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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 12 April 2022

Emmanuel Donkor, Stephen Onakuse, Joe Bogue and Ignacio de los Rios Carmenado

This study analyses income inequality and distribution patterns among key actors in the cassava value chain. The study also identifies factors that influence profit of key…

Abstract

Purpose

This study analyses income inequality and distribution patterns among key actors in the cassava value chain. The study also identifies factors that influence profit of key actors in the cassava value chain.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was conducted in Oyo State, Nigeria, using primary data from 620 actors, consisting of 400 farmers, 120 processors and 100 traders in the cassava value chain. The Gini coefficient was used to estimate income inequalities within and between actors. Multiple linear regression was applied to identify factors that influence the profit of the actors in the cassava value chain.

Findings

The result shows a gender pattern in the participation in the cassava value chain: men dominate in the production, whereas women mostly engage in processing and marketing of processed cassava products. We also find that incomes are unequally distributed among actors, favouring traders and processors more than farmers in the value chain. Women are better off in processing and trading of value-added products than in the raw cassava production. Spatial differences also contribute to income inequality among farmers in the cassava value chain. An increase in farmers and processors’ incomes reduces inequality in the value chain while an increase in traders’ income widens inequality. Age is significantly negatively correlated with actors’ profit at 1%, while educational level significantly increases their profit at 5%. Processors and traders with large households have a higher profit. We also find that farm size, experience and labour input have significant positive effects on farmers’ profit only at 5%. Membership in an association increases farmers and processors’ profit at 1 and 10%, respectively.

Practical implications

The study recommends that agricultural policies that promote agrifood value chains should aim at minimizing income inequality by targeting vulnerable groups, particularly female farmers to achieve sustainable development in rural communities.

Originality/value

Existing studies recognise income inequality in agricultural value chains in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are few rigorous quantitative studies that address this pressing issue. Our paper fills this knowledge gap and suggests ways to minimise income inequality in the agri-food value chain, using the example of the cassava value chain in Nigeria.

Abstract

Details

Innovation Africa
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-310-5

Article
Publication date: 4 January 2021

Viviane Andrade de Oliveira, Gilmar Freire da Costa and Solange de Sousa

The purpose of this study is to investigate the chemical and microbiological quality of biscuits and bread through the partial substitution of the wheat flour.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the chemical and microbiological quality of biscuits and bread through the partial substitution of the wheat flour.

Design/methodology/approach

Completely randomized experiment with four treatments and nine replications was used in this study. The quality of biscuits and bread formulations was monitored by chemical parameters (moisture, ashes, protein, lipids, pH, water activity, acidity and carbohydrates) and microbiological parameters (coliforms at 35 and 45ºC, coagulase positive Staphylococcus and Salmonella sp.).

Findings

The formulation of biscuits containing 25, 50 and 75% of cassava flour and formulation of bread containing 10, 20 and 30% of cassava flour had higher carbohydrate content compared to the control formulation (p = 0.014). This was associated with the incorporation of cassava flour, which is an excellent producer of carbohydrates compared to other cereals. All formulations showed values <3 for coliforms at 35 and 45ºC and coagulase positive Staphylococci, as well as an absence for Salmonella sp.

Originality/value

The present attempt was made to formulate biscuits and bread with a reduction in wheat flour and the addition of manioc flour, with the objective of reaching products with higher carbohydrate content and low gluten content, to improve the nutritional level and commercial value of these products.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 September 2020

Opeolu M. Ogundele, Sefia T. Muazu, Ajibola B. Oyedeji, Eugénie Kayitesi, Patrick B. Njobeh and Samson A. Oyeyinka

Cassava is a starchy crop with several industrial applications, but it deteriorates very fast after harvest. Refrigeration has been used to extend the storage life of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Cassava is a starchy crop with several industrial applications, but it deteriorates very fast after harvest. Refrigeration has been used to extend the storage life of the root and the starch isolated from the stored roots characterized. Hence, the purpose of this research is to investigate the chemical, functional, pasting and sensory properties of custard prepared from starch isolated from refrigerated cassava root.

