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Article

Gurmeet Kaur, M.L. Singh and M.S. Patterh

Fiber nonlinearities are anticipated to impose transmission limitations due to the enhanced total interaction length in long‐haul dense wavelength division multiplexing…

Abstract

Purpose

Fiber nonlinearities are anticipated to impose transmission limitations due to the enhanced total interaction length in long‐haul dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) optical transmission systems. The purpose of this paper is to analytically study the combined effect of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and four‐wave mixing (FWM) in the presence of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise generated by erbium‐doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents analytical analysis of DWDM optical transmission systems in the presence of two significant fiber nonlinearities (SRS and FWM).

Findings

Simple expressions are derived to study the dependence of signal‐to‐noise ratio (SNR) on the amplifier spacing between two consecutive amplifiers.

Originality/value

The authors have analytically studied the combined effect of SRS and FWM in the presence of ASE noise generated by EDFAs. The novelty of the work is that it has considered all the three factors simultaneously and the expressions are derived for calculation of SNR.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

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Article

Gurmeet Kaur, M.L. Singh and M.S. Patterh

The current generation of light wave systems benefit from increased transmission distance by using optical amplification and increased capacity by using dense wavelength…

Abstract

Purpose

The current generation of light wave systems benefit from increased transmission distance by using optical amplification and increased capacity by using dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) technology. The reach of present systems is limited by the noise contributed by the used amplifiers, combined with nonlinear effects from transmission. This paper aims to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The nature and extent of degradations in the optical DWDM systems due to these limiting factors have been discussed in this paper.

Findings

It has been learnt that stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), four wave mixing (FWM) and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) are the important factors in optical DWDM systems. These factors limit the system capacity of the transmission systems drastically.

Originality/value

It can be concluded from the discussion that while designing an efficient DWDM system, an optimization of the channel separation and the amplifier separation is required to minimize the nonlinear effects (FWM and SRS) along with the ASE noise introduced by inline optical amplifications.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

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Article

Fikri Serdar Gokhan and Gunes Yilmaz

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate an effective and faster numerical solution for nonlinear‐coupled differential equations describing fiber amplifiers which have…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate an effective and faster numerical solution for nonlinear‐coupled differential equations describing fiber amplifiers which have no explicit solution. MATLAB boundary value problem (BVP) solver of bvp6c function is addressed for the solution.

Design/methodology/approach

Coding method with the bvp6c is introduced, signal evolution, threshold calculation method is introduced, gain and noise figure are plotted and superiority of the bvp6c solver is compared with the Newton‐Raphson method.

Findings

bvp6c function appears to be an effective tool for the solution fiber amplifier equations and can be used for different pump configurations of BFAs and RFAs. The excellent agreement between the proposed and reported results shows the reliability of the proposed threshold power calculation method.

Research limitations/implications

The paper eases the work of the fiber optic research community, who suffer from two point BVPs. Moreover, the stiffness of the signal evolution which is faced with high pump powers and/or long fiber lengths can be solved with continuation. This superiority of the solver can be used to overcome any stiff changes of the signals for the future studies.

Practical implications

The main outcome of this paper is the numerically calculation of the threshold values of fiber amplifiers without the necessity of the experiment. The robustness improvement of the solution is that the solver is able to solve the equations even with the poor guess values and the solution can be obtained without the necessity of analytical Jacobian matrix.

Originality/value

MATLAB bvp6c solver has proven to be effective for the numerical solution of nonlinear‐coupled intensity differential equations describing fiber amplifiers with two‐point boundary values. Beside the signal evolution, thresholds of Brillouin and Raman fiber amplifiers can also be calculated by using the proposed solver. This is a notable and promising improvement of the paper, at least from a fiber optic amplifier designer point of view.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

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Article

Robert Bogue

This paper aims to provide technical details of the techniques used for the remote detection of chemical compounds in a number of applications and also to highlight key…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide technical details of the techniques used for the remote detection of chemical compounds in a number of applications and also to highlight key research themes.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a short introduction, this first considers remote gas detection using the DIAL technique. Remote gas cloud imaging is then discussed, and this is followed by a review of chemical warfare agent detection technologies. A selection of research activities and product developments aimed at remotely detecting explosives are considered and, finally, brief concluding comments are drawn.

Findings

Remote gas sensing is now a practical reality, and products are available which can remotely detect, identify, quantify and in some cases visualise a wide range of toxic and environmentally threatening gases. These satisfy numerous industrial, environmental and military applications. Remotely detecting explosives poses a significant technological challenge, and despite some commercialisation, it remains the topic of an extensive research effort, much involving LIBS and Raman techniques. Importantly, much of this work also has potential in non-military applications, with several developments being shown to detect various industrially important compounds.

