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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1993

Carrie H.S. Ruxton, Terry R. Kirk, Neville R. Belton and Michael A.M. Holmes

Presents new data comparing the nutrient content of school meals toproposed standards and showing the contribution of school meals to theoverall diet of seven to eight‐year‐old…

Abstract

Presents new data comparing the nutrient content of school meals to proposed standards and showing the contribution of school meals to the overall diet of seven to eight‐year‐old children. School meals contributed 24 per cent of daily energy intake and 17 to 35 per cent of daily nutrient intake but compared unfavourably to the proposed standards, being too low in certain micronutrients and too high in percentage energy from fat. However, since the overall diets of the children were deemed satisfactory, it was concluded that standards were not necessary for energy and the majority of nutrients. A targeted approach, recommending suitable levels for nutrients of particular concern, was suggested as a more viable option.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 95 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 June 2007

C.H.S. Ruxton, L. Kirkwood, B. McMillan, D. St John and C.E.L. Evans

There are many herbal supplements on the market claiming to aid weight loss but few are evidence‐based. This study aims to test one such formulation.

Abstract

Purpose

There are many herbal supplements on the market claiming to aid weight loss but few are evidence‐based. This study aims to test one such formulation.

Design/methodology/approach

An over‐the‐counter herbal supplement containing yerba maté, guarana and damiana (YGD) was tested in 73 overweight health professionals for six weeks. Subjects were not asked to make any lifestyle changes.

Findings

Self‐reported weight, waist circumference and hip circumference reduced significantly, while 22 per cent of subjects experienced a clinically significant weight loss. The anthropometric changes were in line with other commercial diet and exercise programmes. Reported between‐meal hunger, and consumption of snacks reduced across the six weeks. Reported satiety after meals increased and subjects claimed to be more in control of snacking, emotional eating and portion sizes. A follow‐up at week ten, when 82 per cent of subjects had stopped taking YGD, revealed no additional reductions in weight or hip circumference. Fullness ratings had stabilised, while hunger ratings had increased. There were no consistent adverse effects that could reasonably be related to YGD.

Research limitations/implications

Taken alongside a 2001 randomised, placebo‐controlled trial, this study provides evidence that a YGD supplement can aid weight loss and reduce waist and hip circumference, probably by increasing satiety.

Originality/value

The growing market in weight management products brings with it a responsibility for manufacturers to provide evidence that their products work. This paper adds to the evidence base.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 109 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2004

C.H.S. Ruxton

A consumer survey was undertaken to test the efficacy of Zotrim, a herbal preparation commercially available as an over the counter weight loss aid. A total of 48 subjects…

527

Abstract

A consumer survey was undertaken to test the efficacy of Zotrim, a herbal preparation commercially available as an over the counter weight loss aid. A total of 48 subjects completed a 28‐day trial of Zotrim, taken in tablet form just prior to main meals. The results showed a self‐assessed average weight loss of 2.3kg (0.6kg per week). Questionnaire data suggested that subjects ate less at meals and snacked less frequently. The overall findings supported an earlier placebo controlled clinical trial, and provided additional evidence that Zotrim delays gastric emptying and enhances feelings of fullness.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 February 2011

C.H.S. Ruxton and E. Derbyshire

There is a strong interest in the quality of children's diets as this can impact on current and future health. The aim of this paper is to review current and past literature on UK…

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Abstract

Purpose

There is a strong interest in the quality of children's diets as this can impact on current and future health. The aim of this paper is to review current and past literature on UK children's diets to evaluate the adequacy of nutrient intakes in comparison with recommendations, and to identify population groups that may be at particular risk of nutritional deficiencies.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review was carried out to locate and summarise up‐to‐date published studies and reports which addressed dietary intakes of UK children, trends overtime and current dietary issues.

Findings

Although UK children's diets appear to have improved in recent years, intakes of several key nutrients remain below dietary recommendations. Iron, calcium, magnesium, potassium and zinc are especially low in some groups, whilst intakes of saturated fat and sugar exceed current targets. Thus, further improvements are needed. In the meantime, parents may consider giving children a daily multi‐vitamin to ensure that micronutrient recommendations are achieved. The lack of child‐specific targets for fibre, long‐chain omega‐3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn3PUFA), vitamin D and fruit and vegetables portions makes it difficult to properly evaluate children's diets for these important dietary components.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies should use consistent age ranges and methods of dietary assessment to enable better comparisons. Research is needed to underpin child‐specific dietary guidelines for LCn3PUFA, fibre and vitamin D.

Originality/value

This paper gives a concise, up‐to‐date overview of the current diet quality of UK children.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 July 2009

C.H.S. Ruxton and E. Derbyshire

There is strong evidence that very long chain omega‐3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC3PUFA) are beneficial. The aim of this paper is to review the role of LC3PUFA in health and…

1056

Abstract

Purpose

There is strong evidence that very long chain omega‐3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC3PUFA) are beneficial. The aim of this paper is to review the role of LC3PUFA in health and put this in context with habitual intakes and international recommendations.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review was conducted to locate and summarise relevant published studies and reports.

Findings

There is good evidence that LC3PUFA help prevent cardiovascular disease, and may ameliorate inflammatory conditions and mental health issues, as well as supporting cognitive function throughout life. UK dietary surveys show that average fish intakes are well below the recommended two portions per week. Given that the majority of consumers do not eat oily fish, it is reasonable to consider the potential contribution of dietary supplements or fortified foods, although the latter must be sufficiently high in LC3PUFA to merit consideration.

Research limitations/implications

Information on LC3PUFA intakes in the UK is lacking. Future dietary surveys should remedy this and look at the relative contribution of different food groups, including supplements, to LC3PUFA intakes.

