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Article
Publication date: 24 August 2020

Flavia Andrew Kiwango, Musa Chacha and Jofrey Raymond

This study aims to update the information on the current status of micronutrient fortification for iron, zinc, folic acid and vitamin A in mandatory fortified food…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to update the information on the current status of micronutrient fortification for iron, zinc, folic acid and vitamin A in mandatory fortified food vehicles such as cooking oil, wheat and maize flours in Tanzania.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional study was conducted in five regions to analyze the adequacy of micronutrient fortification in mandatory fortified food vehicles. Samples of fortified edible oil (n = 19), wheat flour (n = 12) and maize flour (n = 5) were sampled conveniently from local markets and supermarkets. Samples were analyzed for vitamins (vitamin A and folic acid) and mineral (iron and zinc) content using high-performance liquid chromatography and microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometer, respectively. Compliance acceptable ranges between the minimum and maximum levels for each nutrient were used as a basis for compliance.

Findings

The results showed that 83.3% and 80% of wheat and maize flour samples, respectively, complied with iron fortification standards (p = 0.05). Only 25% of wheat flour samples and 40% of maize flour samples were within the acceptable ranges for zinc fortification (p = 0.05). Nearly 17% and 20% of wheat and maize flour samples, respectively, were within the acceptable ranges for folic acid fortification (p = 0.05). Moreover, about 10.5% of the analyzed cooking oils were adequately fortified with vitamin A (p = 0.05). Except for iron in wheat and maize flours, the levels of other micronutrients in mandatorily fortified foods were out of acceptable ranges.

Originality/value

Mandatory fortification is still far from the established standards, and this calls for a review of the current fortification strategies regarding standards, training, monitoring and enforcement in Tanzania.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 2018

Beth Clark, Julie Doyle, Owen Bull, Sophie McClean and Tom Hill

Vitamin D deficiency is a well-recognised public health problem within the UK, with specific population groups more vulnerable to deficiency. Two pilot studies were used…

Abstract

Purpose

Vitamin D deficiency is a well-recognised public health problem within the UK, with specific population groups more vulnerable to deficiency. Two pilot studies were used to explore awareness of vitamin D deficiency and attitudes towards food fortification.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of 120 participants from five at-risk groups (South Asians, Blacks, Middle Eastern, Far Eastern and Caucasian older adults over 65 years) plus a group of British Caucasians who do not avoid sun exposure explored awareness of vitamin D, sun exposure knowledge and behaviour and attitudes towards food fortification. The latter group was included to provide a comparison group who were at a reduced risk of deficiency. χ2 was used to test associations between categorical variables and the study groups. The second study used three focus groups and two interviews, conducted on young South Asian females and examined knowledge and awareness of vitamin D and vitamin D-fortified foods.

Findings

A lack of knowledge and misconceptions were highlighted by both studies in relation to at-risk factors, including sunlight exposure (p = 0.037), dietary intakes (p = 0.0174) and darker skin pigmentation (p = 0.023), sources of vitamin D and the health benefits associated with optimal consumption. Attitudes to mandatory fortification of some foods varied significantly (p = 0.004) between the groups with acceptance rates for Blacks (68 per cent), those over 65 years (50 per cent), Middle Eastern (67 per cent) and Far Eastern (73 per cent), whereas the control (71 per cent) showed no acceptance, and South Asians gave a mixed response (48 per cent No). Focus group findings highlighted positive views towards fortification, although this was less for mandatory as opposed to voluntary fortification. Both pilot studies highlight the need for more research into this area, to create more effective public health policies.

Originality/value

The research presents novel insights into a topical area where there is limited research.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Joy W. Douglas, Jeannine C. Lawrence and Adam P. Knowlden

Food fortification with common kitchen ingredients has been suggested to improve nutritional intake. The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the efficacy of…

Abstract

Purpose

Food fortification with common kitchen ingredients has been suggested to improve nutritional intake. The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the efficacy of food fortification on calorie and protein intake among older adults.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic search was conducted using Boolean search logic and seven research databases to identify interventions using fortified foods to increase calorie and protein intake among older adults. Ten studies published in English since 1996 were eligible for inclusion. Study quality was evaluated using an adapted Modified Jadad Questionnaire.

