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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2021

Sami Ullah, Muhammad Nadeem, Kishwar Ali and Qaiser Abbas

In this paper, the authors investigate that the increasing level of fossil fuel combustion in the industrial sector has been considered the prime cause for the emissions

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, the authors investigate that the increasing level of fossil fuel combustion in the industrial sector has been considered the prime cause for the emissions of greenhouse gas. Meanwhile, the research focusing on the impact of fossil fuel consumption on the emission of CO2 is limited for the developing countries containing Vietnam. This study applied the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach with structural breaks presence, and the Bayer–Hanck combined cointegration method to observe the rationality of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis in the dynamic relationship between the industrialization and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission in Vietnam, capturing the role of foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows and the fossil fuel consumption over the period of 1975–2019. The outcomes revealed the confirmation of cointegration among the variables and both short and long-run regression parameters indicated the evidence for the presence of a U-shaped association between the level of industrial growth and CO2 emission that is further confirmed by employing the Lind and Mehlum U-test for robustness purpose. The results of Granger causality discovered a unidirectional causality from FDI and fossil fuel consumption to CO2 emission in the short run. For the policy points, this study suggests the use of efficient and low carbon-emitting technologies.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to test for consistency and robustness of the cointegration analysis, this study also applied the ARDL bound testing method to find out long-run association among variables with the existence of the structural break in the dataset. The ARDL method was preferred to other traditional cointegration models; because of the smaller dataset, the results obtained from the ARDL method are efficient and consistent and equally appropriate for I(1) and I(0) variables.

Findings

The short-run and long-run causal associations among variables have been observed by employing the error correction term (ECT) augmented Granger-causality test that revealed the presence of the long-run causality among variables only when the CO2 emission is employed as a dependent variable. The outcomes for short-run causality indicated the presence of unidirectional causality between consumption of fossil fuel and CO2 emission, where the fossil fuel consumptions Granger-cause CO2 emission. Industrial growth has also been found to have an impact on fossil fuel consumptions, however not the opposite. This advocates that the policies aimed at reducing the fossil fuel consumptions would not be harmful to industrial growth as other energy efficient and cleaner technology could be implemented by the firms to substitute the fossil fuel usage.

Originality/value

The study explored the dynamic relationship among FDI, consumption of fossil fuel, industrial growth and the CO2 emission in Vietnam for the time period 1975–2019. The newly established Bayer–Hanck joint cointegration method and the ARDL bound testing were employed by taking into account the structural breaks in the dataset.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1999

X. Guntín‐Araujo, M.L. Chas‐Amil and M.C. Lorenzo‐Díaz

The gas emissions towards the atmosphere are one of the main and most actual environmental problems in the world. The effects of greenhouse gas emissions have been studied…

Abstract

The gas emissions towards the atmosphere are one of the main and most actual environmental problems in the world. The effects of greenhouse gas emissions have been studied and treated recently in the Climate Change Conference in Kyoto. In the approved Kyoto Protocol, the European Union will reduce emissions by 8 per cent, the USA by 7 per cent, and Japan by 6 per cent. The data for each country are used to implement policies and make global decisions regarding the level of emissions allowed in the future. For this reason, a study more in depth about the origin and level of emissions from a regional perspective becomes necessary, due to the implications on regional development. The study provides detailed information regarding atmospheric emissions in Spanish regions. Shows that in many cases the atmospheric emissions are not directly related to the economic situations of each region. For this reason, environmental policies should pay attention to the regional differences within a country.

Details

Environmental Management and Health, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-6163

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Article
Publication date: 7 July 2014

Nnyaladzi Batisani and Abijah Ndiane

This paper aims to report on the results of a case study in Botswana, aimed at raising awareness on climate issues. Higher-education institutions play a leading role in…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to report on the results of a case study in Botswana, aimed at raising awareness on climate issues. Higher-education institutions play a leading role in sustainability efforts, as their research role often lays the groundwork for social transformation.

Design/methodology/approach

The Clean Air-Cool Planet (CACP) campus calculator was used to calculate emissions from various sections within the college.

Findings

Total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the college is 3,432.66 metric tons CO2e resulting in per capita GHG emissions of 3.20 metric tons CO2e, which is high compared to other universities. Options for reducing emissions are proposed.

Practical implications

The procedure in carrying out the study provided learners with an opportunity to appreciate emissions from developing countries and also gain technical skills in conducting a GHG inventory. It also sensitized campus administrators about the scale of emissions and possible ways of reducing them.

Originality/value

This paper is original in that it provides campus greenhouse inventory within a developing country, a unique undertaking. Furthermore, it highlights the fact that developing countries also produce significant emissions, hence the need for mitigation measures.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2006

Laura Sariola and Esko Kukkonen

To reach building owners, architects, designers, builders and manufacturers of materials and building components in order to achieve good indoor air quality (IAQ).

