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Book part
Publication date: 26 November 2019

Dipyaman Pal, Chandrima Chakraborty and Arpita Ghose

The present study aims to determine the existence of simultaneous relationship between economic growth, income inequality, fiscal policy, and total trade of the 13…

Abstract

The present study aims to determine the existence of simultaneous relationship between economic growth, income inequality, fiscal policy, and total trade of the 13 emerging market economies as a group for the period 1980–2010. After establishing the existence of simultaneity between the above relationships, a simultaneous panel model has been formulated and estimated incorporating the nonlinearity among the variables as suggested by the existing literature. An inverted U-shape relationship is evident between (1) economic growth, income inequality, and total trade in economic growth equation, (2) income inequality, economic growth, and per capita income in income inequality equation, and (3) total trade and economic growth in total trade equation. Thus, the existence of a two-way nonlinear relationship is highlighted between economic growth, income inequality, and total trade. Apart from these nonlinear relationships, positive and significant effect of (1) gross capital formation, inflation, population growth, human capital, fiscal policy, monetary policy, and domestic credit to private sector on economic growth; (2) civil liabilities on income inequality; (3) gross capital formation and inflation on total trade; (4) total trade, population growth of those aged 65 years and above, political system on fiscal policy is highlighted. Also, negative and significant effect of (1) fiscal policy on income inequality and (2) income inequality on fiscal policy is revealed.

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The Gains and Pains of Financial Integration and Trade Liberalization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-004-7

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Book part
Publication date: 20 May 2003

Jeffrey A Mills and Sourushe Zandvakili

Using decomposable measures of inequality, the implications of household structure are investigated by examining inequality between and within household groups based on…

Abstract

Using decomposable measures of inequality, the implications of household structure are investigated by examining inequality between and within household groups based on the number of exemptions, which correlates with household size, and the filing status, which correlates with the common forms of household structure, i.e. married, single, head of household. Detailed household income data are used to measure income inequality for both pre-tax/transfer and post-tax/transfer definitions of income. These decompositions provide information about the degree of inequality, both before and after taxes and transfers, which is due to household size and filing status. The bootstrap is employed to construct standard errors for the inequality measures and their decompositions, and hypothesis tests are conducted to determine whether the observed changes in the distribution of income are statistically significant.

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Fiscal Policy, Inequality and Welfare
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-212-2

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2021

Kristina Brenisin, Elizabeth Akinwande, Aile Trumm and Kieran Breen

The concept of inequality can be described as not being treated equally to everyone else in society. While previous studies have explored the concept of inequality and its…

Abstract

Purpose

The concept of inequality can be described as not being treated equally to everyone else in society. While previous studies have explored the concept of inequality and its impact on mental illness, these have been primarily quantitative. The details of experiences and potential impacts of inequalities by patients prior to admission into secure care have not been investigated comprehensively using a qualitative approach, which will identify individualised factors that may contribute to the development of mental ill-health. This study aims to explore whether those with multiple disadvantages are at greater risk of developing mental illness.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative study of patients’ clinical notes upon admission to a secure in-patient facility was conducted using a thematic analytical approach to investigate the key inequalities reported by patients with mental health problems. The topic of inequality was examined by assessing the clinical notes of 21 patients who were under treatment at the time of the study.

Findings

The majority of patients experienced multiple inequalities which impacted negatively on their mental health status. Three main themes that were identified were – a disrupted living environment, disturbed childhood and the importance of support. The thematic analysis has shown that the majority of the patients were exposed to numerous societal disadvantages in association with challenging life events in their early years and these have impacted significantly on their subsequent well-being.

Practical implications

When assessing the background to mental illness, it is important to gain a deep understanding of many inequalities that patients have faced prior to them developing their condition and, in particular, how these have combined to initiate the clinical manifestation. The study highlights the importance of raising awareness of how being treated unfairly, whether based on protected or non-protected characteristics, can contribute towards people becoming disadvantaged in society and ultimately making them more vulnerable to the development of mental health difficulties. Results of the study may inform the future use of inequalities as an integral component in the development of trauma-informed care.

