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Book part
Publication date: 30 October 2018

Jennifer Adams and Emily Hannum

Physical victimization at school is little studied in impoverished developing country contexts. Moreover, the role of school and classroom contexts as risk factors remains…

Abstract

Physical victimization at school is little studied in impoverished developing country contexts. Moreover, the role of school and classroom contexts as risk factors remains poorly understood.

The aim of the study is to investigate the prevalence of physical victimization in rural Chinese middle schools as well as the individual, teacher/classroom, and school-level risk factors associated with experiencing physical victimization.

We use two waves of longitudinal, representative survey data to perform a multilevel logistic regression analysis (MLRA) of physical victimization among middle school students from 100 villages in one of China’s poorest provinces. We focus on a subset of questionnaire items that were gathered from students when the sampled children were 13–16 years old. We also utilize student data from the first wave of the survey to control for prior internalizing problems and academic achievement. Finally, we link matched data collected from principal and teacher questionnaires to examine the risk factors for physical victimization associated with students’ microclimates and the wider school environment.

A substantial proportion of middle school students (40%) reported having been beaten by classmates. Elevated risk was found among males; students with prior poor performance in language; students with past internalizing problems; students of female teachers and teachers evaluated as low performing; students in disruptive classrooms; and students in classrooms undergoing mandated reforms.

These findings suggest that efforts to reduce school violence should not only focus on the deficits of individual students, but rather should target practices to alter the within school risk factors associated with microclimates.

Details

Research in the Sociology of Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-077-6

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Book part
Publication date: 26 July 2016

Brett Lehman

As a growing population of students in the U.S. education system, it is important to study the extent to which Latino students experience bullying victimization. In this…

Abstract

Purpose

As a growing population of students in the U.S. education system, it is important to study the extent to which Latino students experience bullying victimization. In this study, a nationally representative sample of Latino high school students is analyzed for this purpose.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 including students’ family immigration, participation in extracurricular activities, and reports of bullying victimization are analyzed. In order to make comparisons within the sample of Latino students, the sample is disaggregated between students attending school in new Latino immigrant destinations and traditional Latino immigrant destinations. Poisson regression is used in all multivariate analyses.

Findings

In new Latino destinations, Latino students are just as likely to report being bullied as white students. In addition, in new destinations Latino students are bullied in connection with participating inhumanities-related extracurricular activities. Further, they are more likely to be bullied for this participation in comparison to students of other races/ethnicities. Finally, these relationships are significant even after accounting for the fact that third generation, more established students are more likely to report being bullied.

Social implications

Teachers, school administrators, parents, and researchers should be aware that Latino students can be bullied based on status-conferring activities such as extracurricular activities. This appears to be most pronounced in new Latino immigrant destinations where there is recent influx of Latinos. Efforts to prevent bullying in these areas can be combined with programs that seek to promote cross-ethnic understanding and academic/extracurricular enrichment.

Originality/value

This study provides valuable information on the experience of Latino students and bullying victimization.

Details

Education and Youth Today
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-046-6

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Joanna Kubik, Meagan Docherty, Paul Boxer, Bonita Veysey and Michael Ostermann

Research suggests that gang-involved youth are more likely than non-gang youth to experience victimization. However, very little research has addressed the issue of…

Abstract

Purpose

Research suggests that gang-involved youth are more likely than non-gang youth to experience victimization. However, very little research has addressed the issue of whether the relationship between gang involvement and victimization depends on the context in which victimization takes place. The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of the relation between gang involvement and violent victimization in both street and school contexts.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were provided by youth (n=421; ages 11-18; 70 percent male; 66 percent non-white) referred by the justice system for intensive home and community-based treatment of problem behavior. At intake, youth reported on their experiences of violent victimization, mental health status, problem behavior, and substance use. Youth and therapist reports were utilized to indicate gang involvement.

Findings

Approximately 62 percent of gang-involved youth in the sample were victimized across both contexts. Linear and censored regression models found that on average, gang-involved youth experienced a greater frequency of victimization than non-gang youth (p < 0.001). Importantly, results also show that gang involvement amplifies the impact of victimization on key behavioral and mental health outcomes. Victimization in both street and school contexts increases the risk of serious problem behavior for gang-involved youth (p < 0.001). Victimization experiences in schools in particular also may increase alcohol use among gang-involved youth (p=0.006).

