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Book part
Publication date: 23 May 2019

Yuri Simachev and Mikhail Kuzyk

For at least the last 10 years, the Russian authorities have been declaring the need to move to an innovative path of economic development. The government actively…

Abstract

For at least the last 10 years, the Russian authorities have been declaring the need to move to an innovative path of economic development. The government actively initiates and applies various instruments and measures to promote innovation. However, the effectiveness of the Russian innovation policy is still in question. The chapter examines the evolution of state policy to foster innovation growth in Russia since 2000 and describes some sets of achievements and problems for different stages of this policy. In addition to analysis of changes in the innovation sphere at the macro-level, we discuss the primary motivations and limitations at the micro-level (firm level). As a result, the critical institutional barriers to innovation-based growth are revealed. In the same time, certain successes have been achieved in some sectors, and we consider various opportunities to improve Russian technological and innovation policy.

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Book part
Publication date: 25 August 2009

Alissa Pollitz Worden and Andrew Lucas Blaize Davies

Most criminal justice scholars agree that the past three decades have witnessed a punitive shift in criminal justice policy, public opinion, and political rhetoric. Have…

Abstract

Most criminal justice scholars agree that the past three decades have witnessed a punitive shift in criminal justice policy, public opinion, and political rhetoric. Have these political trends also left their mark on policy approaches to due process rights? The provision of counsel to indigent defendants is a signature issue in debates over due process rights. The Supreme Court expanded dramatically the circumstances under which states were required to provide counsel in the 1960s and 1970s, though decisions about the implementation of this mandate were left to individual states. We examine the evolution of indigent defense policy, at the state and local level, over the past three decades, and ask two questions: First, did policies evolve in the directions expected by reform advocates? Second, to the extent that policies developed differently across states, how can we account for those differences? We find that refomers' optimistic projections about structure and funding have not been realized, and that adoption of progressive policies has been uneven across states. Most importantly, we find evidence that the politics of ideology and racial conflict have played a significant role in states' indigent defense policy over the past three decades.

Details

Special Issue New Perspectives on Crime and Criminal Justice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-653-9

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Article
Publication date: 3 September 2018

Julius A. Nukpezah and Sawsan Abutabenjeh

The purpose of this paper is to draw on the theory of institutional isomorphism to investigate how Mississippi’s centralized cash management policy affects the cash…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to draw on the theory of institutional isomorphism to investigate how Mississippi’s centralized cash management policy affects the cash management practices in the state’s rural and urban counties.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a sequential exploratory mixed methods design involving a qualitative documentary analysis and a quantitative analysis of a survey of Mississippi counties.

Findings

The study finds that institutional isomorphism drives cash management practices in the counties by influencing how they follow state and agency mandates. Moreover, while urban counties have superior socio-economic indicators compared to their rural counterparts, no differences exist regarding standardized financial indicators, which suggest that local governments in the state may be imitating the practices of one another.

Practical implications

First, states should consider the different financial and economic conditions of their local governments when prescribing cash management policies because uniform policies could stifle local innovation and reduce efficiency in cash management. Second, when there is pressure from a higher-level government or a state agency, local governments may end up imitating one another rather than exploring opportunities for innovation within state policies. Third, state policies should consider requiring education and training in cash management practices that help identify strategies to add value to public funds within the scope of local fiscal capabilities.

Originality/value

The study uses one state to investigate a unique case of centralized cash management practices. The lessons learned can apply to other states seeking to develop a policy for their small local governments without placing the larger ones at a disadvantage.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Article
Publication date: 25 July 2018

Lord Mensah, Anthony Q.Q. Aboagye and Nana Kwame Akosah

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether asset allocation across various industries listed on the Ghana Stock Exchange (GSE) varies across different monetary…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether asset allocation across various industries listed on the Ghana Stock Exchange (GSE) varies across different monetary policy states.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts the Markov Chain technique to split monetary policy into three different states. The authors further adopt the Markowitz portfolio optimization technique to find the minimum variance and optimum portfolio for the industries listed on the GSE.

