Search results

1 – 10 of over 46000
Article
Publication date: 20 December 2021

Hannah Weiss, Yaritza Hernandez, K. Han Kim and Sudhakar L. Rajulu

The suboptimal fit of a spacesuit can interfere with a crewmember's performance and is regarded as a potential risk factor for injury. To quantify suit fit, a virtual fit…

Abstract

Purpose

The suboptimal fit of a spacesuit can interfere with a crewmember's performance and is regarded as a potential risk factor for injury. To quantify suit fit, a virtual fit assessment model was previously developed to identify suit-to-body contact and interference using 3D human body scans and suit CAD models. However, ancillary suit components and garments worn inside of the suit have not been incorporated.

Design/methodology/approach

This study was conducted to predict a 3D model of the liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG) from an arbitrary person's body scan. A total of 14 subjects were scanned in a scan wear and LCVG condition. A statistical model was generated using principal component analysis and random forest regression technique.

Findings

The model was able to predict the geometry of the LCVG layer at the accuracy of 5.3 cm maximum error and 1.7 cm root mean square error. The errors were more pronounced for the arms and lower torso, while the thighs and upper torso regions, which are critical for suit fit assessments, show more accurate predictions. A case study of suit fit with and without the LCVG model demonstrated that the new model can enhance the scope and accuracy of future spacesuit assessments.

Originality/value

The capabilities resulting from these modeling techniques would greatly expand the assessments of fit of the garment on various anthropometries. The results from this study can significantly improve the design process modeling and initial suit sizing efforts to optimize crew performance during extravehicular activity training and missions.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 August 2021

Erina Baynojir Joyee, Jida Huang, Ketki Mahadeo Lichade and Yayue Pan

The purpose of this study is to develop a novel approach to designing locally programmed multi-material distribution in a three-dimensional (3D) model, with the goal of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop a novel approach to designing locally programmed multi-material distribution in a three-dimensional (3D) model, with the goal of producing a biomimetic robot that could mimic the locomotion of living organisms.

Design/methodology/approach

A voxelized representation is used to design the multi-material digital model and the material distribution in the model is optimized with the aims of mimicking the deflection dynamics of a real-life biological structure (i.e. inchworms) during its locomotion and achieving smooth deflection between adjacent regions. The design is validated post-fabrication by comparing the bending profiles of the printed robot with the deflection reference images of the real-life organism.

Findings

The proposed design framework in this study provides a foundation for multi-material multi-functional design for biomimicry and a wide range of applications in the manufacturing field and many other fields such as robotics and biomedical fields. The final optimized material design was 3D printed using a novel multi-material additive manufacturing method, magnetic field-assisted projection stereolithography. From the experimental tests, it was observed that the deflection curve and the deflection gradient of the printed robot within the adjacent regions of the body agreed well with the profiles taken from the real-life inchworm.

Originality/value

This paper presents a voxelized digital representation of the material distribution in printed parts, allowing spatially varied programming of material properties. The incorporation of reference images from living organisms into the design approach is a novel approach to transform image domain knowledge into the domain of engineering mechanical and material properties. Furthermore, the novel multi-material distribution design approach was validated through designing, 3D printing and prototyping an inchworm-inspired soft robot, which showed superior locomotion capability by mimicking the observed locomotion of the real inchworm.

Article
Publication date: 22 February 2013

Iat‐Fai Leong, Jing‐Jing Fang and Ming‐June Tsai

The purpose of this paper is to propose a method to automatically generate individualized body size measurements from cloud point of a body scanner. It aims to propose a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a method to automatically generate individualized body size measurements from cloud point of a body scanner. It aims to propose a fast, reliable, and unambiguous method to obtain human body measurements for use in the garment industry.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a previous study by the authors, geometric features on the scanned body are identified by computerized algorithms through mathematical definitions. Feature lines situated on the human body surface are created as polylines that pass through the body's features and three types of computer measurements (tape‐measurement, contour‐measurement, and linear‐measurement) are provided.

Findings

By dividing the body surface into rectangular patches using the feature lines as boundaries, the body can be reconstructed easily with a minimal amount of triangles while retaining the essential shape. The proposed measuring method applies to most manual measurements used in the garment industry. The authors evaluated the anthropometry variations of the same subject to explore the reliability of the proposed method. It was found that the precision of the method is well below the standard requirement of the traditional manual method.

