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Article
Publication date: 5 August 2021

Erina Baynojir Joyee, Jida Huang, Ketki Mahadeo Lichade and Yayue Pan

The purpose of this study is to develop a novel approach to designing locally programmed multi-material distribution in a three-dimensional (3D) model, with the goal of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop a novel approach to designing locally programmed multi-material distribution in a three-dimensional (3D) model, with the goal of producing a biomimetic robot that could mimic the locomotion of living organisms.

Design/methodology/approach

A voxelized representation is used to design the multi-material digital model and the material distribution in the model is optimized with the aims of mimicking the deflection dynamics of a real-life biological structure (i.e. inchworms) during its locomotion and achieving smooth deflection between adjacent regions. The design is validated post-fabrication by comparing the bending profiles of the printed robot with the deflection reference images of the real-life organism.

Findings

The proposed design framework in this study provides a foundation for multi-material multi-functional design for biomimicry and a wide range of applications in the manufacturing field and many other fields such as robotics and biomedical fields. The final optimized material design was 3D printed using a novel multi-material additive manufacturing method, magnetic field-assisted projection stereolithography. From the experimental tests, it was observed that the deflection curve and the deflection gradient of the printed robot within the adjacent regions of the body agreed well with the profiles taken from the real-life inchworm.

Originality/value

This paper presents a voxelized digital representation of the material distribution in printed parts, allowing spatially varied programming of material properties. The incorporation of reference images from living organisms into the design approach is a novel approach to transform image domain knowledge into the domain of engineering mechanical and material properties. Furthermore, the novel multi-material distribution design approach was validated through designing, 3D printing and prototyping an inchworm-inspired soft robot, which showed superior locomotion capability by mimicking the observed locomotion of the real inchworm.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2013

Iat‐Fai Leong, Jing‐Jing Fang and Ming‐June Tsai

The purpose of this paper is to propose a method to automatically generate individualized body size measurements from cloud point of a body scanner. It aims to propose a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a method to automatically generate individualized body size measurements from cloud point of a body scanner. It aims to propose a fast, reliable, and unambiguous method to obtain human body measurements for use in the garment industry.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a previous study by the authors, geometric features on the scanned body are identified by computerized algorithms through mathematical definitions. Feature lines situated on the human body surface are created as polylines that pass through the body's features and three types of computer measurements (tape‐measurement, contour‐measurement, and linear‐measurement) are provided.

Findings

By dividing the body surface into rectangular patches using the feature lines as boundaries, the body can be reconstructed easily with a minimal amount of triangles while retaining the essential shape. The proposed measuring method applies to most manual measurements used in the garment industry. The authors evaluated the anthropometry variations of the same subject to explore the reliability of the proposed method. It was found that the precision of the method is well below the standard requirement of the traditional manual method.

Research limitations/implications

In this research, subjects were scanned in standing pose; this pose minimizes regions obstructed by body parts and permits maximal acquisition of as many key landmarks. Since the features are identified by geometric analysis without the need for marker attachment, measurements of the required sitting position are impossible to obtain in the current study.

Originality/value

Resolution of meshing can be changed according to application requirements. Contrary to the traditional manual method, efficiency and precision are the advantages of the present method.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Hiroyuki Ueda, Yoshimitsu Inoue, Mitsuo Matsudaira, Tsutomu Araki and George Havenith

The aim of this study is to explore the influence of the clothing ventilation in three body regions on the humidity of the local clothing microclimates under five…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to explore the influence of the clothing ventilation in three body regions on the humidity of the local clothing microclimates under five work‐shirts immediately after the onset of sweating in light exercise.

Design/methodology/approach

The clothing microclimate ventilations were measured at chest, back and upper arm using a manikin. Separate wear trials were performed to determine the sweat production and the humidity of the clothing microclimate at the same locations as where the ventilation was measured during light exercise.

Findings

Every shirt shows the greatest value of ventilation index (VI) for the chest and the smallest one for the upper arm. The values of VI differ remarkably at the chest among the five shirts. Comfort sensation became gradually worse as the time passed after starting exercise. There was no significant difference among the clothing conditions in mean values of rectal temperature, local skin temperatures, microclimate temperatures, microclimate relative humidities and local sweat rates at three regions over 10 min after the onset of sweating. A relationship was observed between the ratio of the mean moisture concentration in the clothing microclimate to the mean sweat rate at the chest and the back and the VI.

