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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2017

Erika Anneli Pärn and David Edwards

The purpose of this paper is to present a literature review of laser scanning and 3D modelling devices, modes of delivery and applications within the architecture…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a literature review of laser scanning and 3D modelling devices, modes of delivery and applications within the architecture, engineering, construction and owner-operated sector. Such devices are inextricably linked to modern digital built environment practices, particularly when used in conjunction with as-built building information modelling (BIM) development. The research also reports upon innovative technological advancements (such as machine vision) that coalesce with 3D scanning solutions.

Design/methodology/approach

A synthesis of literature is used to develop: a hierarchy of the modes of delivery for laser scan devices; a thematic analysis of 3D terrestrial laser scan technology applications; and a componential cross-comparative tabulation of laser scan technology and specifications.

Findings

Findings reveal that the costly and labour intensive attributes of laser scanning devices have stimulated the development of hybrid automated and intelligent technologies to improve performance. Such developments are set to satisfy the increasing demand for digitisation of both existing and new buildings into BIM. Future work proposed will seek to: review what coalescence of digital technologies will provide an optimal and cost-effective solution to accurately re-constructing the digital built environment; conduct case studies that implement hybrid digital solutions in pragmatic facilities management scenarios to measure their performance and user satisfaction; and eliminate manual remodelling tasks (such as point cloud reconstruction) via the use of computational intelligence algorithms integral within cloud-based BIM platforms.

Originality/value

Although laser scanning and 3D modelling have been widely covered en passant within the literature, scant research has conducted a holistic review of the technology, its applications and future developments. This review presents concise and lucid reference guidance that will intellectually challenge, and better inform, both practitioners and researchers.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1994

Hamid Z. Fardi

Numerical device simulation is developed to study the steady‐state and transient current‐voltage characteristics of double heterostructure AlGaAs/GaAs PNPN…

Abstract

Numerical device simulation is developed to study the steady‐state and transient current‐voltage characteristics of double heterostructure AlGaAs/GaAs PNPN electro‐photonic device when its performance is influenced by the presence of interface and bulk recombination mechanism. The simulation results show that the holding current and voltage and the breakover point are strongly affected by varying the minority carrier lifetime at outer heterojunctions. Numerical results also indicate that shortening the minority carrier lifetime in the inner PN homojunction region only increases the OFF‐state current. These results are in agreement with experimental data on AlGaAs/GaAs PNPN devices. The numerical modelling approach taken in this study is shown to be essential in the design and optimization of PNPN switch.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Article
Publication date: 11 May 2010

Jian‐hong Yang, Ying Wei, Xue‐yuan Cai and Jin‐zhi Ran

The paper aims to investigate the influences of the tensile strain and the threading dislocations (TDs) in the germanium (Ge) epitaxial layer on the performance of the Ge…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to investigate the influences of the tensile strain and the threading dislocations (TDs) in the germanium (Ge) epitaxial layer on the performance of the Ge vertical p‐i‐n photodetectors on Si substrate.

Design/methodology/approach

The dark current, photo responsivity and time responsivity of detector were calculated using two‐dimensional drift‐diffusion device modeling and compared with experimental data.

Findings

The incorporation of the tensile strain and the reduction of the TDs in the Ge epilayer can increase the performance of the detector.

Originality/value

An optical design of detector is suggested with lower TD in the Ge buffer layer, which can exhibit superior performance.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1992

The International Society for Hybrid Microelectronics invites the submission of technical papers for presentation at the above event. All original unpublished papers on…

Abstract

The International Society for Hybrid Microelectronics invites the submission of technical papers for presentation at the above event. All original unpublished papers on microelectronics related topics are welcomed.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Article
Publication date: 15 August 2022

Jiale Yang, Xianfeng Chen, Chuyuan Huang and Tianming Ma

With the acceleration of global energy structure transformation, hydrogen has been widely used for its non-pollution and high efficiency, and hydrogen detection is used to…

Abstract

Purpose

With the acceleration of global energy structure transformation, hydrogen has been widely used for its non-pollution and high efficiency, and hydrogen detection is used to guarantee the hydrogen safety. The purpose of this paper is to study the research foundation, trend and hotspots of hydrogen detection field.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 4,076 literature records from 2000 to 2021 were retrieved from the core collection of the Web of Science database selected as data sources. The literature information mining was realized by using CiteSpace software. Bibliometrics was used to analyze information, such as keywords, authors, journals, institutions, countries and cited references, and to track research hotspots.

Findings

Since the 21st century, the number of publications in the hydrogen detection field has been in a stable stepped uptrend. In terms of research foundation, the hotspots such as core-shell structures, nano-hybrid materials and optical fiber hydrogen sensors have been studied extensively. In combination with the discipline structure and research frontier, the selectivity, sensitivity, response speed and other performance parameters of hydrogen sensors need further improvement. The establishment of an interdisciplinary knowledge system centered on materials science and electronic science will become a long-term trend in the research of hydrogen detection.

