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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2019

Sylvester Oriaifo, Philip Abiodun, Anthony Oyovwikigho Atimati and Damian Nwaneri

The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is on the increase in developing countries. Therefore, a cheap, accessible and simple screening tool…

Abstract

Purpose

The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is on the increase in developing countries. Therefore, a cheap, accessible and simple screening tool such as the mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) is required for the prompt assessment. The purpose of this paper is to determine the usefulness of MUAC in assessing overnutrition in comparison with bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA).

Design/methodology/approach

Participants included 1,067 children aged 6–18 years recruited from private and public schools in Egor Local Government Area in Benin City, Nigeria. Body fat was estimated by BIA using a Tanita scale, whereas the MUAC was measured with a non-elastic tape. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to test the ability of MUAC to determine children and adolescents identified as overweight and obese by BIA.

Findings

The prevalence of overnutrition by MUAC (12.4 percent – overweight 6.0 percent and obesity 6.4 percent) was comparable to that by BIA (12.3 percent – overweight 5.4 percent, obesity 6.9 percent). There was a significant correlation between MUAC and body fat percentage, fat mass, fat mass index and fat-free mass index in both males and females (p=0.000).

Research limitations/implications

This study, in contrast to most other studies on the use of MUAC in the assessment of overnutrition, has the advantage of using BIA cut-offs values against body mass index which does not assess body fat composition. BIA is, however, not the gold standard in the measurement of body fat composition. The optimal MUAC cut-off values of this study may not be representative of the entire country because of its restriction to Benin. Similar studies from different parts of Nigeria will be required to validate this smoothed MUAC percentiles for use in the screening of children and adolescents for overnutrition.

Originality/value

MUAC compares well with BIA in this study and can be a useful, alternative and practical screening tool for assessing obesity in the resource-poor setting.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2586-940X

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Article
Publication date: 23 March 2012

Muhammad M. Ali Khan Khattak, Ibrahim Abu Bakar and Layana Yeim

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of fasting on anthropometry and body composition in fasting obese and non‐obese subjects.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of fasting on anthropometry and body composition in fasting obese and non‐obese subjects.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 25 volunteers (male and female) were recruited during Ramadan. Age, sex, weight, height, waist and hip circumference and menstrual cycle status (in case of females) were recorded on day 1, and on day 21 weight and waist and hip circumference were also recorded. Similarly, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was performed on days 1 and 21 for the assessment of changes in body composition. From weight and height, basal metabolic Index (BMI) was determined. Waist‐hip ratio was determined from the waist and hip circumferences.

Findings

Weight was significantly (p<0.001) reduced in obese individuals on day 21 and accompanied by significant (p<0.01) reduction in waist hip ratios. BIA showed no significant change in the intra or extra cellular water. However, there has been shift of water between the two compartments and there was a strong positive correlation (r=0.9) between the fat free mass and total body water and negative association (r=−0.9) with total body water.

Originality/value

This study indicates that fasting could be a useful tool for the management of body weight without having a major shift in the body composition.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 5 December 2016

Vanessa Martins Hissanaga-Himelstein, Rossana Pacheco da Costa Proença and Jane Mara Block

The purpose of this paper is to compare the trans fatty acids (TFA) content in foods before and after the implementing of the method for controlling trans fatty acids in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare the trans fatty acids (TFA) content in foods before and after the implementing of the method for controlling trans fatty acids in meals (MCTM) in a Brazilian restaurant.

Design/methodology/approach

Analysis by gas chromatography was performed on 49 processed foods used as ingredients for culinary preparations (42 and seven samples before and after the implementation of the method, respectively) and 57 prepared foods (31 and 26 samples before and after the implementation of the method, respectively). In addition, the meal preparation process was monitored before the implementation of the MCTM method in order to identify the changes resulting from its application.

Findings

As a result of the application of the method the processed foods whose labels reported the presence of ingredients potentially containing industrial trans fat acids (iTFA) were not purchased and used in food preparations; standard recipes prepared with processed foods free of iTFA were implemented; and also the restaurant’s staff were trained to control the frying process for preparing fried foods. The average content of TFA per 100 g of prepared food was 0.21 g less (p=0.038) after the implementation of the method.

Practical implications

The MCTM method showed to be a viable and effective tool for reducing TFA levels in the studied restaurant.

