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Article
Publication date: 5 January 2015

Michael Ayodele Idowu, Kazeem Iroko, Abiodun Aderoju Adeola, Isaac Babatunde Oluwalana, Jerome Ayokunle Ayo and Damilola Shayo Ikuomola

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate some common bread improvers (normally used for 100 per cent wheat bread) for their effect on the quality attributes of…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate some common bread improvers (normally used for 100 per cent wheat bread) for their effect on the quality attributes of wheat-cassava (90:10) composite bread.

Design/methodology/approach

Four commonly used bread improvers (ASA, ABT, EDC and PTB) in Nigeria were evaluated for their effect on the baking potential of wheat-cassava (90:10) composite flour. Bread samples were baked from wheat-cassava (90:10) composite flour, with and without bread improvers. Changes in dough height during fermentation, oven spring, yield and specific volume of bread samples were determined. Bread samples were also evaluated for their sensory and staling characteristics.

Findings

Results showed that dough height during fermentation did not change significantly (p<0.05) and crumb colour, firmness, taste and aroma were unaffected by addition of bread improvers; but oven spring, yield, specific volume, bread shape, crust colour, texture and overall acceptability of bread were significantly different (p>0.05). All the bread improvers except ABT extended the shelf life of wheat-cassava (90:10) composite bread for a period of 24-48 hours.

Practical implications

Bread improvers normally used for 100 per cent wheat bread could be used effectively for wheat-cassava (90:10) composite bread without an adverse effect on quality of bread.

Originality/value

Bread makers need little or no additional training to handle wheat-cassava (90:10) composite flour for bread making process hence, Nigeria can sustain her policy of using wheat-cassava composite flour for baking without any serious technical problem.

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2007

Hamed Shadpour, Jae‐Kuk Kim and Jifeng Chen

The purpose of this paper is to study and minimize loss of vitamin B9 in bread during warming protocol.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study and minimize loss of vitamin B9 in bread during warming protocol.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, warming intensity, warming time, warming device, and bread storage method were selected as the most effective factors on B9 loss in bread. The variation of B9 in bread and its loss were studied with orthogonal array design (OAD) using the L9 optimization matrix.

Findings

With a calculated per cent of contribution (P%) of error of 0.38 per cent and according to the analysis of variance, ANOVA, of the fluorescence data, 86 per cent of B9 was saved by using toaster as the warming device, a bread warming temperature of <200F and a warming time of <10min. Fluorescence method evaluated warming intensity and warming device as the most powerful factors affecting the B9 concentration in bread with corresponding P% of 42.28 per cent and 41.72 per cent, respectively.

Practical implications

In conclusion, heat destroyed significant portion of B9 in bread during daily warming protocols, and the suggested optimized parameters obtained in this work significantly minimized this loss.

Originality/value

The OAD can be used to effectively evaluate effective parameters on food science investigations.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2010

Irma Tikkanen and Mari Vääriskoski

The purpose of this paper is to describe the attributes and benefits of branded bread as perceived by the consumers.

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1902

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the attributes and benefits of branded bread as perceived by the consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

Previous research on bread is illustrated briefly. The concepts of brand identity and image are introduced, and the brand as a product is presented and subsequently a value proposition is described and used as a theoretical model.

Findings

The findings indicate that nine types of attributes and six types of benefits as perceived by the consumers were found. The types of attributes were related to raw materials, taste, manner of baking, characteristics of the bread, outward appearance, quality, origin, package, and comparison with competing breads. The types of benefits were classified as functional, emotional, self‐expressive, and social. Furthermore, two types of price benefits emerged (positive and negative). The targeted brand identity by the bakery and the perceived image of the branded bread by the consumers were compatible. The brand image as perceived by the customers was varied.

Practical implications

The bakery can utilize the findings in its marketing communication, advertising, campaigns, and when planning the assortment. The findings offer valuable information also for the advertising agency when designing the advertising messages and the unique selling propositions for the case bread.

