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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Arvind Soni, G Kandeepan, S. K. Mendiratta, Vivek Shukla and Ashish Kumar

The purpose of this paper was to develop an antimicrobial edible film coated with essential oils for packaging application with characterization of its physicochemical…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to develop an antimicrobial edible film coated with essential oils for packaging application with characterization of its physicochemical properties. Livestock products especially meat products need special packaging system for protection. The most well-known packaging materials are polyethylene or co-polymer-based materials which have led to serious ecological problems due to their non-biodegradability and non-renewable nature. There has been a growing interest for edible films in recent years trying to reduce the amount of wastes, capable of protecting the food once the primary packaging is open, and because of public concerns about environmental protection. Various kinds of antimicrobial substances can also be incorporated into edible films to improve their functionality, as these substances could limit or prevent microbial growth on food surface.

Design/methodology/approach

Biopolymers such as carrageenan and carboxymethylcellulose and their various combinations were tried to develop an edible film. The levels of antimicrobial substances such as oregano and thyme essential oils were standardized on the basis of their minimal inhibitory concentration against Escherichia coli, Salmonella pullorum, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. Standardized edible film coated with standardized concentration of essential oil was examined for different physicochemical properties and compared with edible film without essential oil.

Findings

In total, 1.5 per cent (w/v) solution of carrageenan was found best suited biopolymer for edible film formation on the basis of thickness, transparency and elongation ability. Combined concentration of oregano (0.02 per cent) and thyme (0.03 per cent) essential oils were found to be best suited for coating the edible film as antimicrobial application.

Research limitations/implications

Future research may benefit from the present attempt in evaluating the potency of easily available agricultural by produces for preparation of economically viable edible film incorporated with various natural biopreservatives in combination for the enhancement of shelf life.

Originality/value

Antimicrobial packaging for enhancing the quality and shelf life of stored meat products offers great scope for further research in this field. Moreover, the literature pertaining to the application of edible films containing biopreservative for chicken meat products is very limited.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 46 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 27 August 2021

Camila Ianhes Martins de Araujo, Leticia Bicudo Bonato, Carolina Bragine Mangucci, Geoffroy Roger Pointer Malpass, Mônica Hitomi Okura and Ana Claudia Granato

The purpose of this study was to prepare alginate and chitosan-based edible coatings incorporating Schinus terebinthifolia and Piper nigrum essential oils. The prepared…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to prepare alginate and chitosan-based edible coatings incorporating Schinus terebinthifolia and Piper nigrum essential oils. The prepared films were applied on minimally processed pineapple to study the microbial inhibition of Gram + and Gram – bacteria and fungi and to evaluate the shelf life of the minimally processed fruit.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study alginate and chitosan-based edible coating were prepared and applied on minimally processed pineapple. The edible coatings were evaluated microscopically, by the power of reducing microbial contamination, by the shelf-life improvement.

Findings

This study demonstrates that the incorporation of the essential oils P. nigrum and S. terebinthifolia contributed to the inhibition of all the microorganisms studied and improved the shelf life of minimally processed pineapple. This is especially true for P. nigrum in the chitosan-based edible coating, where the shelf life was improved by 45 days.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the pandemic, it was not possible to perform the sensory analyses of the antimicrobial alginate and chitosan-based edible coatings prepared.

Practical implications

From the results obtained, it is possible to state that the antimicrobial alginate and chitosan-based edible coatings incorporating S. terebinthifolia and P. nigrum essential oils can be used on minimally processed fruits and prolong their shelf life.

Social implications

Due to the lifestyle of modern consumers, who demand speed and practicality and the need to consume fruits for health and quality of life, minimally processed fruits covered with edible coatings incorporating natural antimicrobial additives can provide a practical solution.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time that alginate and chitosan-based edible coatings that incorporate P. nigrum and S. terebinthifolia applied on minimally processed fruit, have been studied.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2013

Mehdi Mohammadi, Parvaneh Hajeb, Ramin Seyyedian, Gholam Hossein Mohebbi and Alireza Barmak

The purpose of this paper is to determine the peroxide value (PV), p‐anisidine and total oxidation value (TOTOX) values of imported edible oils in Iran.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the peroxide value (PV), p‐anisidine and total oxidation value (TOTOX) values of imported edible oils in Iran.