Design/methodology/approach

Freshly harvest cassava root were cleaned and stored in a refrigerator operating at 4 °C for a period of one, two and three weeks. Starch was extracted from the fresh and stored roots using established method and custard prepared from each of the starch sample. The custard sample was analysed for amylose content, functional, pasting and sensory properties.

Findings

Amylose content in the pastes varied significantly from 18.45 to 25.45%. Refrigeration showed a significant impact on the swelling power of the custard, which could be linked to variation in amylose content. Colour and textural properties of the custard were similar across the samples suggesting a minimal impact of refrigeration on the isolated starch. Refrigerated cassava roots can produce acceptable custard with minimal changes in sensory properties if the storage period is closely monitored.

Originality/value

In a previous study, the authors have shown that starch and cooked paste may be made from stored cassava roots without substantial changes in the quality of these products. This study further confirms the possibility of using starch from the stored roots in food applications such as in custard formulation. No report has documented the properties of custard from starch obtained from refrigerated cassava root.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 August 2018

Fei Ye, Gang Hou, Yina Li and Shaoling Fu

The purpose of this paper is to propose a risk-sharing model to coordinate the decision-making behavior of players in a cassava-based bioethanol supply chain under random…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a risk-sharing model to coordinate the decision-making behavior of players in a cassava-based bioethanol supply chain under random yield and demand environment, so as to mitigate the yield and demand uncertainty risk and improve the bioethanol supply chain resiliency and performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The decision-making behavior under three models, namely, centralized model, decentralized model and risk-sharing model, are analyzed. An empirical test of the advantages and feasibility of the proposed risk-sharing model, as well as the test of yield uncertainty risk, risk-sharing coefficients and randomly fluctuating cassava market price on the decision-making behavior and performances are provided.

Findings

Though the proposed risk-sharing model cannot achieve the supply chain performance in the centralized model, it does help to encourage the farmers and the company to increase the supply of cassava and achieve the Pareto improvement of both players compared to the decentralized model. In particular, these improvements will be enlarged as the yield uncertainty risk is higher.

Practical implications

The findings will help decision makers in the bioethanol supply chain to understand how to mitigate the yield uncertainty risk and improve the supply chain resiliency under yield and demand uncertainty environment. It will also be conducive to ensure the supply of feedstock and the development of the bioethanol industry.

Originality/value

The proposed risk-sharing model incorporates the yield uncertainty risk, the random market demand and the hierarchical decision-making behavior structure of the bioethanol supply chain in the model.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 118 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Richard Lamboll, Adrienne Martin, Lateef Sanni, Kolawole Adebayo, Andrew Graffham, Ulrich Kleih, Louise Abayomi and Andrew Westby

The purpose of this paper is to explain why the high quality cassava flour (HQCF) value chain in Nigeria has not performed as well as expected. The specific objectives are…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explain why the high quality cassava flour (HQCF) value chain in Nigeria has not performed as well as expected. The specific objectives are to: analyse important sources of uncertainty influencing HQCF value chains; explore stakeholders’ strategies to respond to uncertainty; and highlight the implications of different adaptation strategies for equity and the environment in the development of the value chain.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used a conceptual framework based on complex adaptive systems to analyse the slow development of the value chain for HQCF in Nigeria, with a specific focus on how key stakeholders have adapted to uncertainty. The paper is based on information from secondary sources and grey literature. In particular, the authors have drawn heavily on project documents of the Cassava: Adding Value for Africa project (2008 to present), which is funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and on the authors’ experience with this project.

Findings

Policy changes; demand and supply of HQCF; availability and price of cassava roots; supply and cost of energy are major sources of uncertainty in the chain. Researchers and government have shaped the chain through technology development and policy initiatives. Farmers adapted by selling cassava to rival chains, while processors adapted by switching to rival cassava products, reducing energy costs and vertical integration. However, with uncertainties in HQCF supply, the milling industry has reserved the right to play. Vertical integration offers millers a potential solution to uncertainty in HQCF supply, but raises questions about social and environmental outcomes in the chain.

