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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2003

Guy Wishart

Many factors have been identified as being responsible for increasing the vulnerability of people with learning difficulties to sexual abuse. However, there has not been a…

Abstract

Many factors have been identified as being responsible for increasing the vulnerability of people with learning difficulties to sexual abuse. However, there has not been a great deal of debate about the term ‘vulnerability’. Here, an argument is developed that puts forward the case for a social model approach to understanding vulnerability, which avoids a focus on victim characteristics.

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The Journal of Adult Protection, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1466-8203

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Eric Beauregard, Irina Busina and Jay Healey

Although offender profiling has been cited as an effective tool to interview suspects, empirical profiling methods have completely excluded interviewing suggestions when…

Abstract

Purpose

Although offender profiling has been cited as an effective tool to interview suspects, empirical profiling methods have completely excluded interviewing suggestions when testing the validity of this technique. The purpose of this paper is to explore the utility of empirically derived profiles of offender- and victim-related sexual assault case characteristics (n=624) in the preparation of the interrogation strategies in sexual assault investigations.

Design/methodology/approach

Latent class analysis was used to extract profiles of offender- and victim-related sexual assault case characteristics in a sample of 624 incarcerated sex offenders. Moreover, relationships between offender and victim profiles were conducted using χ2 analyses.

Findings

Findings show that specific offender-victim profiles are related to greater likelihood of confession during the interrogation. Possible interrogation strategies for each profile are suggested and implications for the practice of interviewing suspects are discussed.

Originality/value

The study is the first to examine both victim and offender profiles in order to assess the significant victim-offender profile combinations and their associated probabilities of resulting in confession.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

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Article
Publication date: 24 October 2018

Kristin Elizabeth Klimley, Alexis Carpinteri, Brandy Benson, Vincent B. Van Hasselt and Ryan A. Black

The commercialized sexual exploitation of children (CSEC), specifically child trafficking, prostitution, pornography, and enticement, has become a burgeoning topic over…

Abstract

Purpose

The commercialized sexual exploitation of children (CSEC), specifically child trafficking, prostitution, pornography, and enticement, has become a burgeoning topic over the past several decades. The purpose of this paper is to determine the characteristics of those victims who were at risk for sex trafficking, prostitution, pornography, and traveling/enticement.

Design/methodology/approach

This observational, survey design includes a records review of 18 victims who were identified by the FBI Miami Field Office. Case illustrations are provided for a more in-depth analysis of CSEC victims.

Findings

The results of this paper indicated that hands-on sexual abuse and child prostitution were the most common CSEC offenses that victims experienced. Additionally, Caucasian females, between 13 and 18 years of age, were often victimized. Victims more frequently experienced web forms of sexual abuse and engaged in risky sexual behaviors outside of the victimization. Further, the majority of victims in the sample came from a low socioeconomic background and lived in a single-parent home.

Practical implications

The current results, combined with prior research, may aid law enforcement, mental health, and medical professionals in understanding potential characteristics correlated with various forms of CSEC offenses.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is one of the first descriptive studies involving case illustrations of CSEC victims.

Details

Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2016

Ivana Sekol and David P. Farrington

– This research examined some personal characteristics of victims of bullying in residential care for youth. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Abstract

Purpose

This research examined some personal characteristics of victims of bullying in residential care for youth. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 601 young people aged 11-21 from 22 residential facilities in Croatia completed an anonymous self-reported bullying questionnaire, the Big Five Personality Inventory, the Basic Empathy Scale and the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale.

Findings

The results demonstrated that male and female victims lacked self-esteem, presented with neurotic personality traits and were likely to believe that bullying was just part of life in residential care. Female victims also presented with lower levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness, while male victims were young and had a history of victimisation during their previous placement, in school and at the beginning of their current placements.

Practical implications

Victims in care might benefit from programmes addressing their low self-esteem, high neuroticism and attitudes approving of bullying. Male residential groups should not accommodate young boys together with older boys. New residents who have a history of victimisation during their previous placement and in school should be supervised more intensively but in a manner that does not increase their perception of being victimised.

Originality/value

The present study is the first work that examines individual characteristics of bullying victims in care institutions for young people. As such, the study offers some insights on how to protect residential care bullying victims.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 7 January 2019

Monica T. Whitty

This paper aims to develop a theoretical framework to predict susceptibility to cyber-fraud victimhood.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop a theoretical framework to predict susceptibility to cyber-fraud victimhood.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was constructed to examine whether personality, socio-demographic characteristics and online routine activities predicted one-off and repeat victimhood of cyber-fraud. Overall, 11,780 participants completed a survey (one-off victims, N = 728; repeat victims = 329).

Findings

The final saturated model revealed that psychological and socio-demographic characteristics and online routine activities should be considered when predicting victimhood. Consistent with the hypotheses, victims of cyber-frauds were more likely to be older, score high on impulsivity measures of urgency and sensation seeking, score high on addictive measures and engage in more frequent routine activities that place them at great risk of becoming scammed. There was little distinction between one-off and repeat victims of cyber-frauds.

Originality/value

This work uniquely combines psychological, socio-demographic and online behaviours to develop a comprehensive theoretical framework to predict susceptibility to cyber-frauds. Importantly, the work here challenges the current utility of government websites to protect users from becoming scammed and provides insights into methods that might be used to protect users from becoming scammed.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Laura Hammond and Maria Ioannou

– In order to address a notable gap in the research literature, the purpose of this paper is to examine age-related differences in juvenile homicide perpetration.

Abstract

Purpose

In order to address a notable gap in the research literature, the purpose of this paper is to examine age-related differences in juvenile homicide perpetration.

