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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2017

Erika Anneli Pärn and David Edwards

The purpose of this paper is to present a literature review of laser scanning and 3D modelling devices, modes of delivery and applications within the architecture…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a literature review of laser scanning and 3D modelling devices, modes of delivery and applications within the architecture, engineering, construction and owner-operated sector. Such devices are inextricably linked to modern digital built environment practices, particularly when used in conjunction with as-built building information modelling (BIM) development. The research also reports upon innovative technological advancements (such as machine vision) that coalesce with 3D scanning solutions.

Design/methodology/approach

A synthesis of literature is used to develop: a hierarchy of the modes of delivery for laser scan devices; a thematic analysis of 3D terrestrial laser scan technology applications; and a componential cross-comparative tabulation of laser scan technology and specifications.

Findings

Findings reveal that the costly and labour intensive attributes of laser scanning devices have stimulated the development of hybrid automated and intelligent technologies to improve performance. Such developments are set to satisfy the increasing demand for digitisation of both existing and new buildings into BIM. Future work proposed will seek to: review what coalescence of digital technologies will provide an optimal and cost-effective solution to accurately re-constructing the digital built environment; conduct case studies that implement hybrid digital solutions in pragmatic facilities management scenarios to measure their performance and user satisfaction; and eliminate manual remodelling tasks (such as point cloud reconstruction) via the use of computational intelligence algorithms integral within cloud-based BIM platforms.

Originality/value

Although laser scanning and 3D modelling have been widely covered en passant within the literature, scant research has conducted a holistic review of the technology, its applications and future developments. This review presents concise and lucid reference guidance that will intellectually challenge, and better inform, both practitioners and researchers.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

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Article
Publication date: 18 June 2019

Chao Chen, Llewellyn Tang, Craig Matthew Hancock and Penghe Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the development of an innovative mobile laser scanning (MLS) method for 3D indoor mapping. The generally accepted and used…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the development of an innovative mobile laser scanning (MLS) method for 3D indoor mapping. The generally accepted and used procedure for this type of mapping is usually performed using static terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) which is high-cost and time-consuming. Compared with conventional TLS, the developed method proposes a new idea with advantages of low-cost, high mobility and time saving on the implementation of a 3D indoor mapping.

Design/methodology/approach

This method integrates a low-cost 2D laser scanner with two indoor positioning techniques – ultra-wide band (UWB) and an inertial measurement unit (IMU), to implement a 3D MLS for reality captures from an experimental indoor environment through developed programming algorithms. In addition, a reference experiment by using conventional TLS was also conducted under the same conditions for scan result comparison to validate the feasibility of the developed method.

Findings

The findings include: preset UWB system integrated with a low-cost IMU can provide a reliable positioning method for indoor environment; scan results from a portable 2D laser scanner integrated with a motion trajectory from the IMU/UWB positioning approach is able to generate a 3D point cloud based in an indoor environment; and the limitations on hardware, accuracy, automation and the positioning approach are also summarized in this study.

Research limitations/implications

As the main advantage of the developed method is low-cost, it may limit the automation of the method due to the consideration of the cost control. Robotic carriers and higher-performance 2D laser scanners can be applied to realize panoramic and higher-quality scan results for improvements of the method.

Practical implications

Moreover, during the practical application, the UWB system can be disturbed by variances of the indoor environment, which can affect the positioning accuracy in practice. More advanced algorithms are also needed to optimize the automatic data processing for reducing errors caused by manual operations.

