Search results

1 – 10 of over 37000
Content available
Article
Publication date: 27 February 2019

Erika A. Parn and David Edwards

Smart cities provide fully integrated and networked connectivity between virtual/digital assets and physical building/infrastructure assets to form digital economies…

Downloads
4813

Abstract

Purpose

Smart cities provide fully integrated and networked connectivity between virtual/digital assets and physical building/infrastructure assets to form digital economies. However, industrial espionage, cyber-crime and deplorable politically driven cyber-interventions threaten to disrupt and/or physically damage the critical infrastructure that supports national wealth generation and preserves the health, safety and welfare of the populous. The purpose of this paper is to present a comprehensive review of cyber-threats confronting critical infrastructure asset management reliant upon a common data environment to augment building information modelling (BIM) implementation.

Design/methodology/approach

An interpretivist, methodological approach to reviewing pertinent literature (that contained elements of positivism) was adopted. The ensuing mixed methods analysis: reports upon case studies of cyber-physical attacks; reveals distinct categories of hackers; identifies and reports upon the various motivations for the perpetrators/actors; and explains the varied reconnaissance techniques adopted.

Findings

The paper concludes with direction for future research work and a recommendation to utilize innovative block chain technology as a potential risk mitigation measure for digital built environment vulnerabilities.

Originality/value

While cyber security and digitization of the built environment have been widely covered within the extant literature in isolation, scant research has hitherto conducted an holistic review of the perceived threats, deterrence applications and future developments in a digitized Architecture, Engineering, Construction and Operations (AECO) sector. This review presents concise and lucid reference guidance that will intellectually challenge, and better inform, both practitioners and researchers in the AECO field of enquiry.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 April 2018

Christopher James Roberts, Erika Anneli Pärn, David John Edwards and Clinton Aigbavboa

Advancements in digital technologies have provided significant opportunities to improve the Architecture, Engineering, Construction and Owner-operated (AECO) sector’s…

Downloads
1104

Abstract

Purpose

Advancements in digital technologies have provided significant opportunities to improve the Architecture, Engineering, Construction and Owner-operated (AECO) sector’s performance through superior data management, streamlined processes and cooperative working practices. However, whilst academic literature widely espouses these benefits during the design and construction phases of development, research suggests that the operational phase of a building’s lifecycle has yet to fully realise performance improvements available through the application of digital modelling technology. The purpose of this paper is to synthesise extant digital modelling, asset management and emergent digital asset management literature, to report upon the beneficial implications of digitalised asset management and identify obstacles hampering its adoption in industry.

Design/methodology/approach

A componential synthesis of future work reported upon in extant literature is organised into thematic categories that indicate potential research avenues and a trajectory for digital asset management research and practice.

Findings

Themes identified include: imprecise Building Information Modelling definitions; isolated software development; data interoperability; intellectual property and virtual property rights; and skills and training requirements. Notably, increased environmental performance also arose as a theme requiring further research but received considerably less academic coverage than the other obstacles identified.

Originality/value

The work presents a comprehensive review of digital technologies utilised within the AECO sector and as such provides utility to researchers, policy makers and practitioners to enhance their knowledge capabilities.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 July 2017

Erika Anneli Pärn and David Edwards

The purpose of this paper is to present a literature review of laser scanning and 3D modelling devices, modes of delivery and applications within the architecture…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a literature review of laser scanning and 3D modelling devices, modes of delivery and applications within the architecture, engineering, construction and owner-operated sector. Such devices are inextricably linked to modern digital built environment practices, particularly when used in conjunction with as-built building information modelling (BIM) development. The research also reports upon innovative technological advancements (such as machine vision) that coalesce with 3D scanning solutions.

Design/methodology/approach

A synthesis of literature is used to develop: a hierarchy of the modes of delivery for laser scan devices; a thematic analysis of 3D terrestrial laser scan technology applications; and a componential cross-comparative tabulation of laser scan technology and specifications.

Findings

Findings reveal that the costly and labour intensive attributes of laser scanning devices have stimulated the development of hybrid automated and intelligent technologies to improve performance. Such developments are set to satisfy the increasing demand for digitisation of both existing and new buildings into BIM. Future work proposed will seek to: review what coalescence of digital technologies will provide an optimal and cost-effective solution to accurately re-constructing the digital built environment; conduct case studies that implement hybrid digital solutions in pragmatic facilities management scenarios to measure their performance and user satisfaction; and eliminate manual remodelling tasks (such as point cloud reconstruction) via the use of computational intelligence algorithms integral within cloud-based BIM platforms.

Originality/value

Although laser scanning and 3D modelling have been widely covered en passant within the literature, scant research has conducted a holistic review of the technology, its applications and future developments. This review presents concise and lucid reference guidance that will intellectually challenge, and better inform, both practitioners and researchers.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 15 June 2021

Nikdokht Ghadiminia, Mohammad Mayouf, Sharon Cox and Jan Krasniewicz

Building information modelling (BIM) creates a golden thread of information of the facility, which proves useful to those with the malicious intent of breaching the…

Abstract

Purpose

Building information modelling (BIM) creates a golden thread of information of the facility, which proves useful to those with the malicious intent of breaching the security of the facility. A cyber-attack incurs adverse implications for the facility and its managing organisation. Hence, this paper aims to unravel the impact of a cybersecurity breach, by developing a BIM-facilities management (FM) cybersecurity-risk-matrix to portray what a cybersecurity attack means for various working areas of FM.