Originality/value

The developed method is original since no similar tool for controlling of TFA in food services has been found in the scientific literature. The fatty acid profile determination in the meals prepared after the MCTM implementation showed a reduction in TFA, indicating that the method was also viable and efficient.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 118 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Sonal Dhemla and Kanika Varma

There has been a dramatic increase in hypertension in developing countries along with changes in food consumption patterns contributing to higher levels of sodium…

Abstract

Purpose

There has been a dramatic increase in hypertension in developing countries along with changes in food consumption patterns contributing to higher levels of sodium. Evidence shows that a high level of sodium intake is a major cause of high blood pressure and other heart diseases along with other associated diseases. Therefore, it is important to determine current consumption levels of sodium in a population to facilitate the development and implementation of any specific salt reduction program.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was conducted among 60 subjects (25-45 years) residing in Jaipur City. Subjects’ sodium consumption levels were assessed via assessment of 24-h urinary sodium excretion levels, the “gold standard” method advocated by WHO/PAHO (2010) and 24-h dietary recall for three days including one holiday.

Findings

The findings of the study indicated that the subjects were found to be consuming higher levels of sodium (males, 5,792 mg/d; females, 5,911 mg/d) than recommended by WHO, i.e. less than 2,300 mg/d. Completeness of urine was confirmed by fat-free mass determined by electrical bio-impedance (47.6 ± 7.6 kg) and determined by using 24-h urinary excretion of creatinine (33.7 ± 10.1 kg). Two variables were found to be significantly correlated (r = 0.52, p = 0.00). Assuming that the sodium eliminated in the urine comes from the salt only, this excretion would correspond with a dietary salt intake of 14.71 and 15.01 g/d in males and females, respectively. Dietary sodium intake was reported to be 4,133 ± 1,111 mg/day and 3,953 ± 945 mg/d in males and females, respectively. A non-significant difference was found between the two variables. Urinary sodium excretion correlated non-significantly with systolic and diastolic blood pressure figures (r = 0.09 and r = −0.02, respectively).

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of this study included the small sample size. Purposive sampling was adopted due to difficulty in obtaining urine sample and required willingness of the respondent. This may give fair robust estimate.

Originality/value

The present results will help provide new data about the baseline salt intake in young and middle-aged population of Jaipur City and will further help the concerned agencies to plan meaningful strategies to reduce salt intake, and it must involve public education and awareness to change the consumption pattern.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 46 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 10 September 2018

Helena Dória Ribeiro de Andrade Previato and Jorge Herman Behrens

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate anthropometric data, body composition and food intake of teenagers.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate anthropometric data, body composition and food intake of teenagers.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper involves a cross-sectional study with 132 teenagers aged 15 to 19 years old from a public school of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Anthropometric measurements, body composition, food intake and sport practice were obtained. The authors performed Student’s t-test, X2 or Fisher’s exact tests and Pearson’s correlation to evaluate anthropometric variables, nutritional status and sport practice.

Findings

Regarding the nutritional status, 81.8 per cent of the teenagers were of normal weight, 10.6 per cent were overweight and 7.6 per cent were obese. Female teenagers had higher values of body fat analyzed by skinfold thickness, fat mass, fat mass index and body fat percentage, while male had higher lean mass evaluated by fat-free mass and fat-free mass index. For both genders, it was observed that there was low intake of fruits and vegetables and daily intake of sweets, soda, salt snacks and fast food like sandwiches and pizza. Only 54.5 per cent of teenagers reported performing physical exercise and there was association between sedentary lifestyle with higher intake of sweets and soft drink.

Originality/value

This paper summarized several methods to assess nutritional status and body composition of teenagers.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 48 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2001

Patricia Camacho Dias, Gloria Valeria da Veiga, Sidney Cavalcante da Silva and Walace David Monteiro

This study compared resistance (R) and body composition obtained via the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) leg‐to‐leg system with the arm‐to‐leg system, using…

Abstract

This study compared resistance (R) and body composition obtained via the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) leg‐to‐leg system with the arm‐to‐leg system, using underwater weighing as a standard method. The study subjects were 48 healthy men between 20‐40 years old. No difference was observed in the means of R, per cent body fat (%BF) and fat‐free mass (FFM) obtained from the two systems, but the range of individual differences was from – 70 to + 60ohms for R, from – 5 to + 7kg for FFM and – 8 to + 8 for %BF. The two systems of BIA overestimated the %BF and underestimated FFM. Concludes that LLS is an alternative to assessment of body composition in epidemiological studies. However, independent of the system, BIA is not appropriate for estimating body composition at an individual level.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2019

Katira da Mota Huerta, Caroline Pagnossim Boeira, Marcela Bromberger Soquetta, Jamila dos Santos Alves, Ernesto Hashime Kubota and Claudia Severo da Rosa

The preparation of gluten-free bread is a challenge because the gluten in wheat is the main ingredient responsible for the retention of the gases which cause the bread to…

Abstract

Purpose

The preparation of gluten-free bread is a challenge because the gluten in wheat is the main ingredient responsible for the retention of the gases which cause the bread to rise. This paper aims to develop breads without gluten and fat, and to evaluate the effect of the use of chia (Salvia hispanic L.) flour on the physical, nutritional and sensory properties of the breads that were developed.

