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Publication date: 4 May 2018

Rahmawati, Askura Nikmah, Nisrina and Yayuk Kurnia Risna

Purpose – This study was conducted to determine the effect of peel of Arabica coffee (PAC) with Win Prob Probiotic on crude fiber content and fiber fraction (neutral…

Abstract

Purpose – This study was conducted to determine the effect of peel of Arabica coffee (PAC) with Win Prob Probiotic on crude fiber content and fiber fraction (neutral detergent fiber, NDF; acid detergent fiber, ADF; cellulose; hemicelluloses; and lignin). The hypothesis of this study is that PAC fermentation using Probiotic Win Prob can decrease the content of crude fiber and fiber fraction.

Design/Methodology/Approach – The research design applied was a factorial completely randomized design with three treatments and three replications. Factor A (probiotic dose) consisted of three doses: 2.5%, 5%, and 7%, in addition, there are three fermentation durations considered as factor B, which are 20, 30, and 40 days.

Findings – The result of this study indicates that the content of crude fiber and fiber fractions can decrease each amount of the variable of this study. The best treatment was obtained in A3B3 with 7% probiotic with 30 days of fermentation. Rough fiber PAC decreased up to 27.66% and NDF content decreased by 3.6%. Moreover, ADF content decreased up to 4.10%. The last lignin decreased by 18.75%.

Research Limitations/Implications – Only a small portion of coarse fiber and fiber fractions in PAC is fermented with Win Prob probiotics. So we can try other ways to reduce the coarse fiber and PAC fiber fractions such as the combination of ammonium and fermentation (amofer).

Originality/Value – The PAC has a high content of crude fiber and fiber fractions (NDF, ADF, cellulose, hemisellulose, and lignin), and so it is recommended as ruminants for feed ingredients.

Article
Publication date: 7 May 2021

Mohd Fadzli Bin Abdollah, Hilmi Amiruddin and Mohamad Jabbar Nordin

This study aims to scrutinise the impact of fibre length and its composition on the tribological attributes of oil palm fibre (OPF) polymeric composite as an alternative…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to scrutinise the impact of fibre length and its composition on the tribological attributes of oil palm fibre (OPF) polymeric composite as an alternative brake friction material.

Design/methodology/approach

Fabrication of the sample was conducted by using a hot-compression method. The tribological test was carried out by deploying a ball-on-disk tribometer. Analysis of the data was then done by using the Taguchi approach as well as analysis of variance.

Findings

The results indicated that all design variables (fibre composition, length and treatment) are not statistically significant, as all p-values are greater than 0.05. Remarkably, irrespective of the fibre treatment, the wear rate and coefficient of friction (COF) distribution suggested that a smaller fibre length with a high fibre composition might enhance the composite’s tribological performance with COF of 0.4 and wear rate below than 1 × 10–9 mm3/Nm. The predominant wear mechanisms were identified as micro-cracks, fine grooves and fibre debonding.

Research limitations/implications

In this study, all-inclusive scrutiny needs to be carried out for further exploration.

Originality/value

The main contribution and novelty of this study are opening a new perspective on the formulation of new substances from bio-based material (i.e. OPF) that possess superior tribological characteristics for friction-based applications.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 73 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 September 2021

Chenchen Han and Weidong Gao

The purpose of the paper is researching on the motion law of fiber in the vortex field inside the nozzle.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is researching on the motion law of fiber in the vortex field inside the nozzle.

Design/methodology/approach

A three-dimensional calculation model was established using the MVS861 (Muratec Vortex Spinning) air-jet vortex-spinning nozzle as the prototype, and the fluid–solid coupling calculation module in the finite element calculation software ADINA (Adina System) was used to numerically analyze the fiber-air flow two-phase coupling. At the same time, the effect of the air pressure at the nozzle on the two-phase flow is studied.

Findings

The results show that after the air flow ejected through the nozzle, a vortex field will be generated in the flow field to push the internal fiber to move toward the nozzle outlet in a wave motion; as the air pressure at the nozzle increases, the fiber movement period becomes shorter and the oscillation frequency becomes higher; increasing the air pressure at the spray hole can improve the working efficiency of fiber twisting and wrapping.

Originality/value

The research present an effective and feasible theoretical model and method for the motion law of fiber in the vortex field inside the nozzle based on ADINA fluid–structure coupling model.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 November 2022

Aissa Boucedra and Madani Bederina

This paper aims to characterize and develop a new ecological lightweight concrete reinforced by addition of palm plant fibers (from vegetal waste) to be used in the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to characterize and develop a new ecological lightweight concrete reinforced by addition of palm plant fibers (from vegetal waste) to be used in the thermal and acoustical insulation of local constructions. The date palm plant fibers are characterized by their low sensitivity to chemical reactions, low cost and large availability in local regions. Therefore, the newly obtained lightweight concrete may suggest a great interest, as it seems to be able to achieve good solutions for local construction problems, technically, economically and ecologically.