Originality/value

Compared to the existing research on bread, the contribution of the results is that the bread was analysed from the point of view of the attributes and benefits it offers.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 112 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 28 March 2008

Faqir M. Anjum, Imran Pasha, Kashif Ghafoor, M. Issa Khan and M. Ali Raza

Wheat is the staple food in many parts of the world and bread is one of the most important products of wheat flour. There is a need for innovations in bread making to…

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Abstract

Purpose

Wheat is the staple food in many parts of the world and bread is one of the most important products of wheat flour. There is a need for innovations in bread making to increase its shelf life and consumer's attraction. Fermentation is mostly done by yeast but it does not produce appreciable amounts of organic acids, which are required to enhance the shelf life of bread. The present study aims to determine the effect of bacterial and yeast culture blends on the quality and shelf life of sourdough bread and to observe the sugar utilization during fermentation.

Design/methodology/approach

Three treatments were made using different blends of bacterial cultures (homo‐fermentative and hetero‐fermentative) and baker's yeast compared with a control having only baker's yeast. Chemical analysis, sugar utilization (Sucrose, glucose and fructose) through high performance liquid chromatography, sensory characteristics (both internal and external) and microbial count (Bacterial and fungal count) for each treatment were conducted at different storage intervals.

Findings

The hetero‐fermentative bacteria i.e. Lactobacillus plantarum along with baker's yeast exhibited the best results regarding the utilization of sugars during fermentation (after 3 h of fermentation 0.0158 mg/ml sugar remained), objective evaluation of bread and its sensory characteristics. The bread prepared using the blend of hetero‐fermentative bacteria (0.5 per cent) and yeast (0.5 per cent) also showed greater resistance against bacteria (9×101 cfu/g after 60 h of storage) and mold (1.1 ×  102 cfu/g after 60 h of storage) growth.

Research limitations/implications

Hetero‐fermentative bacteria along with baker's yeast can be utilized in sour dough to improve major bread characteristics. This study is a step further in improving the shelf life of sourdough.

Originality/value

Presently only baker's yeast is being used by bread industry for fermentation purpose but a blend of bacterial culture along with baker's yeast can give better performance for better quality and shelf life of the bread.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2001

Wasiu A.O. Afolabi, Clara R.B. Oguntona and Bilkisu B. Fakunmoju

Reports a study to determine the suitability of beniseed for bread making as well as the chemical composition and acceptability of the bread among Nigerian bread consuming…

Abstract

Reports a study to determine the suitability of beniseed for bread making as well as the chemical composition and acceptability of the bread among Nigerian bread consuming population. Three bread samples were developed from wheat, beniseed, and cassava composite flour using the formulae 85:10:5, 80:15:5 and 75:25:5. Baking characteristics, chemical composition and acceptability tests were carried out on the samples with wheat bread serving as control. Results show that bread produced from beniseed composite flour has similar baking characteristics in terms of appearance, colour and flavour when compared with wheat bread. Consumer acceptability tests indicated that the bread samples were all acceptable, with the sample with formula 85:10:5 ranked first and being the most preferred. Analysis of chemical composition indicated that the bread samples contain higher protein, fat, crude fibre and ash. This study has shown that acceptable bread of higher nutritional value can be produced from beniseed.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2021

Rehab F.M. Ali, Sami A. Althwab, Hani A. Alfheeaid, Ayman Mohammed El-Anany, Raghad M. Alhomaid and Hend F. Alharbi

Soaked–dehulled moth bean seed (SDMBS) powder was incorporated into wheat flour and the paper aims to investigate its effects on the nutritional and quality properties of…

Abstract

Purpose

Soaked–dehulled moth bean seed (SDMBS) powder was incorporated into wheat flour and the paper aims to investigate its effects on the nutritional and quality properties of composite bread.

Design/methodology/approach

Different ratios of SDMBS powder (0%–12.5%) were mixed into wheat flour to prepare composite bread. Proximate composition, mineral content and functional properties of SDMBS powder and wheat flour were studied. The composite bread samples were assayed for proximate composition, mineral nutrients, amino acid composition, physical characteristics as well as sensorial properties.

