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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2018

Mohammed Azab, Abdel-Ellah Al-Shudifat, Lana Agraib, Sabika Allehdan and Reema Tayyem

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between micronutrient intake and coronary heart disease (CHD) in middle-aged Jordanian participants.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between micronutrient intake and coronary heart disease (CHD) in middle-aged Jordanian participants.

Design/methodology/approach

A case-control study was conducted among patients referring for elective coronary angiography. A total of 400 patients were enrolled in this study. Face-to-face interview was used to complete food frequency questionnaire from which the authors derived usual daily intake of micronutrients. The mean age of participates was 52 years and their average BMI was 30.7 kg/m2. Multinomial logistic regression model and linear logistic regression model were used to calculate odd ratios (OR) and its 95 per cent confidence interval (CI) and p-value for trend, respectively. The association between the risk of CHD and micronutrients intake was adjusted for the age, gender, BMI, smoking, physical activity, total energy intake, occupation, education level, marital status and family history.

Findings

The study results showed no significant differences between cases and controls for dietary intakes of micronutrients, except for the intake of calcium (p < 0.005), magnesium (p < 0.025), phosphorus (p < 0.023) and potassium (p < 0.006) which were lower in cases than controls. Although no significant trend was observed between most of the dietary intake of micronutrients and the risk of developing CHD, a significant protective effect of magnesium [OR 0.52; 95 per cent CI (0.29-0.95)], phosphorus [OR 0.44; 95 per cent CI (0.24-0.80)] and potassium [OR 0.41; 95 per cent CI (0.22-0.74)] against the risk of CHD was detected.

Originality/value

The findings from this study provide strong evidence that the intake of micronutrients such as calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and potassium has no significant associations with the risk of CHD.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 August 2020

Flavia Andrew Kiwango, Musa Chacha and Jofrey Raymond

This study aims to update the information on the current status of micronutrient fortification for iron, zinc, folic acid and vitamin A in mandatory fortified food…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to update the information on the current status of micronutrient fortification for iron, zinc, folic acid and vitamin A in mandatory fortified food vehicles such as cooking oil, wheat and maize flours in Tanzania.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional study was conducted in five regions to analyze the adequacy of micronutrient fortification in mandatory fortified food vehicles. Samples of fortified edible oil (n = 19), wheat flour (n = 12) and maize flour (n = 5) were sampled conveniently from local markets and supermarkets. Samples were analyzed for vitamins (vitamin A and folic acid) and mineral (iron and zinc) content using high-performance liquid chromatography and microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometer, respectively. Compliance acceptable ranges between the minimum and maximum levels for each nutrient were used as a basis for compliance.

Findings

The results showed that 83.3% and 80% of wheat and maize flour samples, respectively, complied with iron fortification standards (p = 0.05). Only 25% of wheat flour samples and 40% of maize flour samples were within the acceptable ranges for zinc fortification (p = 0.05). Nearly 17% and 20% of wheat and maize flour samples, respectively, were within the acceptable ranges for folic acid fortification (p = 0.05). Moreover, about 10.5% of the analyzed cooking oils were adequately fortified with vitamin A (p = 0.05). Except for iron in wheat and maize flours, the levels of other micronutrients in mandatorily fortified foods were out of acceptable ranges.

Originality/value

Mandatory fortification is still far from the established standards, and this calls for a review of the current fortification strategies regarding standards, training, monitoring and enforcement in Tanzania.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 September 2012

Ignasius Radix A., Vellingiri Vadivel, Donatus Nohr and Hans Konrad Biesalski

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the contribution of each food group from the typical Indonesian diet to the daily intake of micronutrients and to the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the contribution of each food group from the typical Indonesian diet to the daily intake of micronutrients and to the micronutrient deficiency status of different age groups of the Indonesian population, and also to formulate a healthier diet using linear programming.

Design/methodology/approach

Data on typical Indonesian diet, food items and serving sizes were obtained from the Indonesian Socio Economic Survey. Each food item of the diet and its serving size were noted and their iron (mg.day−1), zinc (mg.day−1) and vitamin A (Retinol Equivalent, RE.day−1) contribution were calculated. Adequacy of typical diet was determined in comparison to RDA. Linear programming calculations were performed using POM‐QM for windows version 3.

Findings

The highest iron and zinc contributor in each age group was white rice and for vitamin A was the chicken and meat group. Iron deficiency in young adults was 38 per cent, children (26 per cent) and adult group (11 per cent). Zinc deficiency in young adult was 64 per cent children (60 per cent) and adult groups (45 per cent). Vitamin A deficiency in children was 57 per cent, adult (29 per cent) and young adult group (16 per cent). Linear programming can be used to formulate balanced diet.

Research limitations/implications

Varieties of foods used to formulate the balanced diet in this paper were limited. For future research, more detailed formulation can be proposed.

Practical implications

The paper shows that Indonesians needs to consume more vegetables to achieve the micronutrient requirement.