Originality/value

The development of this MLS method provides a novel idea that integrates data from heterogeneous systems or sensors to realize a practical aim of indoor mapping, and meanwhile promote the current laser scanning technology to a lower-cost, more flexible, more portable and less time-consuming trend.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 26 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2004

Brian Rooks

Graham Engineering, a UK company specialising in the manufacture of large complex components for high‐tech industries has pioneered the application of 3D laser trimming…

Abstract

Graham Engineering, a UK company specialising in the manufacture of large complex components for high‐tech industries has pioneered the application of 3D laser trimming and welding of stainless steel and other difficult‐to‐process pressings and fabrications. It uses a Prima Optima 3D laser profiler, one of the largest built by the Italian company, for this work and examples are described from the nuclear, aerospace, domestic heating and telecommunications industries. One of the largest is a nuclear containment vessel manufactured in 6 mm stainless steel, requiring over 18 m of laser welded seams produced in a single pass compared with a root and four capping runs required when TIG welded. Quality and strength are also superior to TIG. Other components produced in the Prima machine include mild steel pressings for an aerospace customer, satellite dishes for a telecommunications company and stainless steel hot water cylinders marketed by Graham Engineering company.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2018

Qifeng Yang, Daokui Qu, Fang Xu, Fengshan Zou, Guojian He and Mingze Sun

This paper aims to propose a series of approaches to solve the problem of the mobile robot motion control and autonomous navigation in large-scale outdoor GPS-denied environments.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a series of approaches to solve the problem of the mobile robot motion control and autonomous navigation in large-scale outdoor GPS-denied environments.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the model of mobile robot with two driving wheels, a controller is designed and tested in obstacle-cluttered scenes in this paper. By using the priori “topology-geometry” map constructed based on the odometer data and the online matching algorithm of 3D-laser scanning points, a novel approach of outdoor localization with 3D-laser scanner is proposed to solve the problem of poor localization accuracy in GPS-denied environments. A path planning strategy based on geometric feature analysis and priority evaluation algorithm is also adopted to ensure the safety and reliability of mobile robot’s autonomous navigation and control.

Findings

A series of experiments are conducted with a self-designed mobile robot platform in large-scale outdoor environments, and the experimental results show the validity and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Originality/value

The problem of motion control for a differential drive mobile robot is investigated in this paper first. At the same time, a novel approach of outdoor localization with 3D-laser scanner is proposed to solve the problem of poor localization accuracy in GPS-denied environments. A path planning strategy based on geometric feature analysis and priority evaluation algorithm is also adopted to ensure the safety and reliability of mobile robot’s autonomous navigation and control.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

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Article
Publication date: 14 July 2020

Biwu Huang, Linlin Han, Baolin Wu, Wenbin Zhou and Zhenting Lu

The purpose of this study is to synthesize a new kind of a cationic-type UV-curing prepolymer diepoxycyclohexylethyl tetramethyldisiloxane, which is used to replace the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to synthesize a new kind of a cationic-type UV-curing prepolymer diepoxycyclohexylethyl tetramethyldisiloxane, which is used to replace the current prepolymers’ common cycloaliphatic epoxy resins to prepare a novel 3D printing stereolithography material.

Design/methodology/approach

Diepoxycyclohexylethyl tetramethyldisiloxane was characterized and analyzed by FT-IR and 1HMR. Diepoxycyclohexylethyl tetramethyldisiloxane was compounded with a polycaprolactone polyol, some acrylates and photoinitiators to prepare a novel 3D printing stereolithography resin (3DPSLR11). Optical properties of 3DPSLR11 were investigated by HRPL-150A stereolithography apparatus and INITELLI-RAY400 UV-curing system. Tensile mechanical properties of printed 3DPSLR11 specimens were tested by WDW-50-type universal testing machine, and the glass transition temperature (Tg) was determined by DMA. Rectangle plates and double-cantilever parts were fabricated by using the stereolithography apparatus with 3DPSLR11 as the printing material, and the dimension shrinkage factors and the curl factors of the parts were investigated.

Findings

The experimental results showed that the critical exposure (Ec) of the 3D printing 3DPSLR11 was 11.6 mJ/cm2, its penetration depth (Dp) was 0.18 mm, the tensile strength of the cured 3DPSLR11 was 40.1 MPa, the tensile modulus was 1,741.4 MPa, the elongation at break was 15.3%, Tg was 113°C, the dimension shrinkage factor was less than 0.85% and the curl factor was less than 8.00%.

