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Book part
Publication date: 26 November 2019

Dipyaman Pal, Chandrima Chakraborty and Arpita Ghose

The present study aims to determine the existence of simultaneous relationship between economic growth, income inequality, fiscal policy, and total trade of the 13…

Abstract

The present study aims to determine the existence of simultaneous relationship between economic growth, income inequality, fiscal policy, and total trade of the 13 emerging market economies as a group for the period 1980–2010. After establishing the existence of simultaneity between the above relationships, a simultaneous panel model has been formulated and estimated incorporating the nonlinearity among the variables as suggested by the existing literature. An inverted U-shape relationship is evident between (1) economic growth, income inequality, and total trade in economic growth equation, (2) income inequality, economic growth, and per capita income in income inequality equation, and (3) total trade and economic growth in total trade equation. Thus, the existence of a two-way nonlinear relationship is highlighted between economic growth, income inequality, and total trade. Apart from these nonlinear relationships, positive and significant effect of (1) gross capital formation, inflation, population growth, human capital, fiscal policy, monetary policy, and domestic credit to private sector on economic growth; (2) civil liabilities on income inequality; (3) gross capital formation and inflation on total trade; (4) total trade, population growth of those aged 65 years and above, political system on fiscal policy is highlighted. Also, negative and significant effect of (1) fiscal policy on income inequality and (2) income inequality on fiscal policy is revealed.

Details

The Gains and Pains of Financial Integration and Trade Liberalization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-004-7

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 20 May 2003

Jeffrey A Mills and Sourushe Zandvakili

Using decomposable measures of inequality, the implications of household structure are investigated by examining inequality between and within household groups based on…

Abstract

Using decomposable measures of inequality, the implications of household structure are investigated by examining inequality between and within household groups based on the number of exemptions, which correlates with household size, and the filing status, which correlates with the common forms of household structure, i.e. married, single, head of household. Detailed household income data are used to measure income inequality for both pre-tax/transfer and post-tax/transfer definitions of income. These decompositions provide information about the degree of inequality, both before and after taxes and transfers, which is due to household size and filing status. The bootstrap is employed to construct standard errors for the inequality measures and their decompositions, and hypothesis tests are conducted to determine whether the observed changes in the distribution of income are statistically significant.

Details

Fiscal Policy, Inequality and Welfare
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-212-2

Article
Publication date: 18 November 2022

Anushka Verma and Arun Kumar Giri

The present study examines the significance of financial inclusion in reducing income inequality in the Asian context.

Abstract

Purpose

The present study examines the significance of financial inclusion in reducing income inequality in the Asian context.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses panel estimation techniques such as the Pedroni cointegration test, Kao residual-based test, FMOLS, ARDL and Granger causality, a dataset consisting of the Gini coefficient index, three dimensions of financial inclusion measures and one added variable on financial depth, spanning from 2005 to 2019.

Findings

The study finds that in the long-run, income inequality disparity is highly influenced by financial inclusion indicators, such as the number of bank branches, deposit accounts, outstanding loans and domestic credit to the private sector. Whereas in the short run, disparities in income are unaffected by all the indicators of financial inclusion. Further, unidirectional causality from financial inclusion indicators to income inequality necessitates the need for policymakers to design policies and programs that would enhance access to financial services as an essential mechanism to reduce income disparity.

Originality/value

Studies based on a panel of Asian countries that have undergone impressive growth of financial inclusion initiatives since the past decade—but are still facing widening income inequality—are conspicuously rare in the literature. The empirical analysis fills this void by showing the significant role financial inclusion indicators play in steering the Asian economies toward income equality throughout the study period.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 November 2022

Corrado Andini

The aim is to assess how a policy of tertiary education for all affects the shape of the unconditional earnings distribution.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim is to assess how a policy of tertiary education for all affects the shape of the unconditional earnings distribution.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper discusses the quantile-regression literature looking at the link between education and wage inequality, also proving new evidence based on unconditional quantile regressions.

Findings

The findings support the idea that a policy of tertiary education for all increases the overall level of wage inequality.