Originality/value

This paper gives a concise, up‐to‐date overview on LC3PUFA sources, intakes, recommendations and their impact upon health.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1993

C.H.S. Ruxton, T.R. Kirk, N.R. Belton and M.A.M. Holmes

Breakfast is often considered the most important meal of the dayand its consumption has been linked with aspects of health, such asnutrient intake and cognitive powers. Aims to…

Abstract

Breakfast is often considered the most important meal of the day and its consumption has been linked with aspects of health, such as nutrient intake and cognitive powers. Aims to review some of the literature on the subject and present new data on breakfast consumption patterns from the authors′ dietary survey of Scottish schoolchildren. Frequency of breakfast consumption and type of breakfast chosen was investigated in boys and girls in low and high socio‐economic groups. Few children missed breakfast and the most popular choice was ready‐to‐eat (RTE) breakfast cereal. Children from the low socio‐economic group tended to favour bread or toast. Differences in nutrient intake between RTE cereal eaters and the rest of the group were found and it was concluded that, although the dietary intake of this former group appeared more favourable, further research was required to establish a more definite causative effect.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 93 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2005

C.H.S. Ruxton and E.J. Gardner

Over‐the‐counter (OTC) weight management products are popular with the public. Manufacturers frequently claim beneficial effects of these products, however current legislation…

1839

Abstract

Purpose

Over‐the‐counter (OTC) weight management products are popular with the public. Manufacturers frequently claim beneficial effects of these products, however current legislation does not compel them to support these claims with research. This paper identifies the key ingredients of OTC weight management products and evaluates evidence for their safety and efficacy.

Design/methodology/approach

Using Medline, published evidence on key ingredients and formulations was gathered. Contact was also made with manufacturers to ascertain whether unpublished data were available. All studies were assessed for quality. The efficacy and safety of the ingredients and formulations were then reviewed.

Findings

The results showed little evidence for most weight loss claims, with the exception of a formulation containing Yerba maté, Guarana and Damiana. In addition, studies on pyruvate, conjugated linoleic acid, and Citrus aurantium demonstrated positive effects on weight loss, suggesting that they may be useful in future formulations. Safety implications were noted for ephedrine.

Practical implications

Better labelling and supporting literature should be introduced by reputable manufacturers and retailers to help the public assess the efficacy of weight loss aids.

Research limitations/implications

Given the popularity of self‐treatment, there is a need for more manufacturers to submit their products to impartial clinical trials. OTC weight management products could be useful in addressing obesity, but most still need scientific evidence to demonstrate safety and effectiveness.

Originality/value

This review reviews the available evidence on ingredients of OTC weight management products, providing a unique guide to what works, and what doesn't.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 107 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1993

C.H.S. Ruxton and T.R. Kirk

Reports a market survey, investigating the role of nutritionistswithin the food industry, of 50 organizations by semi‐structuredtelephone interview. Results demonstrated a strong…

Abstract

Reports a market survey, investigating the role of nutritionists within the food industry, of 50 organizations by semi‐structured telephone interview. Results demonstrated a strong commitment to nutrition input in areas such as product development and marketing: 80 per cent of the organizations surveyed currently employed at least one nutritionist. Concludes that the role of the nutritionist in this relatively new area is increasing in importance.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 93 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

C.H.S. Ruxton, F. Hinton and C.E.L. Evans

Aims to carry out a consumer intervention study to evaluate the impact of an over‐the‐counter herbal weight management product (Zotrim®) on weight and waist circumference.

Abstract

Purpose

Aims to carry out a consumer intervention study to evaluate the impact of an over‐the‐counter herbal weight management product (Zotrim®) on weight and waist circumference.

Design/methodology/approach

Overweight women were recruited using local media and 61 passed initial screening to begin a four‐week intervention using a free sample of Zotrim at a dosage corresponding to manufacturers’ recommendations. A total of 56 subjects completed the study, but data on all 61 were included in the “intention to treat” analysis.

Findings

There was a self‐reported mean weight loss of 1.79kg (0.45kg per week) at week 4. Data on perceived hunger and fullness from three sets of questionnaires suggested that subjects felt less hungry between meals and fuller after meals at weeks 1 and 4 compared with base‐line. This is likely to have impacted on energy intake and may account for the weight loss. Average weight loss as a percentage of baseline was 2.3 per cent, but this masked a broad range, suggesting that some subjects benefited more than others. Taking into account adjusted guidelines for clinically significant weight loss, 23 per cent of subjects achieved this cut‐off, suggesting that their risk of chronic disease had reduced. Similarly, waist circumference (an independent measure of disease risk) decreased by an average of 4.3cm during the four‐week period. This reduced the number of subjects exceeding SIGN guidelines for central obesity from 93 per cent to 83 per cent.

Originality/value

Adds to the body of knowledge by proring that Zotrim can aid weight loss and help reduce waist circumference.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 35 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 May 2009

Carrie H.S. Ruxton

The purpose of this paper is to review evidence on the impact of black tea on health, highlighting the role of flavonoids.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review evidence on the impact of black tea on health, highlighting the role of flavonoids.

Design/methodology/approach

This review builds on previous systematic reviews by incorporating new studies on black tea and health published between 2004 and 2009.

Findings

Black tea was strongly associated with heart disease prevention by plausible mechanisms linked to flavonoid bioactivity. In vitro studies suggest that tea has anti‐cancer properties, but this needs to be confirmed by additional long‐term human studies. Emerging research indicates that tea may benefit cognitive function and weight management, although more studies are needed. Tea flavonoids are bioavailable with or without milk.

Originality/value

The benefits of tea drinking are of relevance to public health as tea is the main contributor to dietary flavonoids in Western countries. Consuming one to eight cups of black tea per day is associated with a reduced risk of chronic disease. Caffeine intakes at this level are moderate.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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