Originality/value

The results suggest that clothing ventilation should be measured in different body regions in response to sweat rates in corresponding regions.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 October 1999

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179

Abstract

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2018

Manoj Kumar Sain and M.L. Meena

Prolonged working in repetitive and awkward postures can result in musculoskeletal disorders among workers involved in labour-intensive jobs like those of brick kiln…

Abstract

Purpose

Prolonged working in repetitive and awkward postures can result in musculoskeletal disorders among workers involved in labour-intensive jobs like those of brick kiln workers. Unlike other labour-intensive sectors, workers in this particular sector have a lack of awareness about musculoskeletal problems. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to explore musculoskeletal issues and associated risk-factors among brick kiln workers.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire survey was conducted among 217 male and 111 female workers aged between 17 and 53 years. They were employed in traditional brick kiln units situated in Rajasthan, India. Postures were analysed by Rapid Upper Limb Assessment and Rapid Entire Body Assessment methods. Binary logistic regression was used to find the association between musculoskeletal problems and risk-factors.

Findings

For the mould evacuating task, wrist (76.2 per cent) and lower back (56 per cent) issues were the most frequently reported musculoskeletal problems, while in spading task, lower back (62.4 per cent) and shoulder (57.7 per cent) problems were prominent. Musculoskeletal symptoms in one or more body regions were associated with personal and work-related factors including the type of task and experience.

Research limitations/implications

Kiln workers are exposed to high musculoskeletal and postural risks, particularly in spading and mould filling tasks. To reduce these risks, ergonomic interventions are needed.

Originality/value

It is recognised that the musculoskeletal health of brick kiln workers is a cause for concern. The present study provides the evidence of the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms experienced by brick kiln workers and the association of symptoms with various risk-factors, which has not been addressed in previous studies.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 11 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2009

H. Parhizkar and S.M.H. Karimian

The purpose of this paper is to present an engineering inviscid‐boundary layer method for the calculation of convective heating rates on three‐dimensional non‐axisymmetric…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present an engineering inviscid‐boundary layer method for the calculation of convective heating rates on three‐dimensional non‐axisymmetric geometries at angle of attack.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the axisymmetric analog, convective heating rates are calculated along the surface streamlines which are determined using the inviscid properties calculated on an unstructured grid.

Findings

Since the method is capable of using inviscid properties calculated on an unstructured grid, it is applicable to a variety of configurations and it requires much less computational effort than a Navier‐Stokes code. The results of the present method are evaluated on different wing body configurations in laminar and turbulent hypersonic equilibrium flows. In comparison to experimental data, the present results are found to be fairly accurate in the windward and leeward regions.

Practical implications

With this approach, heating rates can be predicted on general three‐dimensional configurations at hypersonic speeds in an accurate and fast scheme.

Originality/value

In order to calculate the heating rates at any specific point on the surface, a technique is developed to calculate the inviscid surface streamlines in a backward manner using the inviscid velocity components. The metric coefficients are also calculated using a new simple technique.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 19 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Audrey Gilmore, Aodheen O'Donnell, David Carson and Darryl Cummins

Inward foreign direct investment (FDI) is regarded as an important means of employment and knowledge creation in many economies. This study investigates the motivations…

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6691

Abstract

Inward foreign direct investment (FDI) is regarded as an important means of employment and knowledge creation in many economies. This study investigates the motivations and satisfaction levels associated with FDI in two economies that are increasingly recognising the benefits of inward investment: Northern Ireland and Bahrain. Although different in may respects, these two regions share similar economic and political characteristics and this study compares the perceptions of the managing directors of foreign companies who have chosen to invest in either of the two regions. It reports that many expected findings were borne out by the study but also highlights pertinent findings that were not anticipated and accordingly that may be of interest to government bodies charged with the responsibility of attracting inward investment.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 30 May 2018

Kathryn Brownbridge, Simeon Gill, Sarah Grogan, Sarah Kilgariff and Amanda Whalley

The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to the link between underdeveloped and ill-informed sizing practices, fit dissatisfaction and the creation of textiles…

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1382

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to the link between underdeveloped and ill-informed sizing practices, fit dissatisfaction and the creation of textiles waste. The literature review identifies: issues that limit the effective development and application of sizing systems, the link between the complexities of consumer fit expectations, body image and self-esteem and maps the link between fit dissatisfaction and the creation of textiles waste.

Design/methodology/approach

Data analysis draws from a wider study designed to investigate women’s experiences of dress fit and body image. In total, 20 women aged 18-45 years were audio recorded while they tried on a number of mass-produced dresses, and were asked to select one dress, which they could keep.

