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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2005

Iat Long Alex Lai

In the twenty‐first century and under the knowledge economy, knowledge is regarded as an important asset for many organizations. In the area of Chinese medicines, be it a…

2242

Abstract

Purpose

In the twenty‐first century and under the knowledge economy, knowledge is regarded as an important asset for many organizations. In the area of Chinese medicines, be it a research center, a pharmacy, a drug manufacturer, a government supervision authority, a medical doctor or even a patient, the mastering and application of knowledge are an essential factor for success. However, there is very little research on knowledge management for Chinese medicines, which has its own special characteristics. This paper aims to study this problem and to propose a conceptual model for knowledge management of Chinese medicines.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper first analyses the requirements of knowledge management in Chinese medicines. Then, making reference to Nonaka's knowledge transformation model, the application of information technology in different stages of knowledge transformation for Chinese medicines is reviewed. Based on the above studies, a conceptual model of knowledge management for Chinese medicines is recommended.

Findings

The requirements of knowledge management in Chinese medicines are analysed and specified in basic attributes, prescriptions and formulae, rules of ingredients combination, and pharmaceuticals management. The information technologies that can be used at different stages of transformation are also reviewed. Finally, a four‐layer model, containing the network and computer system layer, data layer, knowledge services layer and application layer, is described.

Practical implications

At present, there is no knowledge management product in the market that is designed for Chinese medicines. This paper helps to initiate studies for solutions in this area.

Originality/value

The primary new idea here is to propose a conceptual knowledge management model for Chinese medicines. The model can be used as a framework to further develop a practical knowledge management system for Chinese medicines.

Details

Information Management & Computer Security, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-5227

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 2006

Katri Hämeen‐Anttila, Marja Airaksinen, Johanna Timonen, Patricia Bush and Riitta Ahonen

The aim of this study is to investigate teachers' attitudes towards medicines and to determine what they are willing to teach children about medicines. This study is part…

1404

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to investigate teachers' attitudes towards medicines and to determine what they are willing to teach children about medicines. This study is part of a larger project where medicine education materials accessible on the internet (www.uku.fi/laakekasvatus, in Finnish with English introduction) were designed, developed, and evaluated.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected from a convenience sample of primary (n=11) and junior secondary (n=3) schoolteachers who attended three focus group discussions (FGDs). Before the FGDs, the teachers had taught three medicine education sessions based on medicine education curriculum materials to their own classes.

Findings

Three different types of teachers were found: empowering (n=6), paternalistic (n=6), and material evaluating (n=2). An empowering teacher was ready to facilitate the empowerment of children as medicine users. A paternalistic teacher wanted to teach children the dangers of medicines and also the importance of a healthful lifestyle. The material evaluating type of teacher commented mainly on the usefulness of the medicine education materials without expressing any attitude towards medicines.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the small number of teachers participating in this study, it may be regarded as a pilot study that generated a hypothesis. Results need to be verified with a larger sample of teachers and with quantitative research methods before generalizations can be made.

Originality/value

This study suggests a need to educate teachers about what medicine education is and how it could be taught with an empowering approach.

Details

Health Education, vol. 106 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 August 2012

Duan Li‐zhong, Duan Gu‐na, Zhai Guang‐Qian, Zhang Ying, Xuan Chun‐Yu and Geng Hao

The purpose of this paper is to strengthen and standardize general hospital use of traditional Chinese medicine, strengthen the inner construction, highlight the…

588

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to strengthen and standardize general hospital use of traditional Chinese medicine, strengthen the inner construction, highlight the characteristics and advantages of Chinese medicine and improve Chinese medicine services' capacity and competitiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

Through data analysis and face‐to‐face interviews, the influential factors for Chinese medicine use in general hospitals are found and the extent and impact of these factors are researched. Based on survey results, grey relational analysis is used to analyze the actual factors.

Findings

Based on the results of grey relational analysis, a clear order of these factors on the degree of influence is obtained and suggestions are offered which can promote the development of traditional Chinese medicine in general hospitals.

Originality/value

The grey system theory was applied in medical management. The influential factors for Chinese medicine use in general hospitals was analyzed by using grey relational analysis, to offer the relevant departments several operational recommendations which can accelerate the development of general hospital use of traditional Chinese medicine.