Research limitations/implications

The use of the framework of complex adaptive systems helped to explain the development of the HQCF value chain in Nigeria. The authors identified sources of uncertainty that have been pivotal in restricting value chain development, including changes in policy environment, the demand for and supply of HQCF, the availability and price of cassava roots, and the availability and cost of energy for flour processing. Value chain actors have responded to these uncertainties in different ways. Analysing these responses in terms of adaptation provides useful insights into why the value chain for HQCF in Nigeria has been so slow to develop.

Social implications

Recent developments suggest that the most effective strategy for the milling industry to reduce uncertainty in the HQCF value chain is through vertical integration, producing their own cassava roots and flour. This raises concerns about equity. Until now, it has been assumed that the development of the value chain for HQCF can combine both growth and equity objectives. The validity of this assumption now seems to be open to question. The extent to which these developments of HQCF value chains can combine economic growth, equity and environmental objectives, as set out in the sustainable development goals, is an open question.

Originality/value

The originality lies in the analysis of the development of HQCF value chains in Nigeria through the lens of complex adaptive systems, with a particular focus on uncertainty and adaptation. In order to explore adaptation, the authors employ Courtney et al.’s (1997) conceptualization of business strategy under conditions of uncertainty. They argue that organisations can assume three strategic postures in response to uncertainty and three types of actions to implement that strategy. This combination of frameworks provides a fresh means of understanding the importance of uncertainty and different actors’ strategies in the development of value chains in a developing country context.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 August 2017

Victor Owusu, Enoch Owusu-Sekyere, Emmanuel Donkor, Nana Ama Darkwaah and Derrick Adomako-Boateng Jr

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for composite flour bread produced with a blend of 15-40 per cent cassava flour blended with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for composite flour bread produced with a blend of 15-40 per cent cassava flour blended with wheat flour in Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is based on interviews with 350 consumers in the Ashanti and Eastern Regions of Ghana to assess their awareness, perceptions and WTP for cassava-wheat composite bread. From these consumer interviews, a hedonic regression model was applied to evaluate consumers’ WTP for various attributes of composite flour bread. Price-related and health-related perceptions of consumers on cassava-wheat composite bread were investigated with perception indices. Multi-attribute preference-based contingent ratings that rate product attributes in terms of importance to consumers was employed. The implicit prices of the product attributes representing the contribution of the product attributes to the WTP amount were also computed.

Findings

The paper finds that consumers who are aware of cassava-blended flour bread and who like its taste and texture are willing to pay more than consumers who are unaware. This leads to a policy recommendation advocating increased advertising of the economic and nutritional benefits of cassava-wheat blended composite flour bread.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies should explore the choice experiments to examine preferences for the food product.

Originality/value

This paper evaluates consumers’ WTP for composite flour bread produced with a blend of 15-40 per cent cassava flour and wheat flour. Given widespread reliance on imported wheat flour and the simultaneously large volumes of locally available cassava, it is important to consider opportunities for import substitution (and possible cost reduction for consumers) of blended flour products such as cassava-wheat composite flours. Nigeria has imposed a 10 per cent blending requirement for this reason. Ghana has taken important measures recently for the development of high-quality cassava flour, and so research on its potential and actual uptake is welcomed and highly relevant to food security and agribusiness development.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 February 2017

Olufunmilola Olaitan Oladunmoye, Ogugua Charles Aworh, Beatrice Ade-Omowaye and Gloria Elemo

This paper aims to examine the effects of substituting durum wheat semolina (DWS) with high-quality cassava starch (HQCS) in macaroni noodle production.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the effects of substituting durum wheat semolina (DWS) with high-quality cassava starch (HQCS) in macaroni noodle production.

Design/methodology/approach

The effect of substituting semolina with cassava starch in macaroni production at six levels, namely, 0, 20, 30, 50, 70, 100 per cent, and variation in hydration levels of 45, 50 and 55 per cent and their interaction were studied.

Findings

As substitution of DWS with HQCS increased from 0 to 50 per cent at 45 per cent hydration, amylose content increased from 15.91 to 22.79 per cent. However, beyond 50 per cent substitution level, the amylose content dropped significantly to 20.10 per cent. Yet, this reduction did not affect the extrusion ability of the doughs. Analysis of variance revealed that changes observed in the dough properties were not significant (p > 0.05).