Design/methodology/approach

This study commenced with exploring cybersecurity within various stages of a BIM project. This showcased a heightened risk of cybersecurity at the post-occupancy phase. Hence, thematic analysis of two main domains of BIM-FM and cybersecurity in the built environment led to the development of a matrix that illustrated the impact of a cybersecurity attack on a BIM-FM organisation.

Findings

Findings show that the existing approaches to the management of cybersecurity in BIM-FM are technology-dependent, resulting in an over-reliance on technology and a lack of cybersecurity awareness of aspects related to people and processes. This study sheds light on the criticality of cyber-risk at the post-occupancy phase, highlighting the FM areas which will be compromised as a result of a cyber-attack.

Originality/value

This study seeks to shift focus to the people and process aspects of cybersecurity in BIM-FM. Through discussing the interconnections between the physical and digital assets of a built facility, this study develops a cyber-risk matrix, which acts as a foundation for empirical investigations of the matter in future research.

Details

Journal of Facilities Management , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-5967

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 30 April 2021

Carla Aramouny

This paper presents the applied research and design work on innovative and sustainable building products developed by an undergraduate architecture seminar course. It…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper presents the applied research and design work on innovative and sustainable building products developed by an undergraduate architecture seminar course. It presents the case for innovative uses of cement-based products, while framing the proposals within a global shift toward environmentally responsive and bio-integrated materials.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology utilizes a process of hybridization between digital fabrication and analog making methods that is framed within the larger design discourse and that intersects the digital design process with material know-how. The approach engages local problematics and applies advanced technology and the integration of natural behaviors to develop a rich applied design method.

Findings

Through the presented work and proposed building products, critical findings and outcomes emerge, ones that relate to the design process itself and others to the designed products.

Originality/value

The research presented here proposes novel approaches to cement-based building systems utilizing digital and analog fabrication, and original design solutions that engage with their context and provide active and crucial environmental performance.

Details

Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-6862

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 July 2015

Valerie Hill

This study aims to describe a library project exploring innovative options for embedding information literacy skills in the elementary school library by utilizing…

Downloads
2462

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to describe a library project exploring innovative options for embedding information literacy skills in the elementary school library by utilizing Minecraft, a virtual world three-dimensional (3D) building game environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The small-scale descriptive study, with a follow-up survey, focuses on a group of fifth-grade students in an after-school technology club facilitated by the school librarian. The students designed and built a 3D virtual world library game for younger students to help them learn digital citizenship and information literacy.

Findings

Analysis of observations, interviews and videos indicated that students were highly engaged in learning information literacy elements throughout all stages of the project from design, building, implementation and testing of younger students.

Research limitations/implications

Although the small number of students enrolled in the club is a limitation, the feedback provided strong evidence of motivation for learning through gamification. Further research could assess learning outcomes with the curriculum, specifically for digital citizenship and information literacy.

Practical implications

Embedding information literacy into a 3D world allows students to learn computer code, mathematics, game design, and fosters collaboration while demonstrating digital citizenship.

Social implications

Game design requires teamwork, a real-life skill essential for students entering the work force.

Originality/value

Few articles share student-designed solutions of critical information literacy needs. This study exemplifies constructivist learning in a gaming environment.

Details

New Library World, vol. 116 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 9 January 2020

Alexa Woodward and David Heesom

Heritage or historic building information modelling (BIM), often referred to as HBIM, is becoming an established feature in both research and practice. The advancement of…

Abstract

Purpose

Heritage or historic building information modelling (BIM), often referred to as HBIM, is becoming an established feature in both research and practice. The advancement of data capture technologies such as laser scanning and improved photogrammetry, along with the continued power of BIM authoring tools, has provided the ability to generate more accurate digital representations of heritage buildings which can then be used during renovation and refurbishment projects. Very often these representations of HBIM are developed to support the design process. What appears to be often overlooked is the issue of conservation and how this can be linked to the BIM process to support the conservation management plan for the building once it is given a new lease of life following the refurbishment process. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents a review of the context of conservation and HBIM, and then subsequently presents two case studies of how HBIM was applied to high-profile renovation and conservation projects in the UK. In presenting the case studies, a range of issues is identified which support findings from the literature noting that HBIM is predominantly a tool for the geometric modelling of historic fabric with less regard for the actual process of renovation and conservation in historic buildings.

Findings

Lessons learnt from the case studies and from existing literature are distilled to develop a framework for the implementation of HBIM on heritage renovation projects to support the ongoing conservation of the building as an integral part of a BIM-based asset management strategy. Five key areas are identified in the framework including value, significance, recording, data management and asset management. Building on this framework, a conceptual overlay is proposed to the current Level 2 BIM process to support conservation heritage projects.