Research limitations/implications

The research has implications for public policy and administration. Among the limitations, the paper does not deal with distributional aspects related to other outcomes (e.g. health outcomes) of the policy of interest.

Practical implications

The analysis highlights a series of potential government interventions aimed at reducing the wage-inequality externalities of the policy of interest.

Social implications

A policy of tertiary education for all, by itself, is not useful to fight wage inequality.

Originality/value

This paper belongs to the small group of studies using unconditional quantile regressions to study the link between education and wage inequality. It is the first study specifically looking at the distributional effects of a policy of tertiary education for all.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 October 2022

Nicholas Apergis

This study explores the role of rising US student loan debt in explaining income inequality.

Abstract

Purpose

This study explores the role of rising US student loan debt in explaining income inequality.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) modeling approach to explore the short- and long-run impact of college debt on income inequality in the US through quarterly data over the period 2000–2019.

Findings

The results demonstrate the detrimental impact of student debt on national and regional income inequality. Moreover, the regional analysis highlights a more pronounced impact of student debt on income distribution in South and West regions. The findings document that these regions, with the lower student debt proportions, have the lowest average cost of attending college. Finally, the analysis explores two potential channels – i.e. race and homeownership – that could explain the link between college student debt and income inequality.

Practical implications

The results can be helpful for policymakers and researchers to formulate practical approaches for assessing and addressing the rising national student debt and income inequality.

Originality/value

This is the first, to the best of the author's knowledge, study that explores the impact of US college debt on income inequality.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 October 2022

Mosab I. Tabash, Suhaib Anagreh and Opeoluwa Adeniyi Adeosun

This paper aims to investigate the effects of financial access, financial depth, financial efficiency and financial stability pillars on income inequality and poverty…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the effects of financial access, financial depth, financial efficiency and financial stability pillars on income inequality and poverty among a panel of sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper captures cross-sectional dependence among the income groups through the dynamic common correlated effect approach for a data set of 28 selected SSA countries from 2000 to 2017.

Findings

This study reveals that the financial development pillars exert positive and significant impacts on income inequality across the income groups. The results show that the effects of the financial development metrics on poverty are different across the income groups. The results also indicate that the pillars improve poverty reduction for low- and lower-middle-income countries. However, there is a minimal effect on poverty reduction in upper-middle-income countries. The differences among these income categories suggest the need for policymakers to account for income levels when prescribing policies that could engender financial development and poverty reduction in the region.

Originality/value

This paper examines the effects of financial development on both income inequality and poverty by using the newly developed World Bank financial development strategic metrics. It captures cross-sectional dependence in the full sample of selected SSA countries and their income categories.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 13 October 2022

David Kocsis and Jason Xiong

Information and communication technology (ICT) has the potential to address and reduce income inequality. However, since 1980, income inequality in the United States has…

Abstract

Purpose

Information and communication technology (ICT) has the potential to address and reduce income inequality. However, since 1980, income inequality in the United States has caused concerns for researchers, policymakers and the public. Entrepreneurs and managers can take advantage of information technologies, while those in the middle and the bottom see fewer benefits. Meanwhile, countries such as Iceland are more capable of using ICT infrastructure to reduce income inequality, which contributes to the well-being of its citizens. This research study explores the relationship between infrastructure diffusion and income inequality through Rogers’s diffusion of innovations theory.

Design/methodology/approach

To answer the research questions, the author assessed the data through a series of regression analyses using SPSS. The authors used Power BI software to chart the relationships between ICT infrastructure diffusion and income inequality by country and in the United States by state and region.

Findings

The results show diffusion of innovations theory’s tenets do not necessarily hold, because a significant negative relationship exists between infrastructure diffusion and income inequality, especially in countries with emerging economies. In the United States, this relationship significantly differs by region.

Originality/value

This research contributes to research by expanding economic and sociology work to the IS domain, while providing conflicting evidence for diffusion of innovations theory. The research also provides suggestions for practice, such as more focused ICT infrastructure investments and regulations.