Originality/value

This provides a technical insight into the techniques and products used in a range of remote chemical sensing applications.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Content available
Article

Theo C. Haupt

Abstract

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Content available
Article

Theo C. Haupt

Abstract

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article

Sahar Feili, H.R. Sabouhi, Hassan Sobhani and M. Traz

This study aims to propose a new scheme for designing a high-sensitivity optical biosensor. For this, two agents have been considered: reflection-type micro-resonators…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to propose a new scheme for designing a high-sensitivity optical biosensor. For this, two agents have been considered: reflection-type micro-resonators, which filter the noise of the pump, and coupled-ring reflectors (CRRs), which are coupled to partial reflecting elements in the bus waveguide to create Fano-resonance. These two agents improve the sensor sensitivity and have low-power optical switching/modulation.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed model is based on the coupling of the CRRs with the Fabry–Pérot cavity. The slope of the Fano-resonance line shape and consequently the sensitivity of the proposed CRRs are higher than those of conventional microring resonators.

Findings

The proposed scheme has many characteristics: CRRs have been used to create a higher slope of the Fano-resonance line shape; the sensitivity of the sensor shows improvement on the basis of reflection-type micro-resonators and by the removal of the pump noise; the designed sensor has low-power optical switching/modulation; and the modeling and designing of a novel high-sensitivity resonator is based on coupling the CRRs with the Fabry–Pérot cavity.

Originality/value

This study has proposed a new scheme for designing a high-sensitivity optical biosensor. This method is based on the improvement of the sensitivity by two agents: reflection-type micro-resonators, which filter the noise of the pump, and coupled-ring reflectors, which are coupled to partial reflecting elements in the bus waveguide to create Fano-resonance.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 39 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article

M. McSherry, C. Fitzpatrick and E. Lewis

There are various temperature measuring systems presented in the literature and on the market today. Over the past number of years a range of luminescent‐based optical…

Abstract

Purpose

There are various temperature measuring systems presented in the literature and on the market today. Over the past number of years a range of luminescent‐based optical fibre sensors have been reported and developed which include fluorescence and optical scattering. These temperature sensors incorporate materials that emit wavelength shifted light when excited by an optical source. The majority of commercially available systems are based on fluorescent properties.Design/methodology/approach – Many published journal articles and conference papers were investigated and existing temperature sensors in the market were examined.Findings – In optical thermometry, the light is used to carry temperature information. In many cases optical fibres are used to transmit and receive this light. Optical fibres are immune to electromagnetic interference and are small in size, which allows them to make very localized measurements. A temperature sensitive material forms a sensor and the subsequent optical data are transmitted via optical fibres to electronic detection systems. Two keys areas were investigated namely fluorescence based temperature sensors and temperature sensors involving optical scattering.Originality/value – An overview of optical fibre temperature sensors based on luminescence is presented. This review provides a summary of optical temperature sensors, old and new which exist in today's world of sensing.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article

Zhang Lei, Yingshan Chen, Zhiwen Liu, Wenjin Ji and Suqing Zhao

In this study, a highly sensitive and quantitative analysis method using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-labeled immunoassay is adopted for bisphenol A bisphenol…

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, a highly sensitive and quantitative analysis method using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-labeled immunoassay is adopted for bisphenol A bisphenol A (BPA) detection in water samples.

Design/methodology/approach

Primarily, an excellent SERS immuno-nanoprobe is prepared, which relays on Au/Ag core-shell nanoparticles tagged 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4MBA) and labeled with specific antibody against BPA. Second, the coating antigen of 4,4-Bis(4-hydroxyphenol) valeric acid (BVA) coupling poly-L-lysine (PLL) conjugate (BVA-PLL) is fastened on the substrate. Based on competitive immunoassay, the antibody labeled on SERS immuno-nanoprobe will bind with the free BPA and BVA-PLL competitively.

Findings

A calibration curve was obtained by plotting the intensity of SERS signal of 4MBA at 1007 cm−1 versus the concentration of BPA. The results indicated that the limit of detection (LOD) for BPA is 1 ng/mL and present a great capacity for higher sensitivity. Furthermore, the method was able to quantitatively detect BPA in water samples, which was validated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

Originality/value

The method was developed based on competitive immunoassay, and the conjugate (BVA-PLL) was chosen as the coating antigen. Au/Ag core-shell nanoparticles played as the SERS active substrate and were labeled with Raman reporter. The value of this paper is supplying a wide potential for analysis of target analytes in the environmental monitoring and food safety.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 47 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article

Peter McGeehin

Introduction Optical sensors, and especially fibre optic sensors, offer some significant technical advantages over conventional electronic sensors. These technical…

Abstract

Introduction Optical sensors, and especially fibre optic sensors, offer some significant technical advantages over conventional electronic sensors. These technical advantages have been perceived to be sufficiently significant to have stimulated a large amount of research activity in the UK and elsewhere. Much of the original research has been carried out in universities and polytechnics, but there has also been considerable corporate R&D activity aimed at developing commercial products and systems. The results of much of this corporate work have not been published, except in the form of patents. Patents therefore provide a useful literature which, though of considerable interest to companies, is difficult to analyse and assimilate. For this reason, the DTI Advanced Sensors Technology Transfer Programme commissioned a study of recent optical sensor patents. The aim was to classify and analyse the patents, and to present the findings in a manner which a small or medium size instrumentation company could readily digest.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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