Originality/value

The recommended dietary formulation can improve the micronutrient deficiency status among different age groups in Indonesia and the approach of the research can be implemented in other countries.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 42 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 September 2010

Varsha Rani, Denisse E. Arends and Inge D. Brouwer

Measures of dietary diversity are relatively simple and associated with nutrient adequacy and nutritional status. The aim of this study is to validate dietary diversity…

Abstract

Purpose

Measures of dietary diversity are relatively simple and associated with nutrient adequacy and nutritional status. The aim of this study is to validate dietary diversity score (DDS) as an indicator of nutrient adequacy of diet of Indian rural children aged five to eight years.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross‐sectional survey among 232 children (five to eight years) was conducted using a 24 h recall. Food variety score (FVS) and DDSs were calculated. Probability of adequacies of vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, iron and zinc, and mean probability of adequacy was used to assess nutrient adequacy. To determine associations between dietary diversity and nutrient adequacy, nutrient adequacy and socio‐economic status (SES), partial rank correlations were conducted.

Findings

Vitamin C and iron had the lowest probability of adequacy (PA) while vitamin A and zinc had the highest PA. Mean probability of adequate micronutrient intake (MPA) across five micronutrients was 40 percent. Mean DDS was 6.5 and mean FVS was 12.2. DDS was significantly correlated (p < 0.01) with PA vitamin A (r = 0.17), PA vitamin C (r = 0.36) and mean MPA (r = 0.21). Correlations for FVS were significant and stronger than those of DDS with all micronutrients. Adjustments for SES indicators did not further change the correlations. The best DDS cut‐off point for nutritionally adequate diet with MPA of 75 percent was between six and seven food groups.

Originality/value

DDS and FVS can be useful tools to give a good indication of nutritional adequacy of diet in resource‐poor settings. Additionally, a DDS between six and seven should suffice to identify subjects with a nutritionally adequate diet with MPA of 75 percent with optimal sensitivity and specificity.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 40 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

David Godfrey and David Richardson

Although it is possible to achieve a balanced diet by eating a variety of foods, it is clear that there is a gap between the ideal and the reality of what people actually…

3304

Abstract

Although it is possible to achieve a balanced diet by eating a variety of foods, it is clear that there is a gap between the ideal and the reality of what people actually eat. For individuals at all stages of life and with changing lifestyles where food selections may compromise optimal nutrition, nutrient‐dense foods including fortified foods and food supplements can serve as an effective means of ensuring that micronutrient needs are fulfilled. Populations at risk include the elderly, women at various life stages, children and adolescents, and people trying to lose weight. Efficacy and safety are key health issues: efficacy refers to the ability of vitamins and minerals either to prevent a deficiency, to enhance a physiological effect or to reduce the risk of disease; safety refers to the safe intake of a micronutrient to avoid adverse effects. Safety is the fundamental tenet of the scientific risk assessments and the cornerstone of food safety policy and legislation. Harmonisation of laws on food fortification and food supplements at EU level will help to ensure a high level of public health and consumer protection and facilitate the free circulation of food products within the community.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 104 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 September 2010

Anuradha Goyle and Shyam Prakash

Iron deficiency anaemia is widely prevalent amongst women and children in India. The aim of the paper is to study the effect of supplementation of micronutrient fortified…

425

Abstract

Purpose

Iron deficiency anaemia is widely prevalent amongst women and children in India. The aim of the paper is to study the effect of supplementation of micronutrient fortified biscuits on haemoglobin and serum iron levels of adolescent girls (n = 46, 10‐16 years) studying in a government school in Jaipur city, India.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was designed to be an intervention study. The intervention was with biscuits fortified with 30 mg iron, 100  μg folic acid, 600  μg vitamin A, 40 mg vitamin C and 150  μg iodine. The iron status of adolescent girls was determined through haemoglobin and serum iron levels.

Findings

The results revealed that 95.7 per cent of the adolescent girls suffered from anaemia of which 28.3 per cent had “mild” deficiency and 67.4 per cent had “moderate” deficiency. Anaemia was more prevalent in the older age groups. On supplementation, there was a significant increase in the haemoglobin levels. There was a three‐fold increase in the percentage of adolescent girls in the “normal” category of anaemia from 4.3 to 13.0 per cent and more than two‐fold decrease in the “moderate” category of anaemia from 67.4 to 28.3 per cent. Moreover, 21.7 per cent of the subjects had “normal” levels while the rest (78.3 per cent) had low levels of serum iron; the percentage of adolescent girls in the normal category increased to 93.5 per cent after intervention on the basis of serum iron levels.

Research limitations/implications

Supplementation with iron and folic acid with other micronutrients improved the haemoglobin and serum iron levels of the adolescent girls significantly.

Originality/value

The paper recommends that the school system can be used for micronutrient supplementation to improve the nutritional status of children and adolescents as the students are more regimented here for distribution of nutrient fortified food products.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 40 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 August 2022

Katherine Mommaerts, Nanette V. Lopez, Carolyn Camplain, Chesleigh Keene, Ashley Marie Hale and Ricky Camplain

Using a seven-day cycle menu and commissary items at a rural county jail, this study aims to describe provisions of micronutrients known to be associated with mental…

Abstract

Purpose

Using a seven-day cycle menu and commissary items at a rural county jail, this study aims to describe provisions of micronutrients known to be associated with mental health disorders and if they meet dietary guidelines.

