate their compression and ventilation quality.

Details

International Journal of Emergency Services, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2047-0894

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2014

M.S. Rao

– The purpose of this paper is to present tips for leaders on receiving and giving feedback.

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935

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present tips for leaders on receiving and giving feedback.

Design/methodology/approach

Various types of feedback and the difference between feedback and criticism have been described.

Findings

It has been emphasized that leaders need to view feedback as a developmental tool. Its importance in achieving leadership excellence also has been stressed.

Practical implications

This paper argues that feedback helps employees to recognize their blind spots, correct themselves and perform better. It also serves as an employee retention tool. People crave feedback, especially positive feedback. But the feedback givers must know the art of giving feedback so that they are respected for it.

Social implications

This paper advances the view that people excel through improvement and can improve through feedback.

Originality/value

This paper describes how to use feedback as a tool to develop future leaders.

Details

Human Resource Management International Digest, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-0734

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1996

Ellen J. Dumond

Value‐based management focuses the efforts of individuals and managers on the creation of value. Starts with an analysis of the literature on general management and…

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4527

Abstract

Value‐based management focuses the efforts of individuals and managers on the creation of value. Starts with an analysis of the literature on general management and materials management and then extends that analysis to the concept of the value system. Identifies particular management variables which are key to efforts in creating value, e.g. organization structure and hierarchy, centralization, information systems, external relationships, job responsibilities and formalization, performance measurement system, and education and training. Groups these into two broad areas: organization design; and human resource management practices. Collectively these variables form the framework for value‐based management. Describes the nature of these variables in both a traditional, function‐based organization and the more contemporary value‐based organization. Applies the value‐based framework to procurement, identifying those actions needed by managers in the transition of the efforts of procurement individuals towards the creation of value.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2014

Jean-Sébastien Boudrias, Jean-Luc Bernaud and Patrick Plunier

– The purpose of this paper is to empirically verify a theoretical model of candidates' feedback integration in the context of individual psychological assessment (IPA).

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1159

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically verify a theoretical model of candidates' feedback integration in the context of individual psychological assessment (IPA).

Design/methodology/approach

Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted in a two-wave longitudinal study. A total of 97 candidates completed questionnaires immediately after their feedback session as well as three months later.

Findings

Results indicate that candidates' motivational intention to act on IPA feedback is a pivotal variable linking feedback perceptions and post-feedback behaviors. Source credibility, assessment face validity, as well as perception that the feedback helped increase candidate's awareness were related to motivational intention. Conversely, feedback acceptance was not related to candidates' motivation to act on feedback and post-feedback behaviors.

Research limitations/implications

Because the authors relied on self-report questionnaires, future studies would benefit from including externally assessed behavioral outcomes. Future research efforts should continue distinguishing candidates' acceptance and awareness based on their distinctive contributions in the feedback integration process.

Practical implications

The results indicate that motivation created during the feedback session is a stronger predictor of day-to-day behavioral changes than it is of involvement in specific developmental activities.

Originality/value

This research fills a gap in IPA literature by highlighting some IPA benefits and the processes involved in increasing feedback value for the participant.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1995

Tayyab S. Shaikh

Describes an ongoing research project to monitor performanceappraisal reports (PARs) of staff working at the Indira GandhiInternational Airport, New Delhi, India. Presents…

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2050

Abstract

Describes an ongoing research project to monitor performance appraisal reports (PARs) of staff working at the Indira Gandhi International Airport, New Delhi, India. Presents major shortcomings of the PAR mechanism as observed while analysing the data. Suggests ways in which the existing appraisal mechanism could be improved in order to introduce and maintain a performance‐oriented work culture.

Details

International Journal of Career Management, vol. 7 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6214

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Case study
Publication date: 9 April 2020

Mihir Ajgaonkar, Keith D’Souza and K. P. Asha Mukundan

The learning outcomes are as follows: understanding issues involved in the employee motivation, particularly those engaged in social change and development in emerging…

Abstract

Learning outcomes

The learning outcomes are as follows: understanding issues involved in the employee motivation, particularly those engaged in social change and development in emerging economies; develop insights into how to motivate team members by drawing on relevant theories of motivation; and orient students towards the application of these theories in the organization.

Case overview/synopsis

Resource cell for juvenile justice (RCJJ) was initiated as a field action project at the centre for criminology and justice, Tata Institute of Social Sciences with the objective of working on issues of children with a special focus on juveniles in conflict with law (JCL). RCJJ aimed at highlighting the socio-legal issues of juvenile children who were in conflict of law providing aid to these children and their families, and working towards their eventual social reintegration. RCJJ also trained stakeholders in the juvenile justice system and facilitated rehabilitation and social integration of JCLs as directed by the juvenile justice boards (JJBs). RCJJ had teams at six places within India. These teams worked with various government institutions, parents and JCLs to eventually effect change in the conditions of JCLs. The social workers engaged by RCJJ had a challenging task of facilitating social integration of the children, in coordination with the police, JJBs, families and lawyers. They had to actively manage help desks at the judicial observation homes where JCLs were housed. The social workers were under great stress because of antagonism from lawyers and police. The JJBs were prejudiced against them for being “outside watchdogs”. This resulted in high demotivation and attrition among employees. Jyoti Mhatre, project manager, interviewed past and present field workers to gauge the extent and reasons for demotivation. This intervention highlighted the positive and negative aspects of the organizational culture and the stress points that were causing demotivation. The situation was alarming and Jyoti had to develop an action plan to improve the motivation of the social workers to bring down the attrition.

Complexity academic level

Courses in human resource management, organizational behaviour and general management as part of masters-level programmes in business administration and management, and executive development programmes on employee motivation for middle/senior management.

Supplementary materials

Teaching Notes are available for educators only.

Subject code

CSS 6: Human resource management.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 2 October 2019

Barbara Zesik

In this chapter, Barbara Zesik draws on her experience as an HR Director in international businesses and on her empirical research with actors in talent situations across…

Abstract

In this chapter, Barbara Zesik draws on her experience as an HR Director in international businesses and on her empirical research with actors in talent situations across multiple industry sectors to explore the tensions between the rhetoric and reality of life in talent pools. Focussing on the relatively under-researched social and political aspects of managing talent and using seldom heard voices from people in talent programmes she illustrates how talent identification and management ‘really works’ and offers suggestions for better practice.

Managerial anxiety as a key obstacle to managerial capability, effectiveness and meaningful talent management is explored and organisational failures, such as the lack of development for managers and the persistent use of lag-measures, such as performance ratings, in talent assessment are analysed. Empirical research, conducted applying a social constructivist perspective, is relevant to academics and practitioners alike by offering a less theoretical, and perhaps more realistic perspective of talent management practices in organisations for academics and a more pragmatic, approachable and relatable viewpoint for practitioners.

Details

Managing Talent: A Critical Appreciation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-094-3

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