Findings

All the dresses were selected except one style, which failed to satisfy any of the women’s fit requirements. The findings clearly demonstrate why this dress was considered to be unsatisfactory as well as the subsequent link between poor fit and body dissatisfaction.

Social implications

Findings support the theory that women identify with their clothes’ size and when this link is disrupted it causes discomfort and body dissatisfaction, which, in turn, contributed to rejection of the garment increasing the potential for the creation of waste.

Originality/value

This study is the first to link unsatisfactory fashion sizing practice with the production of textiles waste. The process of capturing women’s interactions with high street fashion dresses whilst trying them on enabled a detailed analysis that contributes new evidence to the debate around sizing practice, poor fit and its impact on body image and self-esteem.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2002

G. Ghinea, D. Gill, A. Frank and L.H. de Souza

In the medical world, statistical visualisation has largely been confined to the realm of relatively simple geographical applications. This remains the case, even though…

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2334

Abstract

In the medical world, statistical visualisation has largely been confined to the realm of relatively simple geographical applications. This remains the case, even though hospitals have been collecting spatial data relating to patients. In particular, hospitals have a wealth of back pain information, which includes pain drawings, usually detailing the spatial distribution and type of pain suffered by back‐pain patients. Proposes several technological solutions, which permit data within back‐pain datasets to be digitally linked to the pain drawings in order to provide methods of computer‐based data management and analysis. In particular, proposes the use of geographical information systems (GIS), up till now a tool used mainly in the geographic and cartographic domains, to provide novel and powerful ways of visualising and managing back‐pain data. A comparative evaluation of the proposed solutions shows that, although adding complexity and cost, the GIS‐based solution is the one most appropriate for visualisation and analysis of back‐pain datasets.

Details

Journal of Management in Medicine, vol. 16 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-9235

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Article
Publication date: 17 October 2018

Meral Isler, Mehmet Küçük and Mücella Guner

The purpose of this paper is to comparatively examine the personnel working in the clothing sector by examining them in three different methods in order to determine the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to comparatively examine the personnel working in the clothing sector by examining them in three different methods in order to determine the working postures, identification of the stress factors of musculoskeletal system and the exposures depending on the working postures. Methods used in the study, REBA (Hignett and McAtamney, 2000), Ovako Working Posture Analyzing System (OWAS) (Karhu et al., 1977) and PLIBEL (Kemmlert, 1995) are the scientific observation-based methods. Within the scope of this study, the working stations and the working postures of the operators who work in the clothing sector were examined and their movements that could cause harm to the body were examined and in conclusion some suggestions were suggested to prevent these movements.

Design/methodology/approach

Due to the standard unit of times in clothing sector are short and the work done is very repetitive, 30 min recording was thought as enough for each operator examined. These recorded videos were then divided into 30 s photographs to obtain the poses of the operators’ working postures. In the scope of the research, first, the PLIBEL observation form was filled as the PLIBEL method is more general one. According to the working postures, the body regions which are damaged or can be damaged were identified and the PLIBEL form was filled in the consideration of the risk factors in the form (Malchaire 2011). In addition, the photographs were also analyzed with REBA and OWAS methods for having more quantitative and detailed results.

Findings

The working postures of the operators who work in the cutting, sewing, ironing, quality control and packaging departments of six clothing companies were examined in the scope of this research with PLIBEL, REBA and OWAS methods in terms of ergonomy. The results belonging to each department were given separately. REBA and OWAS methods have been applied in order to investigate the working postures in more detail due to the lack of providing numerical data of the PLIBEL method. The reliability of the study has been approved with obtaining the similar results from the REBA and OWAS methods. According to Table VIII, both of the methods show that all the departments in question need ergonomic arrangements. It was analyzed that the cutting department is in the first place which needs ergonomic arrangement immediately (REBA %90.58, OWAS %87.69).

Practical implications

This study is composed of 65 operators who have experience between 5 and 22 years and in the age range of 22–43 working in the cutting, sewing, ironing, quality control and packaging departments in eight different clothing companies. These 65 operators were recorded by video camera during their work. The recording time were selected randomly. The movements of operators during their own work have been taken into consideration.

Originality/value

This paper indicates the usability of the PLIBEL, OWAS and REBA methods in clothing sector. Using these methods in clothing sectors states the value and the originality of this paper.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 30 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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