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594

Abstract

Purpose

To reach building owners, architects, designers, builders and manufacturers of materials and building components in order to achieve good indoor air quality (IAQ).

Design/methodology/approach

The emission classification of building materials is a part of the Classification of Indoor Climate 2000, which is intended to be used in the design and construction of healthier and more comfortable buildings and their mechanical systems in Finland.

Findings

Manufacturers have developed new products with lower emissions by using advanced consistency of materials and improved technology in production and production control. Over the years they have improved the quality of their products so that measured harmful emissions have lowered drastically. Similar development has also been seen in the measured sensory emissions of classified materials and products. In January 2006, there were over 900 classified products.

Research limitations/implications

It is necessary to expand the emission classification of building materials because of the IAQ problems that have arisen related to emissions in the last few years. The methodology is intended for national use, but it is possible to implement the system in other countries.

Practical implications

The emission classification of building materials includes target values for odours and emissions of the materials and recommended maximum surface areas of the materials based on their emissions.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils an identified information/resources need. It is thought‐provoking and offers insights for the future planning and developing of classification systems.

Details

Facilities, vol. 24 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2011

Jan‐Erik Lane

The purpose of this paper is to show how CO2 equivalent emissions are closely linked with economic development, over time and also across countries.

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2585

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show how CO2 equivalent emissions are closely linked with economic development, over time and also across countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Emissions data from energy information administration were subjected to macro analysis, regressed upon GDP data, longitudinally and cross‐sectionally.

Findings

The conversion factor linking energy to output to pollution is estimated over time and between economies. It is today far too high, making global climate change almost certain.

Practical implications

Global environmental coordination is very difficult to achieve, given the nature of this gigantic PD game in combination with weak institutions for policy making and implementation. The only way to stabilise CO2 emissions is to focus upon the conversion factor linking energy to output to pollution.

Originality/value

The paper shows the clear and Juggernaut type connections between energy‐economic output‐CO2 emissions.

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Samir A. El Mowafi and Ahmed Gamal Atalla

The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential sustainable transportation strategies for Cairo in terms of their impact on emissions over the next ten years. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential sustainable transportation strategies for Cairo in terms of their impact on emissions over the next ten years. The considered strategies include using cleaner fuel, implementing inspection and maintenance programs and adopting emission standards for new vehicles.

Design/methodology/approach

The strategies were evaluated in terms of the expected reductions of particulate matter (PM) and ozone precursors due to the future implementation. Emissions were estimated utilizing a mix of the relevant national and international. Accordingly, a three‐phase integrated strategy is recommended, considering the local technical and institutional aspects.

Findings

In case of no actions taken, emissions of PM and ozone precursors could increase at the year 2013 by 95 and 50 percent, respectively. Implementing the proposed integrated strategy could result in reducing the emissions of PM and ozone precursors by about 53 and 49 percent, respectively.

Practical implications

The proposed strategy is applicable because the targets are set considering the local aspects. However, the estimated emission reductions could almost compensate for the increase in the fleet size over the time. Therefore, achieving real reductions of emissions requires additional strategies to be considered.

Originality/value

Owing to the lack of local emission factors and measurements, this original work highlights the expected impacts of the potential strategies for controlling vehicle emissions in Cairo. Also, the findings indicate the need to consider other additional strategies in the long term planning process.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2007

Evald Kranjcevic

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate different greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policy instruments implemented in Slovenia, especially their impact on industrial…

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1054

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate different greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policy instruments implemented in Slovenia, especially their impact on industrial competitiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

Analysis of existing mitigation policies.

Findings

The introduction of new policy instruments in Slovenia has not been very effective in curbing GHG emissions, but it certainly brought attention to the problem. As there is still a lot of space for improvements, additional effort should be made to improve existing instruments or to propose additional mitigation measures.

Practical implications

The paper evaluates existing policy instruments, which are still in their evolutional phases. The significance of this paper is to help to intensify indirect influence on GHG emissions reduction, especially on the national level, as proper introduction and understanding of the problem leads to more comprehensive and credible solutions regarding GHG emission reduction strategies. In addition, some new steps and/or measures are also indicated with this paper, especially concerning future evolution of EU emission trading scheme and national CO2 tax regulation.