Findings

Protein and ash contents of SDMBS powder were found to be 2.15 and 5.69 fold higher than wheat flour. Water absorption capacity (WAC), oil absorption capacity (OAC), (FC) and emulsion activity (EA) values of SDMBS powder were also 1.63, 1.78, 4.43 and 1.58 times higher than wheat flour, respectively. The inclusion of different levels of SDMBS powder into wheat flour significantly (p = 0.05) increased the functional properties of composite flours. Bread samples fortified with SDMBS powder exhibited higher values of essential amino acids than the recommendations of World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization/United Nations University (2007). The bread samples containing 10% and 12.5% of SDMBS powder provided 39.23% and 41.15% of the recommended lysine level, respectively. The addition of a higher proportion of SDMBS powder into wheat flour gradually increased the protein and ash contents of the bread samples. Control sample without SDMBS powder (0%) and samples fortified containing 2.5% and 5% of SDMBS powder received the highest scores of overall acceptance, whereas the bread sample with the highest SDMBS powder (12.5%) content received the lowest scores.

Research limitations/implications

The main findings of the current investigation indicated that the addition of 2.5–5% of SDMBS powder into wheat flour enhanced the nutritional and quality characteristics of wheat bread.

Originality/value

SDMBS powder could be incorporated into refined wheat bread to achieve functional bread with significantly higher protein content.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2021

María José Andrade-Cuvi, Michelle Guijarro-Fuertes, Analía Concellón, María Gabriela Vernaza and Juan Bravo-Vásquez

The purpose of this paper was to develop a loaf bread enriched with naranjilla (lulo) fruit (shells, seeds and pulp) and determine the technical quality, sensory…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to develop a loaf bread enriched with naranjilla (lulo) fruit (shells, seeds and pulp) and determine the technical quality, sensory acceptability and bioavailability (by in vitro digestion) of antioxidant components.

Design/methodology/approach

Loaf bread was prepared by using a no-time bread-making process. The crumb moisture, specific volume, crust and crumb color, texture profile analysis, analysis of the crumbs' alveoli, sensory evaluation, in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal digestion and antioxidant capacity were determined. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA (α = 0.05).

Findings

The specific volume was reduced by 21% (4.62 cm3/g, p < 0.0001), and the hardness was increased by 70% (2.9 N, p < 0.0001). Enrichment of the bread with naranjilla fruit (NF) contributes a yellowish coloration to the bread, which was very well accepted by the consumers and could be considered a natural colorant alternative. Moreover, the sensory evaluation indicated that the analyzed attributes (appearance, color, odor, taste, firmness and overall quality) of the naranjilla bread presented scores higher than 6.5 of 9 points hedonic scale. Naranjilla in the bread formulation had good acceptability by consumers. Naranjilla-enriched bread had an increase in total phenolic (TP)compounds and total carotenoids. In the product without digestion, naranjilla bread increased 1.7 times for TP, 50 times for CT and 1.3 times for TEAC, compared to the control bread (p < 0.0001). The percentage of bioaccessibility for fresh bread without digestion was 39.2 and 53.9% for the control and naranjilla bread, respectively. The addition of NF contributes to a higher TP compounds content and favors its bioavailability.

Practical implications

For bread production, fruits that do not meet the quality standards to be consumed as a natural fruit can be used. In this way, these fruits can contribute as a potential use to reduce agro-industrial waste and as a natural colorant.

Originality/value

Naranjilla is a native fruit from the subtropical Andean regions, which has high ascorbic acid concentrations, making it a fruit rich in antioxidants. Naranjilla-enriched bread contributes with beneficial compounds for the consumer.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 26 March 2021

Sami A. Althwab, Raghad M. Alhomaid, Rehab F. M. Ali, Ayman Mohammed El-Anany and Hassan M. Mousa

The effects of incorporation of Locusta migratoria (LM) powder at different levels (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5%) on nutritional, qualitative and sensory properties of baked breads

Abstract

Purpose

The effects of incorporation of Locusta migratoria (LM) powder at different levels (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5%) on nutritional, qualitative and sensory properties of baked breads were investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

Chemical composition, mineral elements and functional properties of wheat flour, LM powder and their binary mixture systems were determined. The breads were assayed for proximate composition, minerals, amino acids profile, physical characteristics and sensorial properties.

