Search results

1 – 10 of 37
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Gurmeet Kaur, M.L. Singh and M.S. Patterh

Fiber nonlinearities are anticipated to impose transmission limitations due to the enhanced total interaction length in long‐haul dense wavelength division multiplexing…

Abstract

Purpose

Fiber nonlinearities are anticipated to impose transmission limitations due to the enhanced total interaction length in long‐haul dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) optical transmission systems. The purpose of this paper is to analytically study the combined effect of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and four‐wave mixing (FWM) in the presence of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise generated by erbium‐doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents analytical analysis of DWDM optical transmission systems in the presence of two significant fiber nonlinearities (SRS and FWM).

Findings

Simple expressions are derived to study the dependence of signal‐to‐noise ratio (SNR) on the amplifier spacing between two consecutive amplifiers.

Originality/value

The authors have analytically studied the combined effect of SRS and FWM in the presence of ASE noise generated by EDFAs. The novelty of the work is that it has considered all the three factors simultaneously and the expressions are derived for calculation of SNR.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Ufuk Parali and Cahit Pinar

The purpose of this study is to develop new tandem configurations of erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) using all possible pump-signal-direction schemes in simulation to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop new tandem configurations of erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) using all possible pump-signal-direction schemes in simulation to identify a system configuration with the best performance in the means of the highest gain with the lowest noise figure (NF) output.

Design/methodology/approach

The spatial evolution of the physical properties such as gain, NF, population density and amplified spontaneous emission along the total length of the double-stage single-pass EDFA and single-stage double-pass EDFA configurations under all possible pumping direction schemes was investigated. Giles and Desurvire method was used for the mathematical modeling of these configurations where the two level coupled system model equations was solved in MATLAB. In the simulation of the all proposed configurations, an input signal of −35 dBm at the wavelength of 1550 nm and a total of 14 mW pump power at the wavelength of 1480 nm was used for a consistent analysis.

Findings

The numerical value of the results obtained is specific to the input parameter values used in the simulations; however, configuration-wise, the EDFA systems found with the best performance are not parameter specific.

Originality/value

The results of this numerical work will help future experimental research of designing and developing ultra-efficient EDFA systems.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Gurmeet Kaur, M.L. Singh and M.S. Patterh

The current generation of light wave systems benefit from increased transmission distance by using optical amplification and increased capacity by using dense wavelength…

Abstract

Purpose

The current generation of light wave systems benefit from increased transmission distance by using optical amplification and increased capacity by using dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) technology. The reach of present systems is limited by the noise contributed by the used amplifiers, combined with nonlinear effects from transmission. This paper aims to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The nature and extent of degradations in the optical DWDM systems due to these limiting factors have been discussed in this paper.

Findings

It has been learnt that stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), four wave mixing (FWM) and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) are the important factors in optical DWDM systems. These factors limit the system capacity of the transmission systems drastically.

Originality/value

It can be concluded from the discussion that while designing an efficient DWDM system, an optimization of the channel separation and the amplifier separation is required to minimize the nonlinear effects (FWM and SRS) along with the ASE noise introduced by inline optical amplifications.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Robert W. Bogue

To describe a new technique, developed in Korea, which extends the operational length of fibre Bragg grating strain and temperature sensors to approximately 50 km. It is…

Abstract

Purpose

To describe a new technique, developed in Korea, which extends the operational length of fibre Bragg grating strain and temperature sensors to approximately 50 km. It is based on distributed Raman amplification.Design/methodology/approach – The system uses a single pump source to achieve distributed Raman amplification in the transmission optical fibre and does not employ an additional broadband light source, as the residual pump power after the transmission fibre is recycled to generate broadband amplified spontaneous emission in an erbium‐doped fibre.Findings – The temperature and strain response of the system was tested by measuring changes in reflection from the sensor which were captured on an optical spectrum analyser, located at the end of a 50 km length of fibre. The thermal sensitivity was found to be 8.2 pm/°C over the range 30‐100°C and a strain sensitivity of 1.1 pm/με was exhibited between 0 and 1,700 με. The measurement resolutions of the system for temperature and strain were estimated at 0.7°C and 8.64 με, respectively. The signal‐to‐noise ratio was approximately 11 dB.Originality/value – This work has shown that the use of distributed Raman amplification can extend the operational length of fibre Bragg grating sensors from around 25 km to at least 50 km, whilst achieving good strain and temperature sensitivities.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Chih-Ta Yen and Guan-Jie Huang

The purpose of this paper is to propose a new optical steganography framework that can be applied to public optical binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) systems by…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a new optical steganography framework that can be applied to public optical binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) systems by transmitting a stealth spectrum-amplitude-coded optical code-division multiple-access signal through a BPSK link.

Design/methodology/approach

By using high-dispersion elements, the stealth data pulses temporally stretch and the amplitude of the signal decreases after stretching. Thus, the signal can be hidden underneath the public signal and system noise. At the receiver end, a polarizer is used for removing the public BPSK signal and the stealth signal is successfully recovered by a balanced detector.

Findings

In a simulation, the bit-error rate (BER) performance improved when the stealth power increased.