Details

Grey Systems: Theory and Application, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-9377

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 July 2014

Lizhong Duan, Gu-man Duan, Qi Lu, Jun Duan, Li-yun XIE and Yuan MU

The purpose of this paper is to improve the development of the Chinese traditional medicine (included the ethnic minority's medicine in China), it can raise the level of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to improve the development of the Chinese traditional medicine (included the ethnic minority's medicine in China), it can raise the level of health for people, carry forward the culture of our nation, accelerate the economic development, promote social harmony and is very significant.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the factor which influences the development of the Chinese traditional medicine in these areas of China is analysed by the method called the grey relational analysis and grey clustering analysis.

Findings

It is known that the comparative situation of each otherof the development of the Chinese traditional medicine in these areas. The causation is analysed.

Practical implications

The behavioural mechanisms information which is effected by the traditional Chinese medicine (included ethnic minority medicine) is incomplete. Its inherent meaning is not clear. So it is reasonable to use the method called the grey relational analysis grey clustering analysis to study. Analysing the causes and giving countermeasures according to the results could propose some suggestions for the further development of Chinese medicine (including the national medicine) industry.

Originality/value

The grey system theory was applied in medical management. The application of study results, the development of the Chinese traditional medicine (included the ethnic minority's medicine in China) is improved.

Details

Grey Systems: Theory and Application, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-9377

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2007

Sara Dilks

A new model of multidisciplinary team working with health and social care is being developed in Exeter. This article describes how inclusion of a domiciliary pharmacist in…

Abstract

A new model of multidisciplinary team working with health and social care is being developed in Exeter. This article describes how inclusion of a domiciliary pharmacist in the team has improved medicines management for patients with long‐term conditions and for adult patients identified as needing support with their medicines. Initial results are discussed, case studies are described and future developments for the service are outlined.

Details

Journal of Integrated Care, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1476-9018

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2017

Martha Gabriela Martinez, Jillian Clare Kohler and Heather McAlister

Using the pharmaceutical sector as a microcosm of the health sector, we highlight the most prevalent structural and policy issues that make this sector susceptible to…

Abstract

Using the pharmaceutical sector as a microcosm of the health sector, we highlight the most prevalent structural and policy issues that make this sector susceptible to corruption and ways in which these vulnerabilities can be addressed. We conducted a literature review of publications from 2004 to 2015 that included books, peer-reviewed literature, as well as gray literature such as working papers, reports published by international organizations and donor agencies, and newspaper articles discussing this topic. We found that vulnerabilities to corruption in the pharmaceutical sector occur due to a lack of good governance, accountability, transparency, and proper oversight in each of the decision points of the pharmaceutical supply chain. What works best to limit corruption is context specific and linked to the complexity of the sector. At a global level, tackling corruption involves hard and soft international laws and the creation of international standards and guidelines for national governments and the pharmaceutical industry. At a national level, including civil society in decision-making and monitoring is also often cited as a positive mechanism against corruption. Anticorruption measures tend to be specific to the particular “site” of the pharmaceutical system and include improving institutional checks and balances like stronger and better implemented regulations and better oversight and protection for “whistle blowers,” financial incentives to refrain from engaging in corrupt behavior, and increasing the use of technology in processes to minimize human discretion. This chapter was adapted from a discussion piece published by Transparency International UK entitled Corruption in the Pharmaceutical Sector: Diagnosing the Challenges.

Details

The Handbook of Business and Corruption
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-445-7

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 July 2009

Jennie Jacobs Kronenfeld and Stephanie L. Ayers

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) as a topic of research and as an approach within the health care delivery system has become increasingly accepted. Aided by…

Abstract

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) as a topic of research and as an approach within the health care delivery system has become increasingly accepted. Aided by the holistic movement, and after a century and a half of striving for legitimacy, CAM is also increasingly becoming more accepted by mainstream medicine. This chapter reviews the social sources of disparities in use of CAM, with a greater focus on English-speaking countries, and especially the US. This chapter will briefly highlight the basic underlying principles of CAM as linked to its history and discuss types of CAM. The major focus of this chapter will be a review of the literature on social factors and use of CAM, looking at such factors as age, gender, socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity and immigration status, and health status. As part of this, we will also discuss the integration of CAM and conventional care. In conclusion, future directions for social science research in CAM will be discussed, specifically elaborating on the importance of the social sciences linking CAM with other growing interests in health and wellness.