Design/methodology/approach

A total 196 oil samples of different origin and types (corn, olive, canola and grape‐seed oil) were collected randomly from Boushehr port of Iran and a total 27 oil samples were also collected from frying pans used to deep‐fry local food items at different restaurants in Boushehr city.

Findings

The PVs ranged from 1.38‐13.74, 3.90‐20.00, 0.83‐2.99, 0.67‐11.95 and 0.00‐9.96 mequiv/kg found in refined olive oil, virgin olive oil, canola oil, grape‐seed oil and corn oil, respectively. The results showed that PVs of 18.37 percent of imported oil and 62.96 percent of frying oils from restaurant exceeded the maximum acceptable limits set by Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (ISIRI) (2‐20 mequiv/kg for different types of oils). P‐anisidine value ranged from 0.89‐27.56 mequiv/kg in imported oils and 2.21‐30.76 mequiv/kg found in frying oil from restaurants. The TOTOX value increased linearly with peroxide values and p‐anisidine values. It ranged from 0.89‐76.62.

Originality/value

Fried foods are very common in Iranians' diet. A major portion of the edible oils in Iran are imported from other countries through Boushehr port. ISIRI has set maximum acceptable limit for PVs in different oils imported to the country. The possible effects of storage on oil oxidation are the original criteria of this research. The results of the study indicate that inappropriate storage of edible oils and their use in frying applications at restaurants facilitate oil oxidation and deterioration.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 115 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Ebrahim Ahmadi, Mohammad Mosaferi, Leila Nikniaz, Jafar Sadegh Tabrizi, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi, Gholamhoseyn Safari and Mina Bargar

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the quality of the frying oil used in restaurants, fast food establishments, and confectionary stores. The compliance of used…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the quality of the frying oil used in restaurants, fast food establishments, and confectionary stores. The compliance of used frying oils with the quality standards as determined by the peroxide value (PV) and the total polar materials (TPMs) is investigated by analyzing 375 samples of oil.

Design/methodology/approach

The PV was measured according to the national standard procedure number 4179, while the TPM was determined using a Testo 270 cooking oil tester. Frying oils with a PV>5 mEq/kg and a TPM>25 percent were considered to be non-edible. For a comparison of groups, the Mann-Whitney and Spearman correlation tests were used, and p<0.05 was considered significant.

Findings

The maximum TPM and PV recorded for frying oils in fast food restaurants were 97.5 percent and 77.9 mEq/kg, respectively. The results also revealed that 60 percent of samples were non-edible according to the TPM, while 58.9 percent of the oil samples were non-edible because of the PV. TPM and PV correlated well with each other (r=0.99, p<0.001) and with oil replacement intervals (r=0.90, p<0.001). The relationship between the TPM and PV was stronger in the polynomial model than the linear model. The following equation was obtained: peroxide (mEq/kg oil)=0.0043 TPM2 (%)+0.1587 TPM (%)–0.6152.

Originality/value

Considering the current limitations in official supervision by health authority, on-site self-monitoring of the TPM using the Testo 270 cooking oil tester by sellers as a solution seems a new approach. Food stores, restaurants, and confectionary stores should be equipped with TPM analyzers to determine the quality of the frying oil and the timely replacement of non-edible oils.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Case study
Publication date: 3 January 2017

Abhinandan Jain and Vivek Singh

In March 2010, Mr. Chandra Shekhara Reddy, Vice President, Sales and Marketing, was reviewing the launch plan for the first brand of cooking oil, Freedom Refined Sunflower…

Abstract

In March 2010, Mr. Chandra Shekhara Reddy, Vice President, Sales and Marketing, was reviewing the launch plan for the first brand of cooking oil, Freedom Refined Sunflower Oil, of GEF. GEF was set up by a professional turned entrepreneur, in Andhra Pradesh in 2009. The case provides a brief profile of the entrepreneur and the overall business strategy including brand architecture. It describes the launch plan, particularly the key decisions of brand name, packaging, sales promotion and distribution. Data on household use and competing brands of oils in Andhra Pradesh, South India and entire India is also included.