Originality/value

This study presents an overview of research status, hotspots and laws in hydrogen detection field, through the quantitative analysis of much literature in the field and the use of data mining, so as to provide credible references for the research of hydrogen detection technology.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 42 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 August 2002

37

Abstract

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1993

Vojtěch Heřmanský, M. Bilinski, H. Binner, Joon Lee, Dave Lowrie and M. Whiteside

The members of the chapter at the annual meeting held on 27 November 1992 in Brno decided not to split after the separation of Czechoslovakia. It was suggested to organise…

Abstract

The members of the chapter at the annual meeting held on 27 November 1992 in Brno decided not to split after the separation of Czechoslovakia. It was suggested to organise a larger chapter from the Central European States to provide greater co‐operation and better functioning of the smaller chapters. A new name for the chapter was proposed — Central European Chapter (CEC) — to express neutrality and to point out that the chapter is open to other neighbouring chapters and to new members from the states where no national chapter yet exists.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1996

I.P. Hall

The drive towards low unit cost in optoelectronic packaging is assisted by avoiding the need for hermeticity and by the use of simple assembly techniques. Silicone gels…

228

Abstract

The drive towards low unit cost in optoelectronic packaging is assisted by avoiding the need for hermeticity and by the use of simple assembly techniques. Silicone gels can solve this problem, provided the reliability meets the application requirements. Extensive lifetest data for semiconductor lasers and PIN photodiodes coated in silicone gels are reported in this paper. Results to date show great promise and promote confidence in the use of these materials for the environmental protection of optoelectronic devices. Apart from silicone gels, light cured resin materials can also offer benefits towards lower cost assembly processes. Tests are reported of the degradation in optical transmission of these resins and also bulk degradation under differing environmental conditions. The use of these polymer materials can play an integral part in low‐cost optoelectronic packaging developments, two specific designs of which — a silicon laser optical bench and a ceramic ferrule co‐axial structure — will be described. Both of these packages take advantage of a passive fibre/device alignment allowed by the use of an expanded beam laser design.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1991

This event, the first sponsored by ISHM, takes place in Pardubice on the 19–20 November 1991. Pardubice is a town of some 100,000 inhabitants about 60 miles east of…

Abstract

This event, the first sponsored by ISHM, takes place in Pardubice on the 19–20 November 1991. Pardubice is a town of some 100,000 inhabitants about 60 miles east of Prague. A welcome is extended to all ISHM Chapter members.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Article
Publication date: 14 March 2018

Alaaldeen Al-Halhouli, Hala Qitouqa, Abdallah Alashqar and Jumana Abu-Khalaf

This review paper aims to introduce the inkjet printing as a tool for fabrication of flexible/wearable sensors. It summarizes inkjet printing techniques including various…

2163

Abstract

Purpose

This review paper aims to introduce the inkjet printing as a tool for fabrication of flexible/wearable sensors. It summarizes inkjet printing techniques including various modes of operation, commonly used substrates and inks, commercially available inkjet printers and variables affecting the printing process. More focus is on the drop-on-demand printing mode, a strongly considered printing technique for patterning conductive lines on flexible and stretchable substrates. As inkjet-printed patterns are influenced by various variables related to its conductivity, resistivity, durability and dimensions of printed patterns, the main printing parameters (e.g. printing multilayers, inks sintering, surface treatment, cartridge specifications and printing process parameters) are reported. The embedded approaches of adding electronic components (e.g. surface-mounted and optoelectronic devices) to the stretchable circuit are also included.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, inkjet printing techniques for fabrication of flexible/stretchable circuits will be reviewed. Specifically, the various modes of operation, commonly used substrates and inks and variables affecting the printing process will be presented. Next, examples of inkjet-printed electronic devices will be demonstrated. These devices will be compared to their rigid counterpart in terms of ease of implementation and electrical behavior for wearable sensor applications. Finally, a summary of key findings and future research opportunities will be presented.

Findings

In conclusion, it is evident that the technology of inkjet printing is becoming a competitor to traditional lithography fabrication techniques, as it has the advantage of being low cost and less complex. In particular, this technique has demonstrated great capabilities in the area of flexible/stretchable electronics and sensors. Various inkjet printing methods have been presented with emphasis on their principle of operation and their commercial availability. In addition, the components of a general inkjet printing process have been discussed in details. Several factors affect the resulting printed patterns in terms of conductivity, resistivity, durability and geometry.

Originality/value

The paper focuses on flexible/stretchable optoelectronic devices which could be implemented in stretchable circuits. Furthermore, the importance and challenges related to printing highly conductive and highly stretchable lines, as well as reliable electronic devices, and interfacing them with external circuitry for power transmission, data acquisition and signal conditioning have been highlighted and discussed. Although several fabrication techniques have been recently developed to allow patterning conductive lines on a rubber substrate, the fabrication of fully stretchable wearable sensors remains limited which needs future research in this area for the advancement of wearable sensors.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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