Originality/value

In this work, a novel 3D printing 3DPSLR11 was prepared with diepoxycyclohexylethyl tetramethyldisiloxane as a main prepolymer. The novel 3DPSLR11 possessed excellent photosensitivity, and its cured products had good mechanical and thermal properties. The accuracy and resolution of the fabricated parts were high with 3DPSLR11 for stereolithography in 3D printing, which showed that 3DPSLR11 has potential application value as 3D printing material.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2010

Rabindra N. Das, Frank D. Egitto and Voya R. Markovich

Material formulation, structuring and modification are key to increasing the unit volume complexity and density of next generation electronic packaging products. Laser

Abstract

Purpose

Material formulation, structuring and modification are key to increasing the unit volume complexity and density of next generation electronic packaging products. Laser processing is finding an increasing number of applications in the fabrication of these advanced microelectronic devices. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development of new laser‐processing capabilities involving the synthesis and optimization of materials for tunable device applications.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper focuses on the application of laser processing to two specific material areas, namely thin films and nanocomposite films. The examples include BaTiO3‐based thin films and BaTiO3 polymer‐based nanocomposites.

Findings

A variety of new regular and random 3D surface patterns are highlighted. A frequency‐tripled Nd:YAG laser operating at a wavelength of 355 nm is used for the micromachining study. The micromachining is used to make various patterned surface morphologies. Depending on the laser fluence used, one can form a “wavy,” random 3D structure, or an array of regular 3D patterns. Furthermore, the laser was used to generate free‐standing nano and micro particles from thin film surfaces. In the case of BaTiO3 polymer‐based nanocomposites, micromachining is used to generate arrays of variable‐thickness capacitors. The resultant thickness of the capacitors depends on the number of laser pulses applied. Micromachining is also used to make long, deep, multiple channels in capacitance layers. When these channels are filled with metal, the spacings between two metallized channels acted as individual vertical capacitors, and parallel connection eventually produce vertical multilayer capacitors. For a given volume of capacitor material, theoretical capacitance calculations are made for variable channel widths and spacings. For comparison, calculations are also made for a “normal” capacitor, that is, a horizontal capacitor having a single pair of electrodes.

Research limitations/implications

This technique can be used to prepare capacitors of various thicknesses from the same capacitance layer, and ultimately can produce variable capacitance density, or a library of capacitors. The process is also capable of making vertical 3D multilayer embedded capacitors from a single capacitance layer. The capacitance benefit of the vertical multilayer capacitors is more pronounced for thicker capacitance layers. The application of a laser processing approach can greatly enhance the utility and optimization of new materials and the devices formed from them.

Originality/value

Laser micromaching technology is developed to fabricate several new structures. It is possible to synthesize nano and micro particles from thin film surfaces. Laser micromachining can produce a variety of random, as well as regular, 3D patterns. As the demand grows for complex multifunctional embedded components for advanced organic packaging, laser micromachining will continue to provide unique opportunities.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 September 2019

Daniel A. Porter, Nicholas Davis, Paul S. Krueger, Adam L. Cohen and David Son

Techniques of extrude and cure additive manufacturing for thermally cured, high viscosity and medical-grade silicone are investigated by using a small ram extruder and a…

Abstract

Purpose

Techniques of extrude and cure additive manufacturing for thermally cured, high viscosity and medical-grade silicone are investigated by using a small ram extruder and a near-infrared (IR) laser. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the process parameter effects on the stiffness of the final products.

Design/methodology/approach

Process parameter effects on axial stiffness values and durometer are explored. Parameters such as extrusion layer height, laser speed, laser current, laser raster spacing and multiple laser passes were investigated and compared to traditional cast and cure methods. Dimensional changes were also recorded and compared.