Details

Social Sources of Disparities in Health and Health Care and Linkages to Policy, Population Concerns and Providers of Care
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-835-9

Book part
Publication date: 25 September 2017

Eduardo Urias

There is sufficient evidence to prove that the improved health status of a nation’s citizens results in economic growth and development via improved functionality and…

Abstract

There is sufficient evidence to prove that the improved health status of a nation’s citizens results in economic growth and development via improved functionality and productivity of labor. It is also commonly accepted that healthcare expenditure significantly influences health status through, for instance, improving life expectancy at birth and reducing morbidity, death, and infant mortality rates. Within healthcare, medicines account for a considerable share of health-related expenditure in both developed and developing countries. Therefore, it seems reasonable to assume that improved access to medicines is likely to contribute not only to the well-being of families and individuals but also to the economic growth and development in all societies. It has been widely advocated that pharmaceutical multinational enterprises (MNEs) can play an important role to address this problem, as they develop and supply a significant proportion of the drugs imported by low- and middle-income countries. This chapter is dedicated to a systematic review of literature in order to identify the strategies implemented by pharmaceutical MNEs to improve access to medicines in the low- and middle-income countries. A total of 76 research articles have been identified, and we have found that the main strategies of pharmaceutical MNEs are related to improving health outcomes through R&D, establishing partnerships for product development, pricing strategies to improve access to medicines, technology transfer, licensing agreements, and nonmarket efforts to improve access to medicines, among other strategies to overcome barriers imposed by intellectual property rights. We have also found that pharmaceutical MNEs’ strategies take place within a complex system and often involve interactions with a wide range of actors, such as international organizations, governments, private not-for-profit sector, universities and research institutes, and generic manufacturers. However, there is still a need for major progress in the field of access to medicines, and pharmaceutical MNEs should be more active in this field in order to avoid potential negative consequences, such as loss of legitimacy and compulsory licensing of their patented medicines.

Details

International Business & Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-163-8

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 27 August 2014

Mark Dickie and Matthew J. Salois

The chapter investigates: (1) Do married parents efficiently allocate time to children’s health care? (2) Are parents willing to sacrifice consumption for health…

Abstract

Purpose

The chapter investigates: (1) Do married parents efficiently allocate time to children’s health care? (2) Are parents willing to sacrifice consumption for health improvements at an equal rate for all family members? (3) How does family structure affect health trade-offs parents make? (4) Are parental choices consistent with maximization of a single utility function?

Methodology

A model is specified focusing on how parents allocate resources between consumption and goods that relieve acute illnesses for family members. Equivalent surplus functions measuring parental willingness to pay to relieve acute illnesses are estimated using data from a stated-preference survey.

Findings

Results provide limited support for the prediction that married parents allocate time to child health care according to comparative advantage. Valuations of avoided illness vary between family members and are inconsistent with the hypothesis that fathers’ and mothers’ choices reflect a common utility function.

Research implications

Prior research on children’s health valuation has relied on a unitary framework that is rejected here. Valuation researchers have focused on allocation of resources between parents and children while ignoring allocation of resources among children, whereas results suggest significant heterogeneity in valuation of health of different types of children and of children in different types of households.

Social implications

Results may provide a justification on efficiency grounds for policies to provide special protection for children’s health and suggest that benefit–cost analyses of policies affecting health should include separate estimates of the benefits of health improvements for children and adults.

Details

Preference Measurement in Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-029-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 10 October 2006

Nuala Kenny

The resurgence of interest in professionalism necessarily focuses us on the moral core of medicine and the character of the good doctor. While medical education reform…

Abstract

The resurgence of interest in professionalism necessarily focuses us on the moral core of medicine and the character of the good doctor. While medical education reform projects aimed at educating for professionalism are replete with lists of laudable virtues necessary for the doctor, we have made little progress in mapping those character traits, values and behaviors to admission procedures, curricular reform and faculty development. If educating for professionalism is to be effective, medicine must re-claim the moral core of professionalism and identify clearly the fundamental traits, values and virtues necessary for good medical practice in the twenty-first century.

Details

Lost Virtue
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-339-6

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