Findings

Food fortification was associated with increased calorie intake in eight studies, increased protein intake in five studies, and increased body weight in three studies. However, studies were limited by lack of rigor in methodology and small sample sizes.

Originality/value

Food fortification may improve calorie and protein intake, but results are limited by study weaknesses. Additionally, it is unclear whether improved intake results in improved clinical outcomes.

Details

Quality in Ageing and Older Adults, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-7794

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2018

Rio Jati Kusuma and Aviria Ermamilia

Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the most major micronutrient deficiencies worldwide. Food fortification is one strategy for reducing IDA in the population despite…

Abstract

Purpose

Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the most major micronutrient deficiencies worldwide. Food fortification is one strategy for reducing IDA in the population despite concern regarding the gut pathogenic bacteria overgrowth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of iron encapsulation in banana peel matrix on iron status and gut microbiota composition in iron deficiency anemia.

Design/methodology/approach

Anemia was induced in 35 male Sprague Dawley rats of age two weeks by the administration of iron-free diet for two weeks. Rats then randomly divided into control, iron-fortified tempeh (temFe) dose 10 and 20 ppm, iron matrix-fortified tempeh dose 10 and 20 ppm and iron matrix fortified tempeh dose 10 and 20 ppm with probiotic mixture. Blood was drawn at Weeks 2 and 6 for hemoglobin and serum iron analysis. Rats were sacrificed at the end of Week 6, and cecal contents were collected for Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria and Enterobactericeae analysis.

Findings

Hemoglobin and serum iron were significantly increased (p < 0.05) in all iron-fortified group with the highest value found in iron matrix dose 20 ppm (10.71 ± 0.15 g/dl and 335.83 ± 2.17 µg/dl, respectively). The cecal Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria did not differ significantly between groups. Cecal Enterobactericeae was significantly different (p < 0.05) among groups with the lowest level in the temFe-20 (2.65 ± 0.78 log CFU) group.

Research limitations/implications

The use of commercial inoculum instead of pure Rhizopus oligosporus mold for developing the fortified tempeh may impact the effect of product on cecal gut microbiota composition, as different molds and lactic acid bacteria can grow in tempeh when using commercial inoculum.

Social implications

In Indonesia, iron fortification is conducted primarily in noodles and flour that limits the impact of iron fortification for reducing IDA in population. Iron fortification in food that was daily consumed by people, that is, tempeh, is potential strategy in reducing IDA in population.

Originality/value

Tempeh fortification using encapsulated iron improved iron status and gut microbiota composition in iron deficiency anemia.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 48 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 29 September 2022

Mónica Moreno, Rocío Ortiz and Pilar Ortiz

Heavy rainfall is one of the main causes of the degradation of historic rammed Earth architecture. For this reason, ensuring the conservation thereof entails understanding…

Abstract

Purpose

Heavy rainfall is one of the main causes of the degradation of historic rammed Earth architecture. For this reason, ensuring the conservation thereof entails understanding the factors involved in these risk situations. The purpose of this study is to research three past events in which rainfall caused damage and collapse to historic rammed Earth fortifications in Andalusia in order to analyse whether it is possible to prevent similar situations from occurring in the future.

Design/methodology/approach

The three case studies analysed are located in the south of Spain and occurred between 2017 and 2021. The hazard presented by rainfall within this context has been obtained from Art-Risk 3.0 (Registration No. 201999906530090). The vulnerability of the structures has been assessed with the Art-Risk 1 model. To characterise the strength, duration, and intensity of precipitation events, a workflow for the statistical use of GPM and GSMaP satellite resources has been designed, validated, and tested. The strength of the winds has been evaluated from data from ground-based weather stations.