Originality/value

This is the first study, to the authors’ knowledge, to consider intersectionality and admission to mental health units by adopting qualitative approach, specifically by reviewing patients’ clinical notes.

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The Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

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Article
Publication date: 3 September 2021

Aile Trumm, Kristina Brenisin and Kieran Breen

The more disadvantaged members of society generally experience poorer outcomes following the development of mental ill-health. The purpose of this paper is to scope the…

Abstract

Purpose

The more disadvantaged members of society generally experience poorer outcomes following the development of mental ill-health. The purpose of this paper is to scope the literature and synthesise findings on the inequalities and mental health within secure mental health settings.

Design/methodology/approach

Six electronic databases were searched to identify relevant studies. These were included if they examined the association between inequalities and mental health in women’s secure mental health settings.

Findings

Of the 608 studies reviewed, 14 met the inclusion criteria. In these papers, violence and/or abuse were described as the most prevalent inequalities. The second most frequent group of inequalities identified were socio-economic. Only three published studies researched the impact of ethnicities. Physical health, alcohol abuse and a dysfunctional family upbringing were only mentioned in one of the studies. Gender identity, transitioning and sexual orientation was not considered in any papers. These are areas, which require further investigation to determine their specific impact in this setting.

Research limitations/implications

This review highlights the dearth of high-quality research-based evidence underpinning an understanding of the impact of inequalities on women in secure mental health settings. The existing studies suggest that inequalities have a very particular impact and that intersectionality plays a key role. Further research is required to further understand how inequalities impact the lives of women in secure mental health settings.

Practical implications

The inequalities that women experience in relation to mental health need to be further researched in the context of intersectionality. There are also research gaps in terms of gender identity, sexual orientation and socio-economic background. Further primary research using a more complex methodological paradigm is required to explore these factors and their impact on mental health service provision.

Social implications

The role of inequalities should be considered as part of an overall care package, including the experiences of adverse childhood experiences and this should contribute towards the development of a trauma-based care approach.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to scope literature about inequalities experienced in women’s secure psychiatric settings considering intersectionality.

Details

The Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2009

Rati Ram

The purpose of this paper is to extend the existing literature on cross‐country disparities by providing measures of cross‐country inequality in human development index…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to extend the existing literature on cross‐country disparities by providing measures of cross‐country inequality in human development index (HDI) and real income per capita over the 30‐year period 1975‐2004.

Design/methodology/approach

A well‐recommended inequality index is applied to the data.

Findings

Ten points are noted: first, HDI inequality declined over the period; second, the pace of decline slowed somewhat since 1990; third, magnitude of HDI inequality has been quite small; fourth, inequality in gross domestic product per capita also shows a declining pattern over the period; fifth, there is very high correlation between HDI and per capita income; sixth, despite the high correlation, magnitudes of inequalities in the two variables are dramatically different; seventh, therefore, even very high correlation may not be interpreted as implying similar inequalities in the variables; eighth, cross‐country inequalities in various regions show huge differences; ninth, negative trend in inequalities over the period shows high statistical significance; and tenth, t‐tests for equality of means do not pick up well even huge differences in regional inequalities, suggesting need for considerable caution in the use of such tests.

Originality/value

The primary scientific significance of the work lies in providing the measures of cross‐country inequality in HDI over the 30‐year period; showing dramatically different inequalities in HDI and income despite very high correlation between the two variables; and indicating cross‐country inequalities in eight different regional groups and also across regions.

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Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1984

KANG H. PARK

The size distribution of income, or income inequality, has long been a concern to scholars in many disciplines tor different reasons. Statisticians have approached the…

Abstract

The size distribution of income, or income inequality, has long been a concern to scholars in many disciplines tor different reasons. Statisticians have approached the distribution of income among individuals as a stochastic process. Economists have sought to explain income distribution by means, of economic and institutional factors. More recently, economists have been interested in the effects of economic growth and government policies on income distribution. Sociologists and political scientists have thought of income inequality as a major source of social revolt or political violence.