Originality/value

The paper is a new source of information about implementation of GHG mitigation policy measures in Slovenia. Analysis of adaptation and mitigation activities as well as integration of all aspects of climate change issues into strategies for sustainable development is of significant importance for the relevant decision makers – to monitor the impact of their own policies for domestic assessment purposes, that is to choose a policy strategy, to understand the implications of existing and alternative policy strategies, and to understand the joint interactions of multiple, individual policy strategies.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 5 January 2015

Ravindra Kumar, Purnima Parida, Surbhi Shukla and Wafaa Saleh

– The purpose of this paper is to estimate total emission during idling of vehicles and validate emission results from real-world data.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to estimate total emission during idling of vehicles and validate emission results from real-world data.

Design/methodology/approach

Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES)2010b emission model is customised for developing country like India and a case study of the Ashram intersection in Delhi has been selected in order to measure the emissions of vehicles during idling.

Findings

Results show that 3.997 mg/m3 of hydrocarbon, 1.82 mg/m3 of NOx and 17.688 mg/m3 of carbon monoxide is emitted from the cars, trucks and buses, respectively, at Ashram intersection in one day. As there are 600 intersections throughout Delhi, a total of 2,398.055 mg/m3 of hydrocarbon, 1,087.068 mg/m3 of NOx and 10,612.612 mg/m3 of carbon monoxide is emitted from cars, trucks and buses in a day in all of Delhi.

Originality/value

Knowledge of idling emission and fuel loss is very little for Indian traffic condition during delays.

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2010

Eric G. Olson

It is clear that the trend toward measuring and managing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on a global scale is not slowing, even though different countries and geographic…

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2699

Abstract

Purpose

It is clear that the trend toward measuring and managing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on a global scale is not slowing, even though different countries and geographic regions are approaching the issue with different points of view and different levels of vigor. Along with an increase in measuring and managing GHG emissions, enterprises around the world should expect to see a higher level of independent assurance and audit reporting needed. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss the challenges and opportunities that accompany GHG emissions accounting and auditing, as well as the supply chain and operational dependencies that are different from traditional financial auditing.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper explores the challenges and opportunities from measuring and auditing GHG emissions, and contrasts audits of sustainability information with more traditional financial auditing. It also explores some of the issues in supply chain and operational dependencies that are important in measuring and auditing GHG emissions and are different from more traditional accounting practices.

Findings

With the importance of processes to independently audit GHG emissions and natural resource consumption expected to grow in the future, it is important to understand how past experience with financial accounting and auditing can play a role in shaping the future for environmental stewardship. This paper shows that there are a number of key differences between financial and carbon auditing, which must be considered as enterprises begin to consider how to best support increasingly important sustainability reporting. As more publicly traded firms voluntarily issue sustainability reports and new legislation drives a greater need for standardized carbon accounting, so too will the need for auditing GHG emissions grow. This paper explains that GHG auditing will require cross‐functional skills with operational and process knowledge, accounting capabilities and an understanding of how operational data correlates with estimates for GHG emissions.

Originality/value

Much existing work addresses why, where, how, and who should be measuring and managing GHG emissions, but little attention is being given to the unique challenges that must be overcome in order to achieve reporting transparency. Independent auditing of GHG emissions has maintained a low profile while reporting is voluntary and standards are not fully agreed upon. However, with the possibility of legally binding legislation on the horizon, enterprises that are prepared to audit their GHG emissions and resolve issues early will be well positioned from both a compliance and market‐competition perspective.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 25 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2013

Abdullah Alam

The paper aims to study the relationship between economic growth, nuclear energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for a panel of 25 countries over a period…

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1832

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to study the relationship between economic growth, nuclear energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for a panel of 25 countries over a period of 1993-2010. Through this study, the author has provided an insight into one of the available sources of energy, i.e. nuclear energy and its impact on economic growth and CO2 emissions.

Design/methodology/approach

Separate panels are created for developing and developed economies. Short- and long-run causalities between the variables are established using error correction mechanism.

Findings

For the developed countries, short-run causality running from CO2 emissions to economic growth was estimated, whereas strong form of causality indicated the dependence of CO2 emissions on economic growth and nuclear energy consumption was seen to impact CO2 emissions. For the developing countries, both the short-run and strong-form causality estimates indicate that economic growth causes CO2 emissions.

Practical implications

On policy front, developing countries can safely adopt CO2 cut-back policies as they are not found to impact economic growth. For the developed countries, such policies may impede growth in the short run, but in the long run these policies do not affect the economic growth.

Originality/value

Keeping in mind the significance of nuclear energy consumption in economic growth and less/no GHG emissions generated by nuclear energy, this study validates its significance. This study, to the best of the author's knowledge, considers the largest panel (i.e. 25 countries) to date and the only study that focuses on studying three different panels (complete dataset, developed countries, developing countries) in one study and applies the vector error correction mechanism to study the causal relationship between nuclear energy consumption, CO2 emissions and economic growth.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 40 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

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