Research limitations/implications

The BER performance worsens when the noise power become large. Future work will consider increasing the system performance during high-noise power situation.

Practical implications

By properly adjusting the power of the amplified spontaneous emission noise, the stealth signal can be hidden well in the public channel while producing minimal influence on the public BPSK signal.

Originality/value

In conclusion, the proposed optical steganography framework makes it more difficult for eavesdroppers to detect and intercept the hidden stealth channel under public transmission, even when using a dispersion compensation scheme.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Yage Zhan, Ziyang Shen, Zeyu Sun, Qiao Yu, Hong Liu and Yong Kong

The purpose of this paper is to theoretically analyze and experimentally demonstrate the investigation of and present a kind of sensing system for monitoring simultaneous…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to theoretically analyze and experimentally demonstrate the investigation of and present a kind of sensing system for monitoring simultaneous temperature and strain measurements based on highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) and single mode fiber (SMF).

Design/methodology/approach

First, the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) characteristics of the HNLF have been studied, including the Brillouin gain bandwidth, Brillouin gain center frequency and SBS threshold. Second, based on the Brillouin gain center frequency, the Brillouin frequency shift coefficients of strain and temperature in HNLF have been studied. Third, the sensing and signal interrogation scheme for simultaneous monitoring of temperature and strain with high resolution has been presented.

Findings

It is found that the HNLF has a wider Brillouin gain bandwidth. The SBS threshold of HNLF is 78 mW, which is much larger than 7.9 mW of SMF. Also, the Brillouin frequency shift coefficients of strain and temperature in HNLF are 0.0308 and 0.413 MHz/°C, respectively.

Originality/value

The larger threshold of SBS is useful to avoid SBS under certain situations that Spontaneous Brillouin Scattering is necessary and should be applied. The technique is based on the fact that the Brillouin frequency shift coefficients of strain and temperature in HNLF are different from those in SMF. Therefore, the two-parameter monitoring can be achieved by producing SBS and obtaining the back-scattering Brillouin signal light simultaneously in HNLF and SMF.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Fangfang Liu, Jingfan Wang, Lijuan Chen, Ruijun Li, Haojie Xia and Liandong Yu

There is an increasing demand for higher-accuracy dimensional measurements of nano- and micro-structures. Recently, the authors presented a fiber Bragg grating (FBG…

Abstract

Purpose

There is an increasing demand for higher-accuracy dimensional measurements of nano- and micro-structures. Recently, the authors presented a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor-based dynamic nano-coordinate-measuring machine (CMM) probe for true three-dimensional coordinate measurement, in which a specific mechanical structure with several FBG sensors was developed to provide the probe with sensitivity to loading in all directions.

Design/methodology/approach

The study presents a three-dimensional sensing and demodulation system based on an improved matched filter design and the time division multiplexing technique that helps solve the problem of multiplex FBG-signals conflicts. In addition, the application of the dynamic mode of the probe system effectively solves the problem presented by the surface interaction forces.

Findings

Consequently, this FBG-based vibrating probe system has increased sensitivity to strain, while maintaining smaller contact force. The experiments for testing probe performance show that the prototype yielded a measurement resolution of 13 nm, a repeatability of 50 nm and a vertical measurement force of less than1.5 mN.

Research limitations/implications

The force tests in the horizontal directions are difficult to conduct because both the probe and the dynamometer are only adaptable to vertical use.

Practical implications

Development of the FBG-based dynamic nano-coordinate-measuring machine probe will achieve a new and inexpensive method for higher-accuracy dimensional measurements of nano- and micro-structures, such as micro-electromechanical systems, micro-fluidic chips, inkjet and diesel engine injector nozzles that are in overall dimensions within the micrometer scale.

Originality/value

The study presents a three-dimensional sensing and demodulation system for the vibrating nano-coordinate-measuring machine probe based on FBG sensors. The prototype yielded a measurement resolution of 13 nm, a repeatability of 50 nm and a vertical measurement force of less than1.5 mN.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here

Abstract

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Content available
Article

Theo C. Haupt

Abstract

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Meng Jiang, Ze-Ming Wang, Zhong-Ze Zhao, Kun Li and Fu Yang

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a simple fiber sensor for simultaneous measurement of liquid refractive-index (RI) and temperature.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a simple fiber sensor for simultaneous measurement of liquid refractive-index (RI) and temperature.

Design/methodology/approach

The sensor structure is formed by a long period fiber grating cascaded with a section of thin-core fiber. The long period fiber grating is fabricated on single mode fiber, followed by a section of 20-mm length thin-core fiber which is a modal interferometer.

Findings

Cladding mode interference between long period fiber grating and thin-core fiber modal interferometer is weak in the experimental investigation. Both of these two cladding mode type fiber devices are sensitive to surrounding RI and temperature. So the RI and temperature can be measured simultaneously by monitoring the spectral characteristics of the compound sensor. The sensitivity is calibrated and sensor matrix is provided in the experiment.

Originality/value

This proposed fiber sensor is simple, tough, cost-effective and suitable for discriminate the liquid RI and temperature with high sensitivity.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

1 – 10 of 37