Research limitations/implications

Trial productions of cassava macaroni noodles under factory processing conditions need to be explored. Also, cooking trials and consumer acceptability studies need to be conducted to pave the way for adoption by manufacturers.

Practical implications

Dried noodle products enjoy widespread popularity because of their shelf life, lower glycaemic indices, simplicity of preparation and moderate costs. This study showed the potential of substituting DWS with HQCS with no adverse effect on the dough and macaroni noodle characteristics.

Social implications

The adoption of the process described in this study would result in increased utilization of cassava, broaden existing food base and provide household food security for both rural and urban population.

Originality/value

This paper has shown the suitability of substituting DWS obtained from imported durum wheat, with HQCS: indigenous to Africa, for the economic benefit of macaroni manufacturers.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 47 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 April 2020

Samuel Darko-Koomson, Robert Aidoo and Tahirou Abdoulaye

Commercialization of cassava is increasing because of increased urban demand for processed products and increased recognition of the industrial potential of the crop. This…

Abstract

Purpose

Commercialization of cassava is increasing because of increased urban demand for processed products and increased recognition of the industrial potential of the crop. This study aims to examine the cassava value chain in Ghana and its implications for upgrading.

Design/methodology/approach

A combination of purposive, simple random and snowball sampling methods was adopted to select key actors in the cassava value chain. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect primary data. Analysis of the data was largely descriptive, except for profitability of cassava production in selected regions, which was examined by employing gross and net marketing margin analysis. A comprehensive value chain map was generated to show the different product pathways for cassava from the farm gate to the final consumer, and roles of key value chain actors and their relationships were summarized through simple narrations.

Findings

Evidence has shown chains of more than four different channels through which fresh cassava roots move from the farm gate to final consumers. Production of cassava in Ghana is profitable, generating positive net marketing margins across major producing centres. Processing of cassava has both dry and wet/fresh value chains depending on the derived products for the final consumer. There is weak governance system in the cassava value chain in Ghana as majority of actors use spot market transactions in dealing with trading partners. The use of standardized grading and weighing system is very limited in the chain, and limited access to credit is a critical constraint to value chain upgrading.

Research limitations/implications

With the exception of results from the profitability analysis of producers, the findings on marketing margins of other value chain actors may not be generalizable. Future studies could determine the profitability associated with cassava value-adding activities like processing into various forms and explore the possibility of converting waste from processing into energy.

Practical implications

The study includes implications that focus on product and process upgrading efforts by smallholders in the cassava value chain. This paper recommends innovative financing models for smallholders to improve access to microcredit via internal and external funding sources.

Originality/value

This paper reveals specific intervention areas in which smallholders can direct efforts in an attempt to improve the cassava value chain through product, process and functional upgrading.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 August 2018

Emmanuel Donkor, Stephen Onakuse, Joe Bogue and Ignacio de los Rios Carmenado

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effects of the determinants of farmer participation in value addition through cassava processing in Nigeria.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effects of the determinants of farmer participation in value addition through cassava processing in Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employs the probit model to analyse the determinants of farmer participation in value addition whereas the Tobit model is used to investigate the determinants of the extent of producer’s involvement in value addition using a data set of 400 cassava farmers drawn from the Oyo State of Nigeria.

Findings

The findings further indicate that among other factors, human capital factors including farmer age and location variable tend to reduce farmer participation in value addition through processing whereas experience and record keeping promote farmer participation in cassava processing. Institutional variables, notably membership of farmer association, extension access and credit access, enhance farmer participation in value addition. Finally, ownership of a radio set, a television set and access to electricity strengthen the value-adding capacity of farmers.

Research limitations/implications

This study only considers the determinants of producers’ participation in cassava processing but does not explicitly analyse the impact of value addition on their profit margin. This issue would form a basis for future research to enhance knowledge in the extant literature.

Practical implications

The study suggests that if the value-adding capacity of farmers is strengthened, rural economy is likely to be improved upon through the proliferation of rural food processing enterprises.

Originality/value

Despite the relevance of developing food value chains in Africa and integrating farmers in them, there are limited studies on promoting value addition among farmers. This study contributes to narrowing this knowledge gap.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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