Findings

GSMaP precipitation data is very similar to data from ground-based weather stations. Regarding the three risk events analysed, although they occurred in areas with a torrential rainfall hazard, the damage was caused by non-intense rainfall that did not exceed 5 mm/hour. The continuation of the rainfall for several days and the poor state of conservation of the walls seem to be the factors that triggered the collapses that fundamentally affected the restoration mortars.

Originality/value

A workflow applied to vulnerability and hazard analysis is presented, which validates the large-scale use of satellite images for past and present monitoring of heritage structure risk situations due to rain.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2004

Zhengxing Chen and Wilna Oldewage‐Theron

This is the pilot study of a larger project in which fortification was evaluated in a clinical intervention trial in the Vaal Triangle of South Africa. The main purpose is…

Abstract

This is the pilot study of a larger project in which fortification was evaluated in a clinical intervention trial in the Vaal Triangle of South Africa. The main purpose is to determine the suitability of stock cubes and stock powder as possible vehicles for fortification. A questionnaire was developed to determine stock cube and stock powder consumption patterns and handed out to the 802 subjects in the randomly selected sample, after testing for reliability. The results showed that 97 per cent of respondents (n=802) used stock cubes or powder daily in cooking, mainly stews, with the total consumption being 26 per cent chicken, 24 per cent beef, 15 per cent oxtail, 12 per cent mutton, 12 per cent tomato and 11 per cent vegetable. Stock cubes (79 per cent) were more popular than stock powder (21 per cent). From a consumption point of view, compared with other staple foods such as wheat flour, sugar and maize meal, stock cubes and/or stock powder are consumed on a daily basis by 97 per cent respondents and might thus be suitable vehicles for delivering micronutrients to many population groups without major changes in food production or changes in customary diets.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 June 2010

Jing Zhang, Shifei Shen and Rui Yang

The purpose of this paper is to focus on resource allocation and information disclosure policy for defending multiple targets against intentional attacks. The intentional…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on resource allocation and information disclosure policy for defending multiple targets against intentional attacks. The intentional attacks, like terrorism events, probably cause great losses and fatalities. Attackers and defenders usually make decisions based on incomplete information. Adaptive attacking and defending strategies are considered, to study how both sides make more effective decisions according to previous fights.

Design/methodology/approach

A stochastic game‐theoretic approach is proposed for modeling attacker‐defender conflicts. Attackers and defenders are supposed both to be strategic decision makers and partially aware of adversary's information. Adaptive strategies are compared with different inflexible strategies in a fortification‐patrol problem, where the fortification affects the security vulnerability of targets and the patrol indicates the defensive signal.

Findings

The result shows that the intentional risk would be elevated by adaptive attack strategies. An inflexible defending strategy probably fails when facing uncertainties of adversary. It is shown that the optimal response of defenders is to adjust defending strategies by learning from previous games and assessing behaviors of adversaries to minimize the expected loss.

Originality/value

This paper explores how adaptive strategies affect attacker‐defender conflicts. The key issue is defense allocation and information disclosure policy for mitigation of intentional threats. Attackers and defenders can adjust their strategies by learning from previous fights, and the strategic adjustment of both sides may be asynchronous.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 39 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 October 2018

Laurene Boateng, Eunice Nortey, Agartha N. Ohemeng, Matilda Asante and Matilda Steiner-Asiedu

Inadequacies in several micronutrients in complementary foods, notably iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin B6 and riboflavin have been reported. Moringa oleifera leaf…

Abstract

Purpose

Inadequacies in several micronutrients in complementary foods, notably iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin B6 and riboflavin have been reported. Moringa oleifera leaf powder (MLP), prepared from dried moringa leaves is nutrient-rich and has been explored for the treatment of micronutrient deficiencies among children in developing countries. This increasing interest in the use of moringa oleifera leaves to improve complementary foods notwithstanding, the unique sensory characteristics of the leaf powder potentially holds implications for the acceptability of local diets that are fortified with it. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the levels of MLP fortification that are most acceptable for feeding infants and young children.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors performed a review of the literature, with the aim of investigating the sensory attributes and acceptable levels of fortification of complementary food blends fortified with different levels of MLP.