Originality/value

This paper addresses the issue of HBIM application to conservation heritage projects. Whilst previous work in the field has identified conservation as a key area, there is very little work focusing on the process of conservation in the HBIM context. This work provides a framework and overlay which could be used by practitioners and researchers to ensure that HBIM is fully exploited and a more standardised method is employed which could be used on conservation heritage renovation projects.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 14 January 2019

Patrick Lecomte

The purpose of this paper is to fill a gap in the real estate academic literature by defining the essence of real estate in smart urban environments. Space has…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to fill a gap in the real estate academic literature by defining the essence of real estate in smart urban environments. Space has traditionally been a silent component of real estate. Smart technologies powered by Ubi-comp are turning space into an active part of real estate, which represents a paradigm shift for commercial real estate. This shift requires new concepts and tools to analyse and model real estate in smart cities.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper defines the notions of smart space and smart real estate. Several concepts and tools are formulated, starting with a model of space users in smart cities, called the Cyber-Dasein inspired by Heidegger’s existential phenomenology of space.

Findings

The paper then analyses smart space’s attributes and proposes several metrics for commercial real estate in smart environments. After introducing three regression models for constructing a price index of smart real estate, the paper concludes by advocating that commercial real estate take an active role in the current debate about smart cities.

Research limitations/implications

The paper does not provide any empirical analysis of smart real estate.

Practical implications

Smart environments offer real estate a unique opportunity to set up methodologies, concepts and tools for new properties in new cities. Now is the time to think carefully about the impact smart technologies will have on commercial properties before other stakeholders (in particular smart cities vendors and multinational technology giants) have fully modelled smart space and its nexus with smart real estate.

Originality/value

This paper is the first paper to provide a conceptual framework for the analysis of commercial real estate in smart cities.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 29 April 2021

Douglas Aghimien, Clinton Ohis Aigbavboa, Ayodeji Emmanuel Oke, David Edwards, Wellington Didibhuku Thwala and Chris J. Roberts

A scientometric review of extant literature is conducted to define and delineate upon the enabling dynamic capabilities required to engender the digitalisation of…

Abstract

Purpose

A scientometric review of extant literature is conducted to define and delineate upon the enabling dynamic capabilities required to engender the digitalisation of organisations operating in the architecture, engineering, construction and operations (AECO) sector. A secondary aim sought to provide direction for future studies and theories to be tested in this novel field of investigation as well as stimulate wider polemic debate amongst industry stakeholders.

Design/methodology/approach

An interpretivist philosophical stance and inductive approach was undertaken in this study, using a grounded theory strategy. Secondary data used was sourced from the Scopus journal database using specific related keywords. VOSviewer was used to prepare co-occurrence maps based on the bibliographic data gathered.

Findings

AECO organisations that seek digitalisation must possess the capability to sense and seize opportunities and threats within the business environment and reconfigure their business processes to best meet their market demand. This can be achieved by improving on attributes relating to industrial management and strategic planning, organisational learning, enterprise resource management and innovative information technology. Future studies should target novel areas such as AECO organisations' ambidexterity and service innovation.

Originality/value

This is the first study to explore the dynamic capabilities of AECO organisations in relation to digitalisation adoption. Therefore, the research serves as a robust theoretical background for signposting AECO organisations who seek to transition to digital solutions in the fourth industrial revolution.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 30 January 2019

Erika A. Parn, David Edwards, Zainab Riaz, Fahad Mehmood and Joseph Lai

This paper aims to report upon the further development of a hybrid application programming interface (API) plug-in to building information modelling (BIM) entitled…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to report upon the further development of a hybrid application programming interface (API) plug-in to building information modelling (BIM) entitled confined spaces safety monitoring system “CoSMoS”. Originally designed to engineer-out environmental hazards associated with working in a building’s confined spaces (during the construction phase of a building’s life-cycle), this second generation version is expanded upon to use archival records to proactively learn from data generated within a sensor network during the building’s operations and maintenance (O&M) phase of asset management (AM).

Design/methodology/approach

An applied research methodological approach adopted used a two-phase process. In phase one, a conceptual model was created to provide a “blueprint map” to integrate BIM, sensor-based networks and data analytics (DA) into one integral system. A literature review provided the basis for the conceptual model’s further development. In phase two, the conceptual model was transposed into the prototype’s development environment as a proof of concept using primary data accrued from a large educational building.

Findings

An amalgamation of BIM, historical sensor data accrued and the application of DA demonstrate that CoSMoS provides an opportunity for the facilities management (FM) team to monitor pertinent environmental conditions and human behaviour within buildings that may impact upon occupant/worker safety. Although working in confined spaces is used to demonstrate the inherent potential of CoSMoS, the system could readily be expanded to analyse sensor-based network’s historical data of other areas of building performance, maintenance and safety.

Originality/value

This novel prototype has automated safety applications for FM during the asset lifecycle and maintenance phase of a building’s O&M phase of AM. Future work is proposed in several key areas, namely, develop instantaneous indicators of current safety performance within a building; and develop lead indicators of future safety performance of buildings.

1 – 10 of over 37000