Originality/value

These findings emanating from a unique sample of youth in treatment demonstrate the value of considering victimization in context for intervention programming.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2016

Michelle F. Wright

The purpose of this paper is to compare rates of bullying and victimization between 50 adolescents in residential programs and 50 control adolescents in regular public…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare rates of bullying and victimization between 50 adolescents in residential programs and 50 control adolescents in regular public schools. Individual (i.e. peer attachment) and contextual predictors (i.e. parenting styles, school belongingness) were also examined, and investigated in relation to bullying involvement.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants were matched based on ethnicity, gender (all male), and parents’ income. They completed questionnaires on their bullying involvement, peer attachment, perceived parenting styles of their parents, and school belongingness.

Findings

The findings revealed that adolescents from residential programs had higher rates of bullying and victimization, experienced more permissive parenting styles, had lower peer attachment, and poorer school belongingness when compared to control adolescents. The positive relationship between permissive parenting and bullying was stronger for boys from residential programs. In addition, peer attachment and school belongingness were more negatively related to bullying among control boys. Similar patterns were found for victimization. Differences were also found concerning the relationship of the individual and contextual predictors to adolescents’ bullying and victimization across the two groups.

Originality/value

These results underscore the importance of studying bullying and victimization among adolescents in secure settings, particularly residential programs.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Book part
Publication date: 15 January 2021

Jennifer Pearson, Lindsey Wilkinson and Jamie Lyn Wooley-Snider

Purpose: Sexual minority youth are more likely than their heterosexual peers to consider and attempt suicide, in part due to victimization experienced within schools

Abstract

Purpose: Sexual minority youth are more likely than their heterosexual peers to consider and attempt suicide, in part due to victimization experienced within schools. While existing research suggests that rates of school victimization and suicidality among sexual minority students vary by school and community context, less is known about variation in these experiences at the state level.

Methodology: Using data from a large, representative sample of sexual minority and heterosexual youth (2017 Youth Risk Behavior States Data, n = 64,746 high school students in 22 states), multilevel models examine whether differences between sexual minority and heterosexual students in victimization and suicide risk vary by state-level policies.

Findings: Results suggest that disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual boys in bullying, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt are consistently smaller in states with high levels of overall policy support for LGBTQ equality and nondiscrimination in education laws. Sexual minority girls are more likely than heterosexual girls to be electronically bullied, particularly in states with lower levels of LGBTQ equality. Disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual girls in suicide ideation are lowest in high equality states, but state policies are not significantly associated with disparities in suicide attempt among girls.

Value: Overall, findings suggest that state-level policies supporting LGBTQ equality are associated with a reduced risk of suicide among sexual minority youth. This study speaks to the role of structural stigma in shaping exposure to minority stress and its consequences for sexual minority youth's well-being.

Details

Sexual and Gender Minority Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-147-1

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2016

Ivana Sekol and David P. Farrington

– This research examined some personal characteristics of victims of bullying in residential care for youth. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Abstract

Purpose

This research examined some personal characteristics of victims of bullying in residential care for youth. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 601 young people aged 11-21 from 22 residential facilities in Croatia completed an anonymous self-reported bullying questionnaire, the Big Five Personality Inventory, the Basic Empathy Scale and the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale.

Findings

The results demonstrated that male and female victims lacked self-esteem, presented with neurotic personality traits and were likely to believe that bullying was just part of life in residential care. Female victims also presented with lower levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness, while male victims were young and had a history of victimisation during their previous placement, in school and at the beginning of their current placements.

Practical implications

Victims in care might benefit from programmes addressing their low self-esteem, high neuroticism and attitudes approving of bullying. Male residential groups should not accommodate young boys together with older boys. New residents who have a history of victimisation during their previous placement and in school should be supervised more intensively but in a manner that does not increase their perception of being victimised.

Originality/value

The present study is the first work that examines individual characteristics of bullying victims in care institutions for young people. As such, the study offers some insights on how to protect residential care bullying victims.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Book part
Publication date: 26 July 2016

Alicia Raia-Hawrylak and Christopher Donoghue

Anti-bullying legislation has been adopted in every state to prevent the victimization of youth, but the focus on deterring and criminalizing individual behavior can…

Abstract

Purpose

Anti-bullying legislation has been adopted in every state to prevent the victimization of youth, but the focus on deterring and criminalizing individual behavior can obscure the contextual factors that contribute to aggression. This theoretical paper engages sociological literature to understand the impact of recent anti-bullying legislation on students’ experiences.

Design/methodology/approach

We discuss stigma and account-making theory to theorize the ways students become particularly vulnerable to victimization and may or may not be sufficiently protected under the law. We also engage criminological theories to understand how punishment may not be sufficient for preventing aggressive behavior but may instead lead students to employ strategies to avoid being caught or punished for their behaviors.

Findings

We argue that the majority of current anti-bullying definitions and protocols in use are ambiguous and insufficient in protecting vulnerable groups of students, particularly students with disabilities, overweight students, and LGBT +  students.