Findings

The minimum amount of MLP to be added to a complementary food blend to observe significant improvements in its nutritional value was estimated to be about 10 per cent. However, at this 10 per cent fortification level also, sensory attributes of the products begin to become less desirable.

Practical implications

For the success of nutrition interventions that involve the use of MLP to improve the nutritional quality of complementary foods, there is a need to consider the acceptability of the sensory attributes of the formulated blends in the target group. Safety of MLP as an ingredient in infant foods must also be investigated.

Originality/value

The authors of this paper make recommendations for the use of MLP to fortify complementary foods to ensure its success as a food fortificant in nutrition interventions. The researchers are not aware of any published study that focuses on this subject.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 June 2018

Toto Sudargo, Harry Freitag Luglio Muhammad, Istiti Kandarina, Nurul Putri, Sugeng Eko Irianto, Yosephin Anandati Pranoto and Rathi Paramastri

Stunting and being underweight in children are major nutritional problems especially in developing countries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of egg…

Abstract

Purpose

Stunting and being underweight in children are major nutritional problems especially in developing countries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of egg supplementation on a vitamin and mineral fortification program for growth, cognitive development and hemoglobin in underweight and stunted children.

Design/methodology/approach

This was an experimental study using a crossover design conducted in Yogyakarta province, Indonesia. A total of 39 subjects were randomly selected from two community health centers and provided with two types of intervention: vitamin and mineral fortification sprinkle (Taburia) and Taburia with egg supplementation (Taburia PLUS). Each intervention was conducted for three months with one-month of washout period in between interventions.

Findings

There were no changes in weight-for-age Z-score in Taburia and Taburia PLUS (all p > 0.05). The height-for-age Z-score was increased in Taburia PLUS (p = 0.022) but not in Taburia (p > 0.05). Hemoglobin level was significantly increased in Taburia (p = 0.039) but not in Taburia PLUS (p > 0.05). There were no significant changes in visual motoric score in Taburia, but there were slight increases in Taburia PLUS (all p > 0.05).

Originality/value

The authors concluded that egg supplementation combined with multivitamins and minerals fortification program, Taburia PLUS, is beneficial to improve linear growth but not hemoglobin in stunted and underweight children.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 48 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 April 2020

Jozaa Z. ALTamimi, Nora A. ALFaris, Fatima Ail Alghamdi, Hind A. Abu-Hiamed, Nawal A. ALbadr and Lujain Abdulaziz Almousa

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of roselle flower extract and date palm pollen on the nutritional and sensory qualities of date palm spathe beverage (DPSB).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of roselle flower extract and date palm pollen on the nutritional and sensory qualities of date palm spathe beverage (DPSB).

Design/methodology/approach

The nutritional composition and sensorial quality of the date palm spathe-based beverage were evaluated. The product was fortified with different concentrations (1 per cent and 5 per cent) of roselle flowers and 1 per cent date palm pollen grains.

Findings

Generally, fortification of the DPSB with roselle flowers only or the combination of roselle flowers and date palm pollen grains significantly affected the nutritional and sensory properties of the products. The total dissolved solids, turbidity and total contents of proteins; fats; carbohydrates; vitamins A, E and C; iron; nickel and copper were highest in the DPSB fortified with a mixture of 1 per cent roselle flower extract and 1 per cent pollen grains and lowest in the DPSB supplemented with 1 per cent roselle flower extract. The manganese and selenium contents were both highest and lowest in DPSB supplemented with 5 per cent and 1 per cent roselle flower extract, respectively. Antioxidant activity was highest in DPSB supplemented with the 5 per cent roselle flower extract and lowest in unfortified DPSB. Boron, molybdenum and zinc contents were highest in unfortified DPSB. All sensory attributes were highest in both the unfortified DPSB and that fortified with 1 per cent roselle flower extract.

Originality/value

While fortification with a combination of 1 per cent roselle flower extract and 1 per cent date palm pollen grains improved the nutritional quality of the DPSB, it negatively affected the sensory attributes of the products.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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