Design/methodology/approach

Data on 150 juvenile homicide offenders and their offences was derived from material available within the public domain, including media reports, case studies, court reports and previously published studies. Comparisons were then made between those aged 14 and under (n=63) and those aged 14-17 (n=87) across a range of offender, victim and offence-related variables.

Findings

There were no significant differences between the child (U-14) and adolescent (14-17) offender samples on any of the measured variables. The two groups had similar backgrounds, selected similar types of victims, had comparable breakdowns of different types of victim-offender relationship and had similar patterns of weapon use.

Research limitations/implications

The fact that the two groups did not differ significantly has notable implications in practical and applied domains. By identifying risk factors for juvenile homicide perpetration, findings open up a range of possibilities for identification, investigation and intervention. In addition, findings might inform the development of offender treatment and rehabilitation programmes. Key limitations relate to the quality and quantity of data employed. Ways of remedying these weaknesses in future research are addressed.

Originality/value

This is the first study to directly compare child and adolescent perpetrators of homicide over a broad range of offender, victim and offence attributes.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

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Book part
Publication date: 28 May 2021

Alina Korn

Purpose: This study is concerned with media representation of crime in the Israeli press. It examines the pattern of offenses reported in two daily newspapers of seemingly…

Abstract

Purpose: This study is concerned with media representation of crime in the Israeli press. It examines the pattern of offenses reported in two daily newspapers of seemingly different characteristics, the “elitist” Haaretz and the “popular” Israel Hayom. Methodology/approach: Crime reports appeared in the news pages during November 2016 were content analyzed in both newspapers by using a coding scheme, which operationalized several variables relating to type of crime, characteristics of offenders and victims, and court proceedings. Findings: Violent and sex offenses featured disproportionately in the news reports in both newspapers, while conventional property offenses were under-reported relative to their prevalence in official crime statistics. In terms of the characteristics of offenders and victims, the vast majority of offenders portrayed in crime stories were adult Jewish males. Women were more likely to appear as victims of crime rather than perpetrators, and more likely to appear as victims of sex offenses rather than other offenses. Research limitations: This study was based on an analysis of crime stories which appeared in two newspapers during one-month period of time. Future research should extend the sample size and collect data from a longer period of time and from additional media outlets. Originality/value: Media coverage of crime stories has not yet been researched in Israel. Beyond the interest in the Israeli case or the potential contribution to comparative global knowledge, the value of the study may lie in expanding the lens of scholarship of media’s construction of crime.

Details

Mass Mediated Representations of Crime and Criminality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-759-3

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Tom Pakkanen, Angelo Zappalà, Dario Bosco, Andrea Berti and Pekka Santtila

The purpose of this paper is to explore the differences (if any) between serial and hard-to-solve one-off homicides, and to determine if it is possible to distinguish the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the differences (if any) between serial and hard-to-solve one-off homicides, and to determine if it is possible to distinguish the two types of homicides based on offence behaviours and victim characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 116 Italian serial homicides was compared to 45 hard-to-solve one-off homicides. Hard-to-solve one-off homicides were defined as having at least 72 hours pass between when the offence came to the knowledge of the police and when the offender was caught. Logistic regression was used to predict whether a killing was part of a series or a one-off offence.

Findings

The serial killers targeted more strangers and prostitutes, displayed a higher level of forensic awareness both before and after the killing, and had more often an apparent sexual element in their offence. Conversely, the one-off homicides were found to include more traits indicative of impulsive and expressive behaviour. The model demonstrated a good ability (AUC=0.88) to predict whether a homicide belonged to the serial or one-off category.

Research limitations/implications

The findings should be replicated using local homicide data to maximise the validity of the model in countries outside of Italy.

Practical implications

Being able to distinguish between serial and one-off homicides based on information available at a new crime scene could be practically useful for homicide investigators managing finite resources.

Originality/value

Studies comparing serial homicides to one-off homicides are scarce, and there are no studies explicitly trying to predict whether a homicide is an isolated case or part of a series.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2000

Amanda L. Robinson and Meghan Stroshine Chandek

Much research has focused on the police response to domestic violence; however, relatively little research has considered performance differences of various types of

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1563

Abstract

Much research has focused on the police response to domestic violence; however, relatively little research has considered performance differences of various types of police officers. Although there has been widespread adoption of community policing by police departments across the country, it is not conclusive as to whether units with a specific community policing philosophy perform better than traditional units when handling domestic violence calls. The current study addresses this issue by analyzing the factors associated with victim participation; specifically, do officers and detectives operating under a specific community policing mandate produce higher rates of victim participation? Bivariate and multivariate analyses indicate that victim participation rates did not differ by a community policing orientation; rather, situational factors exert the strongest effect on victim participation.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1997

Margaret E. Martin

Police policy regarding domestic violence has been severely altered over the last decade. The social control approach of pro‐arrest policies has coincided with a service…

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1996

Abstract

Police policy regarding domestic violence has been severely altered over the last decade. The social control approach of pro‐arrest policies has coincided with a service approach promoted by community policing philosophy. But community policing practice has largely ignored the role of victim satisfaction. The evaluation of domestic violence victims must be considered in determining police accountability, because of both the likelihood that victims will seek police service more than once, and because they are intimately knowledgeable about the effect of police practice on offender behavior. Presents an exploratory study of victim satisfaction as an illustration of the situations, expectations and behaviors which shape the victim’s experience with the police. Finds that police helping behaviors were the best predictors of satisfaction, but helping behaviors were differentially distributed by victim characteristics. Suggests that police can actively improve community satisfaction in domestic violence cases by fully implementing policy and training directives which require them to provide information and concrete assistance equitably.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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