Originality/value

Our findings suggest that schools should seek to understand and alter the school-wide cultures and norms that permit aggressive behavior in the first place, in turn creating more inclusive school environments.

Details

Education and Youth Today
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-046-6

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2016

Patrik Söderberg, Kaj Bjorkqvist and Karin Österman

Recent studies indicate that exposure to physical punishment is associated with both aggressive behavior and peer victimization at school. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

Recent studies indicate that exposure to physical punishment is associated with both aggressive behavior and peer victimization at school. The purpose of this paper is to explore the bidirectional relationship between aggressive behavior and peer victimization as outcomes of physical punishment, as well as the role of depressive symptoms.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 2,424 Finnish upper primary school pupils (1,282 girls, 1,148 boys, mean age=14.2, SD=1.0) completed an online survey during class. Two conditional process models were applied using a macro for SPSS developed by Hayes (2012).

Findings

Exposure to physical punishment was found to be associated with both aggressive behavior and peer victimization at school. The effect on victimization was partially mediated by aggressive behavior and depressive symptoms, whereas the effect on aggressive behavior was partially mediated by peer victimization experiences but not by depressive symptoms. The relationship between physical punishment and peer victimization was somewhat stronger for girls than for boys, but this effect was not accounted for by gender differences in depressive symptoms or aggressive behavior.

Originality/value

Few studies to date have addressed the connection between aggressive behavior and peer victimization as outcomes of physical punishment. In addition, the study expands on the concept of “victim personality” by examining the mediating role of depressive symptoms. Methodologically, the study is an example of how the statistical software SPSS can be used for multiple mediation and conditional process analysis as an alternative to SEM analyses.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2011

Friedrich Lösel and Doris Bender

Although school bullying is an important social problem, its long‐term relation to mental health and behavioural outcomes is rarely investigated. The purpose of this paper…

Abstract

Purpose

Although school bullying is an important social problem, its long‐term relation to mental health and behavioural outcomes is rarely investigated. The purpose of this paper is to address the relation between bullying in childhood and behavioural and emotional problems in adolescence.

Design/methodology/approach

Bullying and victimization were assessed in a sample of 557 German children (mean age 9 years). Nearly five years later anxious, depressive, delinquent, aggressive and other outcomes were assessed via self‐ and mother‐reports. Data analyses contained bivariate correlations and hierarchical regressions in which family and individual risk factors (measured two years before bullying/victimization) were controlled.

Findings

It was found that there were mostly small, but highly significant correlations between bullying perpetration and later antisocial behaviour. Among girls, bullying also predicted later symptoms of anxiety, depression and social withdrawal. The same was the case for victimization. Victimized girls also showed more antisocial outcomes. When controlling for other risk factors, bullying perpetration remained as a predictor of externalizing problems, however, there were no significant relations between victimization and internalizing or externalizing outcomes.

Originality/value

This paper presents longitudinal data on a large sample from a country under‐represented in the English‐language literature on bullying, also its findings reveal that bullying perpetration is a highly significant predictor of later antisocial and delinquent outcomes in adolescence.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2019

Rosalba Manna, Samuele Calzone, Paola Adinolfi and Rocco Palumbo

School quality relies on the educational institutions’ ability to establish an environment which enhances the pupils’ social and emotional well-being. School bullying…

Abstract

Purpose

School quality relies on the educational institutions’ ability to establish an environment which enhances the pupils’ social and emotional well-being. School bullying negatively affects the school climate; hence, it is likely to trigger side effects on pupils’ behaviors and performances. This is especially true when socially disadvantaged students are concerned, such as those with a migrant background. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of school bullying among pupils with a migrant background living in Italy and suggests several insights to address this relevant school quality issue.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed quantitative research has been designed to investigate the relationship between school bullying, victims’ socio-demographic attributes, school behaviors and school performances. Secondary data were collected from the study on the Integration of Second Generations performed in 2015 by the Italian Institute of Statistics.

Findings

Verbal and relational bullying were prevailing. Physical bullying was also recurring, but it primarily concerned male pupils. Bullied students were more likely to self-report lower school performances; moreover, they showed greater willingness to dropout from school. Victims of school bullying suffered from social exclusion; they were also used to perform working activities beyond mandatory schooling. They expressed lower trust in their teachers as compared with their peers.

Practical implications

School bullying is thought to deteriorate the school climate and, consequently, to impair educational services’ quality. Timely management interventions are needed to address school bullying and to prevent its negative effects.

Originality/value

This study conceives school bullying as a critical quality issue and paves the way for further developments intended to enhance school services’ effectiveness.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

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