Research limitations/implications

In this research, subjects were scanned in standing pose; this pose minimizes regions obstructed by body parts and permits maximal acquisition of as many key landmarks. Since the features are identified by geometric analysis without the need for marker attachment, measurements of the required sitting position are impossible to obtain in the current study.

Originality/value

Resolution of meshing can be changed according to application requirements. Contrary to the traditional manual method, efficiency and precision are the advantages of the present method.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 May 2022

Felipe Sant'Anna Nunes, Helcio R.B. Orlande and Andrzej J. Nowak

This study deals with the computational simulation and inverse analysis of the cooling treatment of the hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in neonates. A reduced-order model…

Abstract

Purpose

This study deals with the computational simulation and inverse analysis of the cooling treatment of the hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in neonates. A reduced-order model is implemented for real-time monitoring of the internal body temperatures. The purpose of this study is to sequentially estimate the transient temperatures of the brain and other body regions with reduced uncertainties.

Design/methodology/approach

Pennes’ model was applied in each body element, and Fiala’s blood pool concept was used for the solution of the forward bioheat transfer problem. A state estimation problem was solved with the Sampling Importance Resampling (SIR) algorithm of the particle filter method.

Findings

The particle filter method was stable and accurate for the estimation of the internal body temperatures, even in situations involving large modeling and measurement uncertainties.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed reduced-order model was verified with the results of a high-fidelity model available in the literature. Validation of the proposed model and of the solution of the state estimation problem shall be pursued in the future.

Practical implications

The solution of the state estimation problem with the reduced-order model presented in this paper has great potential to perform as an observer of the brain temperature of neonates, for the analysis and control of the systemic cooling treatment of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

Social implications

The main treatment for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in neonates is the cooling of affected regions. Accurate and fast models might allow the development of individualized protocols, as well as control strategies for the cooling treatment.

Originality/value

This paper presents the application of the SIR algorithm for the solution of a state problem during the systemic cooling of a neonate for the treatment of the hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 32 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Hiroyuki Ueda, Yoshimitsu Inoue, Mitsuo Matsudaira, Tsutomu Araki and George Havenith

The aim of this study is to explore the influence of the clothing ventilation in three body regions on the humidity of the local clothing microclimates under five…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to explore the influence of the clothing ventilation in three body regions on the humidity of the local clothing microclimates under five work‐shirts immediately after the onset of sweating in light exercise.

Design/methodology/approach

The clothing microclimate ventilations were measured at chest, back and upper arm using a manikin. Separate wear trials were performed to determine the sweat production and the humidity of the clothing microclimate at the same locations as where the ventilation was measured during light exercise.

Findings

Every shirt shows the greatest value of ventilation index (VI) for the chest and the smallest one for the upper arm. The values of VI differ remarkably at the chest among the five shirts. Comfort sensation became gradually worse as the time passed after starting exercise. There was no significant difference among the clothing conditions in mean values of rectal temperature, local skin temperatures, microclimate temperatures, microclimate relative humidities and local sweat rates at three regions over 10 min after the onset of sweating. A relationship was observed between the ratio of the mean moisture concentration in the clothing microclimate to the mean sweat rate at the chest and the back and the VI.

Originality/value

The results suggest that clothing ventilation should be measured in different body regions in response to sweat rates in corresponding regions.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 October 1999

189

Abstract

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 November 2018

Manoj Kumar Sain and M.L. Meena

Prolonged working in repetitive and awkward postures can result in musculoskeletal disorders among workers involved in labour-intensive jobs like those of brick kiln…

Abstract

Purpose

Prolonged working in repetitive and awkward postures can result in musculoskeletal disorders among workers involved in labour-intensive jobs like those of brick kiln workers. Unlike other labour-intensive sectors, workers in this particular sector have a lack of awareness about musculoskeletal problems. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to explore musculoskeletal issues and associated risk-factors among brick kiln workers.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire survey was conducted among 217 male and 111 female workers aged between 17 and 53 years. They were employed in traditional brick kiln units situated in Rajasthan, India. Postures were analysed by Rapid Upper Limb Assessment and Rapid Entire Body Assessment methods. Binary logistic regression was used to find the association between musculoskeletal problems and risk-factors.