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Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2013

Minh Quang Dao

The aim of this paper is to extend a theoretical model due to Ljungqvist and data from a sample of 19 developing economies to empirically test it.

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Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to extend a theoretical model due to Ljungqvist and data from a sample of 19 developing economies to empirically test it.

Design/methodology/approach

Data for all variables are from the 2005 Human Development Report and the 2006 World Development Report. The author applies the least‐squares estimation technique in a multivariate linear regression.

Findings

Based on data from the World Bank and the United Nations Development Programme, the paper uses a sample of 19 developing economies and finds that cross‐country variations in income/consumption inequality may be explained by inequality of investment in human capital as measured by inequalities in child health as well as inequality in education and by inequality in the distribution of land as measured by the land Gini index.

Practical implications

Assuming a population consisting of skilled laborers, unskilled laborers, educators/health care personnel, and farmers, the paper shows that starting from an initial distribution of assets and in the absence of a perfect capital market along with human capital exhibiting increasing returns it is possible to have persistent inequality in the distribution of income or consumption. Regression results also are consistent with the theoretical implication of the model as the extent of inequality in land distribution and in access to education as well as inequalities in child health do linearly influence income or consumption inequality as measured by the ratio of the share of income or consumption accounted for by the richest quintile to that of the poorest quintile. As a result, if governments in developing countries aim to reduce inequality, they need to implement programs designed to reduce inequalities in child health by allowing children from the poorest of the poor to get fully immunized, which in turn would lead to a reduction in infant and child mortality and in education by providing low‐income families with means so that their children have better access to education. Government land policies, on the other hand, that succeed in reducing inequality in land distribution in developing countries, may be beneficial in terms of lessening income/expenditure inequality. Finally, while the present model does not test for the impact that improving capital markets would have, it stands to reason that improving capital markets could also have an impact on decreasing inequality.

Originality/value

In this paper the author uses a model due to Ljungqvist to show that individuals are relatively wealthy because they either own a fixed input such as land or they are able to invest in human capital, which in turn allow them to earn sufficient rent or labor income to remain wealthy. On the other hand, poor people either do not own land or are not capable of investing in human capital, and, as a result, earn low incomes and remain poor. This joint causation of factor endowment or human capital investment and income helps explain income distribution. Using data from the United Nations Development Programme and the World Bank for a sample of 19 developing economies, it is found that cross‐country variations in income/consumption inequality may be explained by inequality of investment in human capital as measured by inequalities in child health as well as well as inequality in education and by inequality in the distribution of land as measured by the land Gini index. These results will help governments in developing countries identify areas that need to be improved upon in order to reduce income/consumption inequality.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2021

Fateh Tavangar, Hassan Rafiey, Farhad Nosrati Nejad, Ahmad Ali Noorbala and Gholamreza Ghaedamini Harouni

Social determinants of stressful events (SE) play an important role in justifying the cause of inequality in the experience of SE. The purpose of this study is to…

Abstract

Purpose

Social determinants of stressful events (SE) play an important role in justifying the cause of inequality in the experience of SE. The purpose of this study is to investigate the determinants that impact on inequality in the experience of SE.

Design/methodology/approach

The statistical population of this study includes all residents of Tehran. The statistical sample was 5,895 people who were selected by multistage cluster method and were proportional to the population size. The research tool is a researcher-made questionnaire designed to measure SE in Tehran, which includes 11 psychological stressors. The Oaxaca–Blinder decomposing method was used to analyze data.