Findings

LM powder have relatively high levels of protein (51.97% db), fat (23.15% db) and fibers (13.76% db). LM powder presented significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater water absorption capacity (WAC), oil absorption capacity(OAC), emulsion activity (EA) and foam capacity (FC) as compared to wheat flour. Blending wheat flour with various levels of LM powder significantly (p ≤ 0.05) improved the functional properties of binary mixture systems. Protein, fat, fiber and ash contents of bread samples significantly increased with the addition of LM powder. No significant differences (≤ 0.05) were recorded in specific volume between control breads and those breads containing LM powder up to 2%. Breads fortified with LM powder contained higher values of essential amino acids than the limits of FAO/WHO pattern, with exception of lysine. Sensory evaluation results showed that bread samples with the addition of LM powder at levels 1–4% had high overall acceptability.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations of our study are the lack of approved and professional programs about management, collection, harvesting, processing, marketing and consumption of edible insects; therefore, these results should be generalized implications for industry. This present study, therefore, provides useful data to support public health nutrition aimed at improving the nutritional health of populations through the promotion of bakery products enriched with LM powder.

Practical implications

The main findings of this study indicated that the addition of 1–4% of LM powder into wheat flour enhanced sensory and nutritional properties of produced breads.

Originality/value

It is concluded that the addition of LM powder improves the nutritional and sensorial properties of the produced bread when the wheat flour is substituted with 1–4% of LM powder.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 10 December 2020

Deniz Sarica, Vecdi Demircan, Aybike Erturk and Nilay Arslantas

The purpose of the research is to identify the various factors affecting bread wastage and bread consumption of consumers in Isparta, Turkey.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the research is to identify the various factors affecting bread wastage and bread consumption of consumers in Isparta, Turkey.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses the categorical regression (CATREG) model to estimate the driving forces of bread waste and consumption. The study concentrates on data obtained from 384 respondents speaking for the same number of households placed in the province of Isparta in Turkey.

Findings

The results indicate that both models are statistically significant at the 1% level. Parents' profession, storage method, type of bread consumed, daily bread expenditure, monthly income and the idea of “bread is cheap” are the most important variables affecting bread wastage. Regarding bread consumption, parents' profession, fathers' education level, monthly income, inadequate control in bakeries, household size and the idea of “bread makes people fat” are found to play significant roles.

Practical implications

The results could be helpful to develop influential policies on healthy eating and aiming plans to reduce bread consumption to healthy levels and prevent bread waste.

Social implications

This research contributes to knowledge regarding the underlying causes of the bread consumption and wastage of Turkish consumers in the light of the data analysis for Isparta province.

Originality/value

This paper contains unique and original understandings concerning bread consumption and wastage attitudes and determinants for consumers from Isparta, Turkey. The novel findings of this research have conduced to a better understanding of the key factors that affect bread consumption and waste. The paper also applies an econometric analysis using a CATREG model to analyse the factors influencing consumers' bread waste and consumption behaviour in Isparta province, Turkey.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 7 April 2020

Barbara Krochmal-Marczak, Renata Tobiasz-Salach and Joanna Kaszuba

Flour from oat grain is characterised by a high content of protein and β-glucans, with a favourable amino acid composition and a substantial content of fat, including…

Abstract

Purpose

Flour from oat grain is characterised by a high content of protein and β-glucans, with a favourable amino acid composition and a substantial content of fat, including unsaturated fatty acids. Additives to bread that enrich its nutritional value can worsen physical properties. It is important to know how to develop recipes for healthy bread based on wheat flour, with the appropriate addition of oat flour. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence on the physical properties of bread made of wheat flour, following the addition of oat flour. The purpose was also to find a recipe for a new product with higher nutritional value, which would then be acceptable for consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

In addition to wheat flour, flour made of oat grains, obtained from the naked Nagus variety (hulless oat), was added. The flour was analysed for moisture, dry matter, proteins and β-glucans, as well as total dietary fibre − soluble and insoluble. The dough was made with wheat flour according to a recipe, which included yeast, salt and water as well as extra oat flour in various proportions − 15, 25 and 30%, respectively. The bread was baked using a direct single-phase method developed by the Baking Institute in Berlin. Both the physicochemical and sensory evaluation were carried out on the bread.

Findings

The recipe for wheat bread that included 15% proportion of oat flour supplement was found to be the most acceptable in both the sensory (n = 30) and qualitative evaluation and would be suitable to produce nutritious bread. The use of 25% and 30% additions of oat flour resulted in a reduction in bread weight, volume and yield, which ultimately lead to an increase in overall baking losses.

Originality/value

This study proved that 15% oat flour could be used as an optimum addition for the production of wheat-oat bread. This bread may lead to a new assortment of bakery products with pro-health properties.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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