Details

Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, vol. no.
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2633-3260
Published by: Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2006

Priyanka Rastogi, Beena Mathur, Shweta Rastogi, V.P. Gupta and Rajeev Gupta

Cooking can adversely affect chemical characteristics of edible oils. The purpose of this paper is to determine biochemical changes due to cooking in commonly used Indian…

Abstract

Purpose

Cooking can adversely affect chemical characteristics of edible oils. The purpose of this paper is to determine biochemical changes due to cooking in commonly used Indian fats and oils through an experimental study.

Design/methodology/approach

Changes in chemical properties of various edible oils [Indian ghee (clarified butter), hydrogenated oil, coconut oil, mustard‐rapeseed oil, groundnut oil, soyabean oil, cottonseed oil and sunflower oil] were studied. Oils were subjected to various cooking methods (shallow frying, sautéing, single deep frying and multiple deep fryings) using an inert substance. Peroxide content was estimated as index of fatty‐acid oxidation, free fatty acids, iodine value for determination of fatty‐acid unsaturation and trans‐fatty acids at baseline and after cooking using colorimetric and gas‐liquid chromatography methods. Three samples were analyzed for each process (n = 144). Significance of change was determined using t‐test.

Findings

There was a significant increase in peroxide content (mEq/L) of Indian ghee from 1.83±0.03 at baseline to 4.5–6.6 by different cooking methods, hydrogenated oil (0.45±0.07 to 1.7–8.5), coconut oil (1.01±0.01 to 3.2–9.2), mustard‐rapeseed oil (0.90±0.01 to 2.1–5.3), groundnut oil (0.96±0.01 to 1.9–3.7), soyabean oil (0.86±0.02 to 1.9–3.4), cottonseed oil (0.71±0.01 to 2.9–6.4) and sunflower oil (1.09±0.01 to 2.3–10.2) (p<0.05). Free fatty acid content (g/100 g) was in undetectable amounts in all the fats at baseline and increased in Indian ghee (0.16–0.22), hydrogenated oil (0.09–0.23), coconut oil (0.09–1.39), mustard‐rapeseed oil (0.07–0.19), groundnut oil (0.09–0.18), soyabean oil (0.06–0.12), cottonseed oil (0.09–0.22) and sunflower oil (0.08–0.13). Trans‐fatty acids increased from 0.1% at baseline to 14.5% after sautéing and shallow frying and 15.8–16.8% after deep frying in hydrogenated oils (p<0.01). The iodine value decreased, indicating a decrease in unsaturated fats, insignificantly. The largest amount of oxidation was observed by shallow frying and free‐fatty‐acid formation by multiple deep frying. Hydrogenated, coconut and sunflower oils were the most susceptible to oxidation and soyabean oil the most resistant. Single deep frying caused the least changes in chemical composition of various fats and oils. Indian cooking practices significantly increase the peroxides, free fatty acids and trans‐fatty acids in edible oils and fats. Single deep frying appears to be the least harmful method and soyabean oil the least susceptible to degradation.

Originality/value

The paper offers an experimental study to determine biochemical changes due to cooking in commonly used Indian fats and oils.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 30 March 2010

Adeleke Isaac Bamgboye and Oyebola I. Adejumo

The purpose of this paper is to determine the physicochemical properties of oil produced from Roselle seeds.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the physicochemical properties of oil produced from Roselle seeds.

Design/methodology/approach

The oil was produced from the seeds by mechanical expression and the physicochemical properties of the oil determined using the AOAC methods.

Findings

The values of the physicochemical properties of oil from Roselle seed are saponification value 126.2, iodine value 111.2, viscosity 22.5 cp, refractive index 1.4472 and specific gravity 0.9558. The peroxide value varied between 6.0‐9.3 and 5.9‐9.0; and free fatty acid, 0.435‐2.300 and 0.510‐3.311 for fine and coarse samples, respectively. These values compared favourably with standard values, indicating that the oil extracted is edible.