Findings

For the mould evacuating task, wrist (76.2 per cent) and lower back (56 per cent) issues were the most frequently reported musculoskeletal problems, while in spading task, lower back (62.4 per cent) and shoulder (57.7 per cent) problems were prominent. Musculoskeletal symptoms in one or more body regions were associated with personal and work-related factors including the type of task and experience.

Research limitations/implications

Kiln workers are exposed to high musculoskeletal and postural risks, particularly in spading and mould filling tasks. To reduce these risks, ergonomic interventions are needed.

Originality/value

It is recognised that the musculoskeletal health of brick kiln workers is a cause for concern. The present study provides the evidence of the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms experienced by brick kiln workers and the association of symptoms with various risk-factors, which has not been addressed in previous studies.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 11 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 May 2009

H. Parhizkar and S.M.H. Karimian

The purpose of this paper is to present an engineering inviscid‐boundary layer method for the calculation of convective heating rates on three‐dimensional non‐axisymmetric…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present an engineering inviscid‐boundary layer method for the calculation of convective heating rates on three‐dimensional non‐axisymmetric geometries at angle of attack.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the axisymmetric analog, convective heating rates are calculated along the surface streamlines which are determined using the inviscid properties calculated on an unstructured grid.

Findings

Since the method is capable of using inviscid properties calculated on an unstructured grid, it is applicable to a variety of configurations and it requires much less computational effort than a Navier‐Stokes code. The results of the present method are evaluated on different wing body configurations in laminar and turbulent hypersonic equilibrium flows. In comparison to experimental data, the present results are found to be fairly accurate in the windward and leeward regions.

Practical implications

With this approach, heating rates can be predicted on general three‐dimensional configurations at hypersonic speeds in an accurate and fast scheme.

Originality/value

In order to calculate the heating rates at any specific point on the surface, a technique is developed to calculate the inviscid surface streamlines in a backward manner using the inviscid velocity components. The metric coefficients are also calculated using a new simple technique.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 19 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Audrey Gilmore, Aodheen O'Donnell, David Carson and Darryl Cummins

Inward foreign direct investment (FDI) is regarded as an important means of employment and knowledge creation in many economies. This study investigates the motivations…

6864

Abstract

Inward foreign direct investment (FDI) is regarded as an important means of employment and knowledge creation in many economies. This study investigates the motivations and satisfaction levels associated with FDI in two economies that are increasingly recognising the benefits of inward investment: Northern Ireland and Bahrain. Although different in may respects, these two regions share similar economic and political characteristics and this study compares the perceptions of the managing directors of foreign companies who have chosen to invest in either of the two regions. It reports that many expected findings were borne out by the study but also highlights pertinent findings that were not anticipated and accordingly that may be of interest to government bodies charged with the responsibility of attracting inward investment.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 May 2018

Kathryn Brownbridge, Simeon Gill, Sarah Grogan, Sarah Kilgariff and Amanda Whalley

The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to the link between underdeveloped and ill-informed sizing practices, fit dissatisfaction and the creation of textiles…

1673

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to the link between underdeveloped and ill-informed sizing practices, fit dissatisfaction and the creation of textiles waste. The literature review identifies: issues that limit the effective development and application of sizing systems, the link between the complexities of consumer fit expectations, body image and self-esteem and maps the link between fit dissatisfaction and the creation of textiles waste.

Design/methodology/approach

Data analysis draws from a wider study designed to investigate women’s experiences of dress fit and body image. In total, 20 women aged 18-45 years were audio recorded while they tried on a number of mass-produced dresses, and were asked to select one dress, which they could keep.

Findings

All the dresses were selected except one style, which failed to satisfy any of the women’s fit requirements. The findings clearly demonstrate why this dress was considered to be unsatisfactory as well as the subsequent link between poor fit and body dissatisfaction.

Social implications

Findings support the theory that women identify with their clothes’ size and when this link is disrupted it causes discomfort and body dissatisfaction, which, in turn, contributed to rejection of the garment increasing the potential for the creation of waste.

Originality/value

This study is the first to link unsatisfactory fashion sizing practice with the production of textiles waste. The process of capturing women’s interactions with high street fashion dresses whilst trying them on enabled a detailed analysis that contributes new evidence to the debate around sizing practice, poor fit and its impact on body image and self-esteem.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 46000