Design/methodology/approach

The experimental program focused on developing the composition of palm-fiber-reinforced concrete, by studying the effect of the length of the fibers (10, 20, 30 and 40 mm) and their mass percentage (0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2%), on the mechanical and acoustical properties of the composite. The main measured parameters were the compressive strength and flexural strength, sound absorption coefficient, noise reduction coefficient (NRC), etc. These tests were also borne out by the measure of density and water absorption, as well as microstructure analyses. To fully appreciate the behavior of the material, visualizations under optical microscope and scanning electron microscope analyses were carried out.

Findings

The addition of plant fibers to concrete made it possible to formulate a new lightweight concrete having interesting properties. The addition of date palm fibers significantly decreased the density of the concrete and consequently reduced its mechanical strength, particularly in compression. Acceptable compressive strength values were possible, according to the fibers content, while better values have been obtained in flexion. On the other hand, good acoustical performances were obtained: a considerable increase in the sound absorption coefficient and the NRC was recorded, according to the content and length of fibers. Even the rheological behavior has been improved with the addition of fibers, but with short fibers only.

Originality/value

Over the recent decades, many studies have attempted to search for more sustainable and environmentally friendly building materials. Therefore, this work aims to study the possibility of using waste from date palm trees as fibers in concrete instead of the conventionally used fibers. Although many researches have already been conducted on the effect of palm plant fibers on the mechanical/physical properties of concrete, no information is available neither on the formulation of this type of concrete nor on its acoustical properties. Indeed, due to the scarcity of raw materials and the excessive consumption of energy, the trend of plant fibers as resources, which are natural and renewable, is very attractive. It is therefore a major recycling project of waste and recovery of local materials.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 November 2022

Mohd Nazri Ahmad, Mohamad Ridzwan Ishak, Mastura Mohammad Taha, Faizal Mustapha and Zulkiflle Leman

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the tensile strength, Young’s modulus, dimensional stability and porosity of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)–oil palm…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the tensile strength, Young’s modulus, dimensional stability and porosity of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)–oil palm fiber composite filament for fused deposition modeling (FDM).

Design/methodology/approach

A new feedstock material for FDM comprising oil palm fiber and ABS as a matrix was developed by a twin screw extruder. The composite filament contains 0, 3, 5 and 7 Wt.% of oil palm fiber in the ABS matrix. The tensile test is then performed on the fiber composite filament, and the wire diameter is measured. In this study, the Archimedes method was used to determine the density and the porosity of the filament. The outer surface of the wire composite was examined using an optical microscope, and the analysis of variance was used to assess the significance and the relative relevance of the primary factor.

Findings

The results showed that increasing the fiber loading from 0.15 to 0.4 MPa enhanced tensile strength by 60%. Then, from 16.1 to 18.3 MPa, the Young’s modulus rose by 22.8%. The density of extruded filament decreased and the percentage of porosity increased when the fiber loading was increased from 3 to 7 Wt.%. The diameter deviation of the extruded filaments varied from −0.21 to 0.04 mm.

Originality/value

This paper highlights a novel natural resource-based feedstock material for FDM. Its mechanical and physical properties were also discovered.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 June 2018

Longbiao Li

This paper aims to predict fatigue life and fatigue limit of fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) with different fiber preforms, i.e. unidirectional…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to predict fatigue life and fatigue limit of fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) with different fiber preforms, i.e. unidirectional, cross-ply, 2D-, 2.5D- and 3D-woven, at room and elevated temperatures.

Design/methodology/approach

Under cyclic loading, matrix multicracking and interface debonding occur upon first loading to fatigue peak stress, and the interface wear appears with increasing cycle number, leading to degradation of the interface shear stress and fibers strength. The relationships between fibers fracture, cycle number, fatigue peak stress and interface wear damage mechanism have been established based on the global load sharing (GLS) criterion. The evolution of fibers broken fraction versus cycle number curves of fiber-reinforced CMCs at room and elevated temperatures have been obtained.

Findings

The predicted fatigue life S–N curve can be divided into two regions, i.e. the Region I controlled by the degradation of interface shear stress and fibers strength and the Region II controlled by the degradation of fibers strength.

Practical/implications

The proposed approach can be used to predict the fatigue life and fatigue limit of unidirectional, cross-ply, 2D-, 2.5D- and 3D-woven CMCs under cyclic loading.

Originality/value

The fatigue damage mechanisms and fibers failure model were combined together to predict the fatigue life and fatigue limit of fiber-reinforced CMCs with different fiber preforms.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 90 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 June 2010

C. Subramanian and S. Senthilvelan

The purpose of this paper is to understand the influence of reinforced fiber length over material‐plastic energy of deformation, clogging, crystallinity, and correlates…

1121

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the influence of reinforced fiber length over material‐plastic energy of deformation, clogging, crystallinity, and correlates with the friction and wear behavior of polypropylene (PP) composites under multi‐pass abrasive condition. Also to identify wear mechanisms of glass fiber reinforced PP materials under various abrasive grit sizes and normal loads.