Findings

Tensile and durometer tests show that certain curing parameters give tensile stress and durometers within 10 per cent of bulk material specifications at 200 per cent strain. Parameters that had the highest impact on tensile stress at 200 per cent strain were layer height (0.73 per cent) followed by laser power (0.69 per cent), and then laser raster spacing (0.45 per cent). Parameters that had the highest impact on durometer were laser power (1.00 per cent), followed by layer height, (0.34 per cent) and then laser raster speed (0.32 per cent). Three-dimensional printed samples had about 11.2 per cent more shrinkage than the bulk cast samples in the longest dimension.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the first that demonstrates near IR laser curing parameter effects on three-dimensional printed, commercial off-the-shelf, medical-grade and viscous silicone. The ability to cure very viscous thermosets locally enables interesting technologies such as wire encapsulation, high voltage actuators and drug delivery devices.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1998

Graham Dalton

Claims recent advances in laser‐based camera technology and 3D analysis software have made production of 3D CAD models from range images a practical proposition. Laser

Abstract

Claims recent advances in laser‐based camera technology and 3D analysis software have made production of 3D CAD models from range images a practical proposition. Laser based cameras must meet very strict design criteria if they are to operate at long ranges; these criteria are explored. High‐speed laser cameras produce vast quantities of image data; it is shown that this data can be converted swiftly into a 3‐D CAD model.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2018

Abdalmenem Owda, José Balsa-Barreiro and Dieter Fritsch

Representative cultural heritage sites and monuments around the world have been lost or damaged by natural disasters, human conflicts and daily erosion and deterioration…

Abstract

Purpose

Representative cultural heritage sites and monuments around the world have been lost or damaged by natural disasters, human conflicts and daily erosion and deterioration. Documentation and digital preservation by using three-dimensional (3D) modeling techniques enables to ensure the knowledge and access for future generations. Efficient working methods and techniques should be proposed for this purpose.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, a methodology for the generation of 3D photorealistic models of representative historical buildings is introduced, for using data are obtained using terrestrial laser scanning systems and photogrammetry.

Findings

In this paper, an approach to reconstruct 3D photorealistic models by using laser scanning and photogrammetric data is shown. Combination of data from both sources offers an improved solution for 3D reconstruction of historical buildings, sites and places. Integration of 3D models into virtual globes and/or software applications can ensure digital preservation and knowledge for next generations.

Research limitations/implications

Results obtained in a concrete building are shown. However, each building or studied area can show some other different drawbacks.

Practical implications

The study enables to generate 3D and four-dimensional models of most valuable buildings and contribute to the preservation and documentation of the cultural heritage.

Social implications

The study enables digital documentation and preservation of cultural heritage.

Originality/value

A proper solution at field (in a real and complicated case) is explained, in addition to the results, which are shown.

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2016

Satish Kumar Reddy and Prabir K. Pal

– The purpose of this paper is to detect traversable regions surrounding a mobile robot by computing terrain unevenness using the range data obtained from a single 3D scan.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to detect traversable regions surrounding a mobile robot by computing terrain unevenness using the range data obtained from a single 3D scan.

Design/methodology/approach

The geometry of acquiring range data from a 3D scan is exploited to probe the terrain and extract traversable regions. Nature of terrain under each scan point is quantified in terms of an unevenness value, which is computed from the difference in range of scan point with respect to its neighbours. Both radial and transverse unevenness values are computed and compared with threshold values at every point to determine if the point belongs to a traversable region or an obstacle. A region growing algorithm spreads like a wavefront to join all traversable points into a traversable region.

Findings

This simple method clearly distinguishes ground and obstacle points. The method works well even in presence of terrain slopes or when the robot experiences pitch and roll.

Research limitations/implications

The method applies on single 3D scans and not on aggregated point cloud in general.

Practical implications

The method has been tested on a mobile robot in outdoor environment in our research centre.

Social implications

This method, along with advanced navigation schemes, can reduce human intervention in many mobile robot applications including unmanned ground vehicles.

Originality/value

Range difference between scan points has been used earlier for obstacle detection, but no methodology has been developed around this concept. The authors propose a concrete method based on computation of radial and transverse unevenness at every point and detecting obstacle edges using range-dependent threshold values.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Unmanned Systems, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-6427

Keywords

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