Design/methodology/approach

Three formulations were developed with different proportions of chia flour (2.5, 5 and 7.5%), fat-free. Physiochemical, sensorial analyses were performed out in three repetitions (p-value = 0.05).

Findings

In the nutritional assessment, the results demonstrated that 7.5% chia showed higher levels of protein (15.1%), lipid (3.43%), total fiber (7.04%) and lower levels of carbohydrates (22.49%), with significant nutrient enrichment (p-value = 0.05). The specific volume and the elevation of the dough decreased with the addition of chia flour. In the sensorial analysis, the treatments with chia flour showed no significant difference regarding flavor and texture when compared to the standard. The addition of chia improved the nutritional and sensory properties (p-value = 0.05).

Originality/value

The chia flour improved the nutritional characteristics of the breads, in the reduction of carbohydrate content and the increase in the content of protein, minerals and fiber. It presented good acceptability and good nutritional characteristics, providing a healthy and differentiated variation in this segment.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1934

The brewing industry in the Netherlands is an industry of great importance, and the brewers of lager beer in that country have established a first‐rate reputation in…

Abstract

The brewing industry in the Netherlands is an industry of great importance, and the brewers of lager beer in that country have established a first‐rate reputation in foreign markets throughout the world. Two kinds of lager beer are exported, one in cask, the other in bottle. It also appears from the official figures given in the Jaarstatistick for 1933 that a relatively large amount of beer is imported in casks. This seems to come mainly from Germany. There is no suggestion that this importation is part of the transit trade, and yet the quantity of the imported cask beer is considerably in excess of that which is exported. The number of litres imported each year from 1930 to 1933 are in round numbers as follows:—4 million in 1930, 4·3 million in 1931, 4 million in 1932, and 3 million in 1933. The exports of cask lager for these years are 3·8, 3·4, 2·5, 2 27 millions of litres. The nature of the beer so imported is not stated, it is returned simply as “beer,” but if the declared value is to be taken as any indication of quality, then we may say that the value of the imported cask beer is to that of the exported cask beer in the ratio of about two to three.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 36 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1938

The following definitions and standards for food products have been adopted as a guide for the officials of this Department in enforcing the Food and Drugs Act. These are…

Abstract

The following definitions and standards for food products have been adopted as a guide for the officials of this Department in enforcing the Food and Drugs Act. These are standards of identity and are not to be confused with standards of quality or grade; they are so framed as to exclude substances not mentioned in the definition and in each instance imply that the product is clean and sound. These definitions and standards include those published in S. R. A., F. D. 2, revision 4, and those adopted October 28, 1936.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 40 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2009

Irma Tikkanen

The purpose of this paper is to describe self‐reported and estimated school meal consumption patterns of the pupils and introduces the pupils' and their parents'…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe self‐reported and estimated school meal consumption patterns of the pupils and introduces the pupils' and their parents' suggestions for developing the school meals in Finland with respect to the plate model.

Design/methodology/approach

“Food choice view” concerning school meals, previous studies on developing school meals, and the plate model are briefly illustrated. The empirical data were collected in 2007 from four comprehensive schools. A total of 168 6th‐9th graders and their 83 parents returned the questionnaires.

Findings

The findings indicate that the pupils do not eat all the items of the plate model. The pupils and their parents gave the following suggestions on how to develop free school meals: more favourite dishes; more alternatives from which to choose; salads to be served as components; wider selection of salads; chilled milk, lactose‐free and fat‐free milk served with soft white bread, brown bread as well as rolls; finally, serve different components such as cold cuts on the bread.

Practical implications

The practical implications are that the pupils' and the parents' desires and wishes could be consulted more often and the municipal budget should be taken into account.

Originality/value

The pupils' self‐reported school meal consumption patterns indicate that the intake of the items belonging to the plate model could be increased by serving the pupils' favourite dishes, which could be of great importance to those in charge of health education and school catering organisations.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 111 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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