Originality/value

The properties are useful in determining the suitability of the oil from the Roselle seeds as edible oil or for other industrial purposes.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 40 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1934

14. Peppermint extract is the flavouring extract prepared from oil of peppermint, or from peppermint, or both, and contains not less than 3 per cent. by volume by oil of…

Abstract

14. Peppermint extract is the flavouring extract prepared from oil of peppermint, or from peppermint, or both, and contains not less than 3 per cent. by volume by oil of peppermint.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1930

Our attention has been called to a question raised in a contemporary as to the disposal of the flesh of bovines which have been compulsorily slaughtered as the result of…

Abstract

Our attention has been called to a question raised in a contemporary as to the disposal of the flesh of bovines which have been compulsorily slaughtered as the result of having obviously contracted tuberculosis. We say “compulsory” as the slaughter is carried out by order of the Ministry of Agriculture and “obvious” as tuberculous infection is in many cases not readily detectable. It should be pointed out that the flesh of an infected bovine may be used for food according to the degree and nature of the infection, but the use of the flesh for such a purpose is only permissible at the discretion of the official veterinary expert acting on behalf of the Ministry in the interests of public health. Admittedly the regulations as at present laid down and under which the Ministry of Agriculture act are by no means ideal, and we have no doubt that the officials of the Ministry would be the last persons to say that they were. Like all such regulations, they are of the nature of a compromise, by which statement we do not mean that the monetary interests of the trades in milk and beef are placed before those of public health. Far from it. The ideal condition aimed at is of course to have all milk and all beef free from the slightest taint and risk of tubercular infection. It is, however, no use to disguise the fact that the attainment of such an ideal is and of necessity must be a long way from accomplishment. It is only within this century that bovine tuberculosis has received serious attention in this country, and bovine tuberculosis is an evil legacy from a long past. It is no doubt in part at least attributable to long continued bad housing and feeding that went on unchecked from year to year. It is well known that in the neighbourhood of large towns where open pasture was not readily attainable cows were sometimes kept in what were little better than cellars, from which they seldom emerged. A cow was looked upon as a sort of machine for yielding milk, and no regard was paid to the way in which the machine was run so long as it delivered the goods, no matter of what quality the goods might be. The conditions for the development of tuberculosis were thus almost as good as if they had been deliberately devised for that very purpose, with results that we have now every reason to deplore. It is only twenty years since Prof. MacFadyean stated that 20 per cent. of the adult cattle in the country were tuberculous, and on the authority of the veterinary surgeon to the King at the same time 36 out of a herd of 40 cows that had belonged to Queen Victoria were tuberculous. If these were the conditions but twenty years ago throughout the country, and if nine out of every ten animals which were kept under the best conditions and received every care were tuberculous, the difficulty and extraordinary complexity of the problem confronting the Ministries concerned at the present day in their attempts to check the evil may be perhaps imagined. Checked it may be but eradication is not in sight. For if the drastic expedient were resorted to of slaughtering every tuberculous bovine in the country the result would be a milk famine. Prices would rise so that for the poor milk would be unobtainable. Many in the trade would be ruined, and perhaps the supply of milk would have to be obtained by importations of milk from abroad produced under conditions over which we could exercise no control. This hypothetical aspect of affairs, however, need not be further discussed.—The administration of the Tuberculosis Order, 1925 (Diseases of Animals Acts, 1894 to 1925), by the Ministry of Agriculture is therefore one of great difficulty. The “waste of years” cannot be “refunded in a day.” The matter calls for constant expert veterinary supervision.—Under Section 3 (1) of the Order the disease is notifiable to the Local Authority. Veterinary inspection follows, and if the animal is found to be suffering from tuberculosis of the udder, tuberculous emaciation, or a chronic cough or yielding tuberculous milk the Local Authority shall order the animal to be slaughtered, though if the owner objects to this the special authority of the Minister has to be obtained. It does not follow that the flesh of a tuberculous animal is unfit to be used as human food. Under 5A.1 of the Order if it is intended to use the flesh for this purpose the Local Authority must notify the Sanitary Authority of the time and place of slaughter. After this neither the carcase nor any part of it may be removed from the slaughter house unless by leave of the Medical Officer of Health or by other competent officer of the Authority.—Removal before such leave is an offence under the Act.—It may be observed here that no animal whose value is stated to be over fifty pounds may be slaughtered under the Order except by Ministerial sanction.—Compensation is payable to the owner of an animal, which has been slaughtered under the Order, by the Local Authority. All this is clear and fair, but as illustrating one of the difficulties of administering the Order, it may be pointed out that these perfectly fair and reasonable regulations made in the interests of public health were found to be indirectly in conflict with public ignorance and prejudice. In this way. In certain industrial districts in the country lean meat was demanded by some of the working class families. The reason being that more nourishment could be got out of lean than out of fat. There is something to be said for this. But where did the lean meat come from? An emaciated beast without a bit of fat on it might well be suffering from tuberculosis. It would pay an unscrupulous owner of such a beast very much better to sell it direct to a dealer in such meat—no information being given and no questions being asked—rather than go to the trouble of observing the Act and receiving a possibly smaller amount of money which would have been paid him under the Order. Thus quite a flourishing trade in such diseased meat was in fair way to grow up, and until the evil was traced to its source and the original owner prosecuted for non‐notification it could not be stopped. Again, the owner of an animal that has been slaughtered under the Order is entitled to recover its full market value and twenty shillings over if it is found that no tubercle exists; if tuberculosis, but not of an advanced state is found, then three‐fourths of the market value or forty‐five shillings, whichever sum is the greater less one‐half the costs of valuation; if advanced tuberculosis is present then one‐fourth the market value or the sum of forty‐five shillings as before under Section 9 i., ii., and iii. of the Order. The result of this was that certain people established a somewhat paying business in buying obviously tuberculous cows from a cowkeeper for a mere song, the cowkeeper being quite willing to get rid of them in this way and thus save himself trouble and the small amount of publicity he would have incurred had he observed the terms of the Order. The buyer would then notify the authority that he had a tuberculous cow and obtain compensation which yielded him a profit. The report for 1928 shows that nearly 17,000 animals were slaughtered under the Order during the year, and nearly 200 were in such a condition that they died before they could be slaughtered! It may also be observed that the powers conferred by Act of Parliament on the responsible Ministries were not readily obtained. Trade interests were alleged, and effective legislation had to be built up in the face of this. Tuberculosis is unhappily somewhat firmly established in our herds of cattle and it will still require long and patient work, expert knowledge and, as it will have been seen, the methods of police detectives before the menace is removed, if it ever can be.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 32 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Jiraporn Sirison, Awika Rirermwong, Nattawadee Tanwisuit and Taviyaporn Meaksan