Details

Journal of Electronic Business & Digital Economics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2754-4214

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 2022

Biruk Birhanu Ashenafi and Yan Dong

The purpose of this study is to firstly, find out does the relationship between finance, trade and income inequality provides matching evidence using the macro- and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to firstly, find out does the relationship between finance, trade and income inequality provides matching evidence using the macro- and firm-level data? Secondly, whether a causal relationship from the firm-specific data can be established.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors employed a panel data fixed effect regression and two-stage least square (2sls) using key instruments. Their analysis is conducted based on a sub-sample analysis that emphasizes Latin America Region (LAR), Africa (AFR) and Asia by merging South Asia, East Asia and Pacific Regions (SEAR). These areas are characterized by an unequal society represented by a mounting gini index (Robilliard, 2020; De Rosa et al. 2020). Accordingly, the authors estimated a comparable model to unfold the impact of finance and trade. Besides, the authors exploited the interaction between their predictors with labor productivity and ownership structure to claim the difference between the results using the two data sets. The effort to establish a causal relationship from the combined firm-level data challenges the current literature that leans towards either macro or micro perspectives.

Findings

The result obtained from macro-level data shows that while financial development widens income inequality, the impact of trade on income inequality is negative. However, the estimation result from the combined firm-level data portrays that the proportion of investment financed by banks and trade widens income inequality. Given the contrasting result concerning trade, the authors test whether the firm-level evidence is causal following different identification strategies. The exercise shows that the correlation presented in the paper is causal. That challenges the current literature that falls short of providing firm-specific evidence.

Social implications

The authors adds to a growing body of literature on finance, trade and income inequality by paying due emphasis on firms from 2006 to 2020. The authors show the private sector development effect on income inequality by linking topics from the firm and country-level data.

Originality/value

The authors extend the macro-level discussion and contribute to the existing literature by offering firm-specific evidence on the relationship between finance, trade and income inequality.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 24 October 2022

Hermann Ndoya and Simplice A. Asongu

This study aims to analyse the impact of digital divide (DD) on income inequality in sub-Saharan Africa over the period 2004–2016.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyse the impact of digital divide (DD) on income inequality in sub-Saharan Africa over the period 2004–2016.

Design/methodology/approach

In applying a finite mixture model (FMM) to a sample of 35 sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries, this study posits that DD affects income inequality differently.

Findings

The findings show that the effect of DD on income inequality varies across two distinct groups of countries, which differ according to their level of globalization. In addition, the study shows that most globalized countries are more inclined to be in the group where the effect of DD on income inequality is negative. The results are consistent with several robustness checks, including alternative measures of income inequality and additional control variables.

Originality/value

This study complements that extant literature by assessing linkages among the DD, globalization and income inequality in sub-Saharan African countries contingent on cross-country heterogeneity.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 September 2009

Rati Ram

The purpose of this paper is to extend the existing literature on cross‐country disparities by providing measures of cross‐country inequality in human development index…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to extend the existing literature on cross‐country disparities by providing measures of cross‐country inequality in human development index (HDI) and real income per capita over the 30‐year period 1975‐2004.

Design/methodology/approach

A well‐recommended inequality index is applied to the data.

Findings

Ten points are noted: first, HDI inequality declined over the period; second, the pace of decline slowed somewhat since 1990; third, magnitude of HDI inequality has been quite small; fourth, inequality in gross domestic product per capita also shows a declining pattern over the period; fifth, there is very high correlation between HDI and per capita income; sixth, despite the high correlation, magnitudes of inequalities in the two variables are dramatically different; seventh, therefore, even very high correlation may not be interpreted as implying similar inequalities in the variables; eighth, cross‐country inequalities in various regions show huge differences; ninth, negative trend in inequalities over the period shows high statistical significance; and tenth, t‐tests for equality of means do not pick up well even huge differences in regional inequalities, suggesting need for considerable caution in the use of such tests.

Originality/value

The primary scientific significance of the work lies in providing the measures of cross‐country inequality in HDI over the 30‐year period; showing dramatically different inequalities in HDI and income despite very high correlation between the two variables; and indicating cross‐country inequalities in eight different regional groups and also across regions.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

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