Design/methodology/approach

Multi‐pass abrasive wear tests were performed for unreinforced, short, and long glass fiber reinforced PP (LFPP) on a pin on disc machine under three different normal loads and two different abrasive grit sizes for a constant sliding velocity. Measured wear volume was correlated with the plastic energy of deformation by carrying out a constant load indentation test using servo hydraulic fatigue test system. Clogging behavior of test materials was examined with the aid of online wear measurement and wear morphology. Test materials crystallinity was estimated with the aid of X‐ray diffraction investigation and correlated with abrasive wear performance.

Findings

Fiber reinforcement in a PP material is found to improve the plastic deformation energy and crystallinity which results in improved abrasive resistance of the material. Increase in reinforced fiber length is found to improve the material cohesive energy and hence the wear resistance. Reinforcement is found to alter the material clogging behavior under multi‐pass condition. Fiber reinforcement is found to reduce the material coefficient of friction, and increase in reinforced fiber length further reduces the frictional coefficient.

Research limitations/implications

Friction wear tests using pin on disc equipment is carried out in the present investigation. However, in practice, part geometry may not be always equivalent to simple pin on disc configuration.

Practical implications

The paper's investigation results could help to improve the utilization of LFPP material in many structural applications.

Originality/value

Influence of reinforced fiber length over multi‐pass abrasive wear performance of thermoplastic material, and online wear measurement to substantiate clogging behavior is unique in the present multi‐pass abrasive investigation.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 62 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1984

Michael Koenig

Fiber optics has the capability to dramatically increase telecommunications capability and lower costs. This article examines fiber optic technology, explains some of the…

Abstract

Fiber optics has the capability to dramatically increase telecommunications capability and lower costs. This article examines fiber optic technology, explains some of the key terminology, and speculates about the way fiber optics will change our world.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Article
Publication date: 29 April 2014

Shuling Cui

Based on clarifying the structural difference between jade fibre and general polyester fibre, this paper aims to study the dyeing properties and dyeing adsorption…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on clarifying the structural difference between jade fibre and general polyester fibre, this paper aims to study the dyeing properties and dyeing adsorption mechanism of jade fibre with disperse dye and cationic dye.

Design/methodology/approach

The chemical structure and microstructure of jade fibre were briefly explained comparing with ordinary polyester fibre. The dyeing rate curve and dyeing adsorption isotherm of disperse dyes and cationic dyes on jade fibre were, respectively, studied. The dyeing uptake, dyeing absorption mechanism, and the main dyeing process parameters were proposed.

Findings

Jade fibre can be dyed with cationic dye and disperse dye. The suitable exhaust dyeing process is 110°C and 40 minutes for disperse dye, 100°C and 60 minutes for cationic dye. The dyeing uptake on jade fibre with both disperse dyes or cationic dyes is much higher than that on general polyester fibre and acrylic fibre, and the dyeing adsorption mechanism belongs to the combination of Langmuir and Nernst adsorption for disperse dyes and Langmuir adsorption for cationic dyes. Comparing with ordinary polyester fibre, jade fibre has the advantage of low temperature dyeing and reduced effluent, as is significant to energy-saving and emission reduction.

Originality/value

Jade fibre is a new type of modified polyester fibre with the function of health protection and energy conservation. There are little technical data in the literature at present about the dyeing property of jade fibre.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 43 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 August 2019

Giridharan R., Raatan V.S. and Jenarthanan M.P.

The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of fiber length and content on properties of E-glass and bamboo fiber reinforced epoxy resin matrices. Experiments are…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of fiber length and content on properties of E-glass and bamboo fiber reinforced epoxy resin matrices. Experiments are carried out as per ASTM standards to find the mechanical properties. Further, fractured surface of the specimen is subjected to morphological study.

Design/methodology/approach

Composite samples were prepared according to ASTM standards and were subjected to tensile and flexural loads. The fractured surfaces of the specimens were examined directly under scanning electron microscope.

Findings

From the experiment, it was found that the main factors that influence the properties of composite are fiber length and content. The optimum fiber length and weight ratio are 15 mm and 16 percent, respectively, for bamboo fiber/epoxy composite. Hence, the prediction of optimum fiber length and content becomes important, so that composite can be prepared with best mechanical properties. The investigation revealed the suitability of bamboo fiber as an effective reinforcement in epoxy matrix.

Practical implications

As bamboo fibers are biodegradable, recyclable, light weight and so on, their applications are numerous. They are widely used in automotive components, aerospace parts, sporting goods and building industry. With this scenario, the obtained result of bamboo fiber reinforced composites is not ignorable and could be of potential use, since it leads to harnessing of available natural fibers and their composites rather than synthetic fibers.

Originality/value

This work enlists the effect of fiber length and fiber content on tensile and flexural properties of bamboo fiber/epoxy composite, which has not been attempted so far.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

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