Findings

The finding reveals a dynamic asset allocation, which varies the industry’s weight mix across the various monetary policy states enhance excess returns compared to the static asset allocation. Specifically, the authors find risk-return trade-off among industries listed on the GSE. Financial and Food and Beverage industries portfolios record high returns relative to the Government of Ghana 91-day Treasury bill. The Food and Beverage portfolio is the only portfolio that records relatively high excess returns across all the monetary policy states. The authors also find that, during expansionary state (high monetary policy rates) of the monetary policy, investors are to allocate about 69 and 30 percent of their investment into food and beverages and financials, respectively. Corner solution is found in the transient state where 100 percent of wealth is allocated to financial to obtain the optimum portfolio. The optimum portfolio in the contraction state assigns 52 percent to financials and 42 percent to manufacturing. In summary, the result supports the dependence of investors’ asset allocation decisions on monetary policy.

Practical implications

Therefore, the authors propose an investment strategy which is dynamic and takes into consideration the monetary policy states rather than static asset allocation which maintains the same industry weight mix over the investment period.

Social implications

In sum, the authors interpret the result as support for the dependence of investors’ asset allocation decisions on monetary policy. In Ghana, an increase in the monetary policy appears to support industries listed on the equity market. The result also gives knowledge about investors’ asset allocation decisions on the GSE, which is practical balanced source of information for investors’ risk and return choices. For a prudent monetary policy framework, the monetary policy committee should monitor industries listed on the GSE. The result from the analysis has also an implication for investors, portfolio managers and fund managers to consider the state of the monetary policy in Ghana when making investment decisions.

Originality/value

The study differs from earlier research on asset allocation by breaking new grounds on two levels. First of all, based on the notion that different industries have different exposures to monetary policy states, the authors extend the portfolios by grouping the equities listed on the GSE into their industrial sectors. Second, the authors examine how investors’ optimal portfolio allocation may change depending on the state of monetary policy.

Details

African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

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Book part
Publication date: 15 January 2021

Jennifer Pearson, Lindsey Wilkinson and Jamie Lyn Wooley-Snider

Purpose: Sexual minority youth are more likely than their heterosexual peers to consider and attempt suicide, in part due to victimization experienced within schools…

Abstract

Purpose: Sexual minority youth are more likely than their heterosexual peers to consider and attempt suicide, in part due to victimization experienced within schools. While existing research suggests that rates of school victimization and suicidality among sexual minority students vary by school and community context, less is known about variation in these experiences at the state level.

Methodology: Using data from a large, representative sample of sexual minority and heterosexual youth (2017 Youth Risk Behavior States Data, n = 64,746 high school students in 22 states), multilevel models examine whether differences between sexual minority and heterosexual students in victimization and suicide risk vary by state-level policies.

Findings: Results suggest that disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual boys in bullying, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt are consistently smaller in states with high levels of overall policy support for LGBTQ equality and nondiscrimination in education laws. Sexual minority girls are more likely than heterosexual girls to be electronically bullied, particularly in states with lower levels of LGBTQ equality. Disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual girls in suicide ideation are lowest in high equality states, but state policies are not significantly associated with disparities in suicide attempt among girls.

Value: Overall, findings suggest that state-level policies supporting LGBTQ equality are associated with a reduced risk of suicide among sexual minority youth. This study speaks to the role of structural stigma in shaping exposure to minority stress and its consequences for sexual minority youth's well-being.

Details

Sexual and Gender Minority Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-147-1

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Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2005

Rosalie L. Pacula, Robert MacCoun, Peter Reuter, Jamie Chriqui, Beau Kilmer, Katherine Harris, Letizia Paoli and Carsten Schäfer

Although frequently discussed as a singular policy, there is tremendous variation in the laws and regulations surrounding so-called decriminalization policies adopted by…

Abstract

Although frequently discussed as a singular policy, there is tremendous variation in the laws and regulations surrounding so-called decriminalization policies adopted by Western countries, with many jurisdictions adopting depenalization policies rather than policies that actually change the criminal status of cannabis possession offences. This paper provides a discussion of the liberalization policies being adopted in Western countries, highlighting distinct elements about particular policies that are important for proper analysis and interpretation of the policies. It then discusses some of the environmental factors that also shape these policies, and hence influence their potential impact, using data from the U.S.A. as a particular example. The results clearly show that researchers should be careful conducting intra- or international comparisons of policies because important aspects of these policies are frequently ignored.

