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Article
Publication date: 30 March 2010

Gurmeet Kaur, M.L. Singh and M.S. Patterh

The current generation of light wave systems benefit from increased transmission distance by using optical amplification and increased capacity by using dense wavelength…

Abstract

Purpose

The current generation of light wave systems benefit from increased transmission distance by using optical amplification and increased capacity by using dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) technology. The reach of present systems is limited by the noise contributed by the used amplifiers, combined with nonlinear effects from transmission. This paper aims to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The nature and extent of degradations in the optical DWDM systems due to these limiting factors have been discussed in this paper.

Findings

It has been learnt that stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), four wave mixing (FWM) and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) are the important factors in optical DWDM systems. These factors limit the system capacity of the transmission systems drastically.

Originality/value

It can be concluded from the discussion that while designing an efficient DWDM system, an optimization of the channel separation and the amplifier separation is required to minimize the nonlinear effects (FWM and SRS) along with the ASE noise introduced by inline optical amplifications.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Christian R. Pedersen, Michael S. Dahl and Bent Dalum

To analyse the past developments and future challenges of the Danish ICT industries with a focus on the mobile communications industry.

Abstract

Purpose

To analyse the past developments and future challenges of the Danish ICT industries with a focus on the mobile communications industry.

Design/methodology/approach

Data on ICT employment and usage is analysed from an innovation system perspective in a case study of the Danish ICT industries.

Findings

The Danish ICT sector is characterised by high skill levels and advanced demand while the supply side is lacking behind. However, opportunities is found in the emerging next generation mobile communication network standard due to a combination of a broad skill base, influence of US firms and relatively lesser vested interests in previous generation networks, standards and business models.

Originality/value

This paper is a part of a special issue on next generation mobile telecommunications networks – challenges to the Nordic ICT industries. This paper presents the past development and future challenges of the Danish ICT industries emerging from the mismatch between demand and supply.

Details

info, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6697

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

Jim Shelnut, Matt Moynihan, Luke Little, Nick Pugliano, Bruno Sicard, Henry Zheng, Tuan Ho, Craig Allen, Garo Khanarian and Nathan Pawlowski

There are a number of organic, inorganic and hybrid inorganic waveguide materials that are currently being used for a wide variety of optical interconnect applications…

Abstract

There are a number of organic, inorganic and hybrid inorganic waveguide materials that are currently being used for a wide variety of optical interconnect applications. Depending upon the approach, waveguide formation is performed using a combination of lithographic and/or reactive ion etch techniques. Often the processes involved with waveguide formation require unique processing conditions, hazardous process chemicals and specialized pieces of capital equipment. In addition, many of the materials have been optimized for silicon substrates but are not compatible with printed wire board (PWB) substrates and processes.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2004

M.A. Mignatti, M.I. Campbell, R. Ruizpalacios, K.L. Wood and J.J. Beaman

Both the current long term telecommunication trends toward optical networking and the recent growth in information bandwidth have pushed the necessity for improved optical

Abstract

Both the current long term telecommunication trends toward optical networking and the recent growth in information bandwidth have pushed the necessity for improved optical communications. Our fabrication approach, which leverages our expertise in solid freeform fabrication in conjunction with sol‐gel technology, has advantages over these other methods because of the inherent benefits of using a direct‐write philosophy, such as design flexibility and minimal post‐processing. However, fabrication of such novel optical components requires extensive knowledge of their light guidance capabilities. This paper shows the technical issues involved in both modeling and characterizing small optical components fabricated by locally densifying sol‐gels in a modified direct‐write process.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2008

Bartosz Belter, Artur Binczewski, Gino Carrozzo, Nicolla Ciulli, Eduard Escalona, George Markidis, Reza Nejabati, Dimitra Simeonidou, Maciej Stroiński, Anna Tzanakaki and Georgios Zervas

This article seeks to introduce the concept of the Grid‐GMPLS control plane architecture with focus on new services, models, and interoperability issues of Grid‐GMPLS (G2

Abstract

Purpose

This article seeks to introduce the concept of the Grid‐GMPLS control plane architecture with focus on new services, models, and interoperability issues of Grid‐GMPLS (G2MPLS) and GMPLS control planes. The purpose of this activity is to design, implement and test extensions of the GMPLS Control Plane that can enable the paradigm of a G2MPLS network.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach deploys extended GMPLS implementations aiming to facilitate bandwidth provisioning to Grid users.

Findings

G2MPLS is a Network Control Plane architecture that implements the concept of Grid Network Services. GNS is a service that allows the provisioning of network and Grid resources in a single‐step through a set of integrated procedures. By providing a unified network/Grid infrastructure the control plane can adapt to the demands of applications having intensive requirements on both computational and network resources.

Research limitations/implications

The project delivers the prototype implementation of G2MPLS. Consideration should be given to involving the vendors of the optical equipment in the development process to incorporate the project findings into their operating systems.

Practical implications

The G2MPLS protocol stack has been designed to be compatible with the ASON/GMPLS architecture. This could lead to possible integration of Grids in the existing operational networks, by overcoming the current limitations of Grids running over dedicated networks with their own administrative procedures.