Design/methodology/approach

The nutritional content of a seven-day cycle menu and four available commissary food packs were evaluated using NutritionCalc® Plus software (McGraw-Hill Education version 5.0.19) and compared to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI).

Findings

Menu mean values of Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Vitamin C and zinc met DRI recommendations. However, Vitamin D (for men and women), magnesium (for men only) and omega-3s (for men only) did not meet the DRI recommendations.

Originality/value

As deficits of Vitamin D, magnesium and omega-3s are known to exacerbate bipolar disorder, anxiety and depression, small changes to food would increase the offerings and potential intake of nutrients that may improve mental health.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2004

Zhengxing Chen and Wilna Oldewage‐Theron

This is the pilot study of a larger project in which fortification was evaluated in a clinical intervention trial in the Vaal Triangle of South Africa. The main purpose is…

Abstract

This is the pilot study of a larger project in which fortification was evaluated in a clinical intervention trial in the Vaal Triangle of South Africa. The main purpose is to determine the suitability of stock cubes and stock powder as possible vehicles for fortification. A questionnaire was developed to determine stock cube and stock powder consumption patterns and handed out to the 802 subjects in the randomly selected sample, after testing for reliability. The results showed that 97 per cent of respondents (n=802) used stock cubes or powder daily in cooking, mainly stews, with the total consumption being 26 per cent chicken, 24 per cent beef, 15 per cent oxtail, 12 per cent mutton, 12 per cent tomato and 11 per cent vegetable. Stock cubes (79 per cent) were more popular than stock powder (21 per cent). From a consumption point of view, compared with other staple foods such as wheat flour, sugar and maize meal, stock cubes and/or stock powder are consumed on a daily basis by 97 per cent respondents and might thus be suitable vehicles for delivering micronutrients to many population groups without major changes in food production or changes in customary diets.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 September 2020

Pride Anya Ebile, Hycenth Tim Ndah and Jens Norbert Wünsche

Limited data are available in facilitating nutritional interventions in developing countries. The objective of this study is to assess the mean dietary diversity score…

Abstract

Purpose

Limited data are available in facilitating nutritional interventions in developing countries. The objective of this study is to assess the mean dietary diversity score (DDS)of Mbororo minority women in the Northwest region of Cameroon.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used the random sampling technique within the Mbororo minority communities (Adorates). A questionnaire on dietary diversity, including 461 Mbororo women, provided information on food consumed using the 24-h dietary recall method.

Findings

Various socio-cultural and economic characteristics of the Mbororo women affected the nutrient level of their diet. Moreover, starchy staples, vitamin-A rich vegetables and palm oil and milk and milk products were consumed by more than half of the Mbororo community. Family herd size showed a positive influence on the dietary habit of the Mbororo population. The mean DDS significantly increased (p = 0.001), as herd size increased from below 50 (3.9 ± 1.1) to above 100 (4.8 ± 1.2).

Practical implications

Most of the diet consumed by the Mbororo women were low in iron, making them susceptible to nutrition anemia. The diet of the Aku women was more deficient in micronutrients than their Jaafun counterpart. These results indicate suitable areas of intervention for any nutrition program that targets the Mbororo minority group of Northwest Cameron.

Social implications

DDS can be used in assessing and classifying the population in rural communities according to the deficiencies in micronutrients of their diet.

Originality/value

The use of DDS to assess the nutrient quality of diets is frequently used to evaluate the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies but has never been applied to Mbororo minority women.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 October 2020

Seyedeh Parisa Moosavian, Awat Feizi, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh and Leila Azadbakht

There is limited knowledge about the association of food insecurity and dietary quality among the Iranian households. The purpose of this study is to determine diet…

Abstract

Purpose

There is limited knowledge about the association of food insecurity and dietary quality among the Iranian households. The purpose of this study is to determine diet quality among the Iranian households and to investigate whether dietary quality is associated with food security status in this population.

Design/methodology/approach

The 18-item household food security questionnaire was administered to 200 households from different parts of Isfahan, Iran. Households were selected by two-stage cluster randomized sampling. Households were categorized into four groups based on their score on the questionnaire; food secure (total score 0), mild food insecure (total score 1–2), moderate food insecure (total score 3–7) and severe food insecure (total score 8–18). In the second stage of the study, 25 households were selected from each food security status group to evaluate the micronutrient adequacy and assess the adherence to Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010).

Findings

Food-secure households had higher adherence to the AHEI-2010 than food-insecure households (p < 0.001). Food-secure households consistently achieved higher value of the nutrient adequacy ratio for most of the micronutrients than food-insecure households, with the greatest differences seen for zinc (p < 0.001) in households (father, mother and first child), vitamin D (p < 0.001), vitamin A (father: p = 0.05, mother: p = 0.04), calcium (p < 0.001) and iron (father: p = 0.02, mother: p < 0.001) in mother and father.

Originality/value

Low dietary quality was associated with food insecurity. Food-secure households had higher micronutrient adequacy ratio for most of the nutrients.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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