Details

Substance Use: Individual Behaviour, Social Interactions, Markets and Politics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-361-7

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Book part
Publication date: 1 September 2015

Christie L. Parris and Heather L. Scheuerman

This paper examines the conditions under which states include sexual orientation as a protected status in hate crime policy over the course of 25 years. Previous research…

Abstract

This paper examines the conditions under which states include sexual orientation as a protected status in hate crime policy over the course of 25 years. Previous research in this area has generally focused on the passage of either general hate crime statutes longitudinally or the inclusion of sexual orientation in hate crime legislation via cross-sectional analysis. Moreover, previous work in this area tends to concentrate on two types of factors affecting policy passage: (1) structural factors such as social disorganization and economic vitality, and (2) political characteristics including governor’s political party and the makeup of the state legislature. We argue that a strong LGBT social movement organizational presence may also influence LGBT hate crime policy passage. Using an event history analysis, we test how state-level social movement organizational mobilization, as well as the state-level political context, affect policy passage from 1983 to 2008. Our findings indicate that political opportunities, including political instability and government ideology, matter for the passage of anti-gay hate crime policy. We also find evidence to support political mediation, as the interaction between social movement organizational presence and Democrats in the state legislature affect policy passage.

Details

Research in Social Movements, Conflicts and Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-359-4

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Article
Publication date: 24 September 2019

Donald Bruce, Elizabeth A. Glass and Matthew C. Harris

The purpose of this paper is to expand the empirical literature on state tax and expenditure policies and entrepreneurial activity in several meaningful ways.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to expand the empirical literature on state tax and expenditure policies and entrepreneurial activity in several meaningful ways.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors update the panel data to include several more recent years and also consider other elements of state policy.

Findings

The most important takeaway is that even after dealing with some of the known shortcomings of dynamic panel analysis, we are still not able to find economically meaningful impacts of state tax and expenditure policies (generally defined) on entrepreneurial performance.

Research limitations/implications

Earlier studies that have found statistical significance have generally been limited to extensive-margin impacts on such things as self-employment rates or counts of new or small firms. When the authors examine what policy makers actually care about – things like income and employment among entrepreneurial ventures – the authors do not find much in the way of useful policy impacts.

Practical implications

To be sure, the authors find entrepreneurial performance to be statistically significantly related to certain tax rates and expenditure amounts, but the magnitudes of our estimated results cast serious doubts on the usefulness of these particular policy levers for generating meaningful improvements in entrepreneurial success.

Originality/value

The authors’ primary contribution is to improve the empirical consideration of the time series properties of the data. The authors provide a battery of more general and robust analyses to more completely surround the question.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2004

Georgios I. Zekos

Investigates the differences in protocols between arbitral tribunals and courts, with particular emphasis on US, Greek and English law. Gives examples of each country and…

Abstract

Investigates the differences in protocols between arbitral tribunals and courts, with particular emphasis on US, Greek and English law. Gives examples of each country and its way of using the law in specific circumstances, and shows the variations therein. Sums up that arbitration is much the better way to gok as it avoids delays and expenses, plus the vexation/frustration of normal litigation. Concludes that the US and Greek constitutions and common law tradition in England appear to allow involved parties to choose their own judge, who can thus be an arbitrator. Discusses e‐commerce and speculates on this for the future.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 46 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2018

Sara M. McMullen and Jennifer Gibbs

Policing agencies across the USA have cited difficulty recruiting qualified applicants, thus leaving many employment vacancies unfilled. One reason for this challenge may…

Abstract

Purpose

Policing agencies across the USA have cited difficulty recruiting qualified applicants, thus leaving many employment vacancies unfilled. One reason for this challenge may be that those who would make exceptional police officers are barred from employment because of their body art. Varying appearance policies exist concerning tattoos, yet little is known about these policies. The purpose of this paper is to survey the tattoo policies of policing agencies.

Design/methodology/approach

The tattoo policies of all 50 state-level policing agencies were reviewed to explore similarities and state-level correlates.

Findings

The majority, but not all, of state police have some type of appearance policy targeting tattoos. State policing agencies that have a “no visibility” policy regarding tattoos more often were in states with a low percentage of millennial residents, high percentage of young veterans, men and non-Hispanic white citizens, and low crime; t-tests indicate “no visibility” policy states significantly differed from other states in the percentage of non-Hispanic whites and crime. Further, state policing agencies with a “no visibility” policy tended to be in northeastern states, with southern states having the fewest state policing agencies with such policies, although the χ2 test was non-significant.

Originality/value

Despite the ubiquity of tattoos in the American society, the literature is scant with studies of police appearance policies regarding tattoos. This study provides a partial summary of tattoo policies at the state policing level.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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