Originality/value

The paper provides the description of Grid Network Infrastructures with a common and transversal Control Plane approach based on G2MPLS, in which Grid resources and optical network resources are both controlled by the same Control Plane, seamlessly spanning the different Control and Management domains of the network.

Details

Campus-Wide Information Systems, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1065-0741

Keywords

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the research in a project aimed at developing manufacturing techniques for integrated optical and electronic interconnect printed circuit boards (OPCB) including the motivation for this research, the progress, the achievements and the interactions between the partners.

Design/methodology/approach

Several polymer waveguide fabrication methods were developed including direct laser write, laser ablation and inkjet printing. Polymer formulations were developed to suit the fabrication methods. Computer‐aided design (CAD) tools were developed and waveguide layout design rules were established. The CAD tools were used to lay out a complex backplane interconnect pattern to meet practical demanding specifications for use in a system demonstrator.

Findings

Novel polymer formulations for polyacrylate enable faster writing times for laser direct write fabrication. Control of the fabrication parameters enables inkjet printing of polysiloxane waveguides. Several different laser systems can be used to form waveguide structures by ablation. Establishment of waveguide layout design rules from experimental measurements and modelling enables successful first time layout of complex interconnection patterns.

Research limitations/implications

The complexity and length of the waveguides in a complex backplane interconnect, beyond that achieved in this paper, is limited by the bend loss and by the propagation loss partially caused by waveguide sidewall roughness, so further research in these areas would be beneficial to give a wider range of applicability.

Originality/value

The paper gives an overview of advances in polymer formulation, fabrication methods and CAD tools, for manufacturing of complex hybrid‐integrated OPCBs.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Abstract

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Wen‐Nan Tsan and Chao‐Ching Chang

Confronted with the transformation of industrial economies, the Taiwanese information technology (IT) industry has to upgrade from production to innovation orientation…

Abstract

Purpose

Confronted with the transformation of industrial economies, the Taiwanese information technology (IT) industry has to upgrade from production to innovation orientation. The paper seeks to explore what is the core competence of the Taiwanese IT industry. In brief, what kind of intellectual capital (IC) is embedded in the Taiwanese IT industry and how this IC is managed effectively. The point is to discover how the Taiwanese IT industry should start to accumulate or enhance the core resource and strategic capability for future competitive advantage.

Design/methodology/approach

The study selected a relatively representative number of IT firms in Taiwan covering six industries. This study conducted a two‐stage survey to construct a measurement model and explored the IC profile of the Taiwanese IT industries.

Findings

This study was able to identify eight IC factors as a measuring model in exploring the IC profiles of four Taiwanese IT industries. The findings indicate the stronger IC in the Taiwanese IT industry as well as the weaker side.

Research limitations/implications

The research was limited by the sample within the Taiwan information communications technology industries. It needs to be extended across further industries in the future. It should also be compared with other countries’ industrial IC under similar assessment and measurement. The significant differences between industries could be explored by case study methodology.

Practical implications

Innovation capability plays an important role in confronting the knowledge‐based economy in Taiwanese IT industries. However, there is no compelling evidence to show that investment in research and development will help to achieve the goal of establishing Taiwan as an “Asia Pacific Electronic Information Industry Resource Integration Center”.

Originality/value

This research indicates that the IC System Model developed would help us to identify the interactions among IC elements. It could help to explore whether it is true that, the higher the IC management, the higher is the influence from the input of IC to the output.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1997

Rafael Pampillón and José Luis Jiménez

In 1989, the people of Czechoslovakia ousted the communists from government after almost fifty years of rule, in a peaceful process known as the Velvet Revolution. An…

Abstract

In 1989, the people of Czechoslovakia ousted the communists from government after almost fifty years of rule, in a peaceful process known as the Velvet Revolution. An IMF‐backed stabilisation programme was launched in 1991. It comprised some liberalisations, a sharp devaluation of the currency and the unification of the exchange rate. In 1992, the Czechs and Slovaks decided to separate, in what was known as the Velvet Divorce. The separation of the Czech and Slovak Republics officially took place the 1st of January 1993 without political and social crisis. The state of the economy of the Czech Republic at the end of 1991, was as follows:

Details

Management Research News, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1994

Gary Graham and Brian Kenny

The proper matching of industry structure to strategy is expected to have a positive impact upon organisational performance. This relationship has not been fully examined…

Abstract

The proper matching of industry structure to strategy is expected to have a positive impact upon organisational performance. This relationship has not been fully examined in the defence industry. The central aim of this paper is to link the competitive performance of small, high technology defence firms to their ability to adapt to industry structure changes. With this in mind a study was conducted to extend Porter's (1980) framework of the strategic management of industry structural change. The study draws upon the experiences of 40 small, high technology defence firms in the UK. Firms in the sample range from 5 to 200 employees, and £50,000 to £10m sales turnover. The study broadens the findings of exploratory research undertaken in the buying department of two large defence firms. A questionnaire was designed to identify macro level phenomena and detail hypotheses generated by the case studies. The empirical analysis of the creation and sustaining of competitive advantages will focus on strategic determinants, and inter‐organisational variables that influence the performance of small firms in tendering for defence sub‐contracts.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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