The purpose of this paper is to develop a new salad cream formulation from a mixture of tofu and coconut oil for replacement of egg yolk and soy oil, respectively.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a new salad cream formulation from a mixture of tofu and coconut oil for replacement of egg yolk and soy oil, respectively.

Design/methodology/approach

A salad cream formulation mainly composing of edible oil, egg and vinegar was formulated. Ratios of egg yolk and soy oil were replaced by tofu and coconut oil, respectively. The formulated salad creams were determined for pH, color, viscosity, protein and fat. Sensory acceptances of formulated products was evaluated by using a seven-point hedonic scale test and untrained panelists (n=30). The formulated salad creams were stored in a refrigerator for 14 days and determined for pH, color and viscosity.

Findings

The results showed that the formulated salad creams using the mixture of 50 percent tofu and 50 percent egg yolk (RE) by weight of egg yolk ratio in control presented 4.25+0.01 of pH which was comparable to control. The highest scores in the sensory test were obtained in the formula using 37 percent coconut oil by weight of salad cream. The formulated salad creams using tofu and coconut oil (REC) presented 4.42+0.03 of pH, 4.25+0.05 cm. of viscosity, and 87.36+0.44 (L), −1.13+0.04 (a), 16.32+0.22 (b) of color values. Protein and fat contents were 4.79 and 27.59 percent (w/w) in the REC, respectively. After storage under refrigerated, pH, color and viscosity of the modified product were less changed.

Originality/value

Replacement of egg yolk and soy oil with tofu and coconut oil in salad creams was feasible. The REC was less changed in its quality both fresh and after storage. It was accepted in sensory evaluation. The REC could prepare at home and being a food choice for consumers.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 119 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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