Findings

In a total of 11 psychological SE, in 6 of those events, there was significant inequality in the experience of SE. Concentration Index (CI) of political SE is (CI = −0.27, 95% CI: −0.47, −0.07) and in favor of the rich (pro-rich). Education (OR = 1.60) in poor group and region development in poor and rich (respectively in all of the following) (OR = 0.42–0.73) are the main determinants of inequality in this stressor. CI of neighborhood underdevelopment SE is (CI = −0.47, 95% CI: 0.66, −0.28) and pro-rich. Education (OR = 1.26–1.27) and region development (OR = 1.18–2.24) are the main determinants of inequality in this stressor. CI of livelihood problems SE is (CI = −0.58, 95% CI: 0.68, −0.32) and pro-rich. Education (OR = 1.40) and health status (OR = 1.63) in poor group are the main determinants of inequality in this stressor. CI of future uncertainty SE is (CI = −0.12, 95% CI: 0.34, −0.08) and pro-rich. Gender (OR = 1.22) in poor group and region development (OR = 0.24–0.58) are the main determinants of inequality in this stressor. CI of education problems (CI = 0.19, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.32) and pro-poor. Age (OR = 0.32–0.34) and education (OR = 3.65–3.30) are the main determinants of inequality in this stressor. CI of housing problems is (CI = −0.29, 95% CI: −0.49, −0.08) and pro-rich. Education (OR = 1.31) and region development (OR = 1.64) in poor group are the main determinants of inequality in this stressor.

Research limitations/implications

The first limitation is related to the level of data analysis, and the second limitation is the lack of comprehensive data on social determinants.

Practical implications

Social determinants affecting the formation of inequality in the experience of SE. Some social determinants, such as the level of education and development of the region, play a more prominent role in justifying inequality in the experience of stress between rich and poor groups.

Social implications

Inequality in the experience of SE is a serious threat to mental and social health. One of the ways to reduce the experience of psychological and social stress is to pay attention to social determinants that play a role in the formation of stress.

Originality/value

This original paper was conducted by examining the effect of social determinants on the formation of inequality in the experience of stress, which draws the serious attention of policymakers.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2021

Sosson Tadadjeu, Henri Njangang, Simplice Asongu and Yann Nounamo

This study investigates the impact of natural resources on wealth inequality as a first attempt on a panel of 45 developed and developing countries.

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates the impact of natural resources on wealth inequality as a first attempt on a panel of 45 developed and developing countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the generalized method of moments (GMM), the results provide strong evidence that natural resources increase wealth inequality within a linear empirical framework.

Findings

These results are robust to the use of alternative natural resources and wealth inequality measures. Additionally, a nonlinear analysis provides evidence of an inverted U shaped relationship between natural resources and wealth inequality. The net effect of enhancing natural resources on wealth inequality is positive and building on the corresponding conditional negative effect, the attendant natural resource thresholds for inclusive development are provided. It follows that while natural resources increase wealth inequality, some critical levels of natural resources are needed for natural resources to reduce wealth inequality.

Originality/value

To the best of knowledge, this is the first study to assess how enhancing natural resources affect wealth inequality.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

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Article
Publication date: 4 August 2021

Xavier Bartoll-Roca, Mercè Gotsens and Laia Palència

This study aims, firstly, to analyse the contribution of socio-economic determinants to mental health (MH) inequalities before the economic crisis, in 2006, and again in a…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims, firstly, to analyse the contribution of socio-economic determinants to mental health (MH) inequalities before the economic crisis, in 2006, and again in a year during recovery, 2016, and secondly, to analyse the changes in these contributions between the two points in time in Barcelona city.

Design/methodology/approach

The concentration index (CI) was calculated for MH inequalities for the population aged 16 or older using the Barcelona Health Surveys for 2006 and 2016. MH was measured with the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. The CI was broken down for each year and gender based on a set of socio-economic determinants plus social support and the presence of chronic diseases. The contribution of each factor to variation in MH inequality between the two points in time was analysed with Oaxaca decomposition.

Findings

Income inequalities in MH increased for men and women (a CI from −0.06 in 2006 to around −0.16 in 2016). Employment status and social class are the main contributors to MH inequalities (more than 50%), except for women in 2006 that is chronic disease. The main contribution to increases in MH inequality between 2006 and 2016 was due to unemployment (26.5% men, 23.8% women), being a student (22.8% men, 20.7% women), homemaker in women (30.7%) and men in the manual class (31.6%).

Originality/value

MH inequalities have been amplified between the two years among the economically vulnerable population or for those who are out of the labour market with unexpected changes for women.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

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