Search results

1 – 10 of over 20000
Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Solimun and Adji Achmad Rinaldo Fernandes

This study aims to more deeply examine the various types of testing mediations and use the comparison test by using test-based mediation Sobel models and Bayesian…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to more deeply examine the various types of testing mediations and use the comparison test by using test-based mediation Sobel models and Bayesian approach. The purpose of this study are to apply the traditional (using indirect effect) and Sobel test, extend Yuan and MacKinnon (2009) work on Bayesian mediation analysis. Both analysis methods of mediation (Traditional, Sobel Test and Bayesian estimation) should apply in the research of management, by using structural equation modeling (SEM) in a structural model, with one mediation, one exogenous (independent) and one endogenous variable. The meta-analysis approximation has been used to investigate the job satisfaction as a mediation in the relationship between employee competence and performance (endogenous).

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from ten dissertations of students of the Management Doctoral Program at the Brawijaya University from 2009 until 2013; data were analyzed for the mediation variable of job satisfaction (M) in the relationship between employee competence (X) and employee performance (Y) (Muindi and Obonyo, 2015; Olcer, 2015; Sattar et al., 2015; Khan and Ahmed, 2015). A researcher can determine the mediating variable and whether it is complete or partial or if mediation exists in several ways.

Findings

The results of the above findings using meta-analysis showed that 60% of previous research states that job satisfaction is a partial mediation on relationship competence of the performance, 10% of previous research states that job satisfaction is a full mediation on relationship competence of the performance and 30% stated that job satisfaction is not pemediasi (pemediasi means Mediation variable) on the relationship between competence and performance. This research found that all three approaches provide similar conclusions for ten previous research.

Research limitations/implications

The findings showed that the Sobel approach and the Bayesian approach provide results that are more sensitive than the traditional approach.

Practical implications

In my opinion, the rule to investigate the mediation variable should be completed with the conditions (1) q (theta) is not statistically significant, (2) α (alpha) and β (beta) are significant, and (3) q’ (theta) is significant, and increase when M is include as an additional predictor. This condition called partial mediation.

Social implications

The traditional method is simpler and easy. The method is less sensitive and is not sufficient for investigating the mediating variables. In general, the method results in a mediation variable, but it cannot be used to determine either partial or complete mediation variables. So, investigation by Baron and Kenny Methods (in Hair et al., 2010), the rule or testing called Sobel Test and another approach such as Bayesian to determine the mediation variable is necessary.

Originality/value

Various methods for detecting mediating/intervening have been widely used in previous research as a method of measurement using indirect effect (Hair et al., 2010), and calculations have been performed using Sobel test (Baron and Kenny, 1986) and Bayesian approach (Enders, 2013). In this study, I wanted to more deeply examine the various types of testing mediations, and use the comparison test by using the test-based mediation Sobel models and Bayesian approach (Baron and Kenny, 1986; Enders, 2013). The statistical application should not be complicated and difficult, it but must rather be simple and easy, so that it is user-friendly. The traditional method is simpler and easier than the other methods, but how sensitive is it? This research is conducted to investigate this problem. The evaluation of mediating mechanisms has become a critical element of behavioral science research (Enders, 2013), especially in the field of management, not only to assess whether (and how) interventions achieve their effects but also, more, broadly, to understand the cause of behavioral change. Methodologists have developed mediation analysis techniques for a broad range of substantive applications. However, methods for estimating mediation mechanisms with various methods have been understudied. The purpose of this study is to apply the traditional (using indirect effect) and Sobel tests and extend Yuan and MacKinnon’s (2009) work on the Bayesian mediation analysis. Both analyses methods of mediation (traditional and Sobel test and Bayesian estimation) should apply in the research of management, by using structural equation modeling (SEM) in a structural model, with one mediation, one exogenous (independent) and one endogenous variable. The meta-analysis approximation has been used to investigate job satisfaction as the mediation in the relationship between employee competence and performance (endogenous). This study uses software R to complete the mediating effect (Enders, 2013). R is a language and environment for statistical computing and graphics. It is a GNU project which is similar to the S language and environment which was developed at Bell Laboratories (formerly AT&T, now Lucent Technologies) by John Chambers et al. R provides a wide variety of statistical analyses such as SEM and Mediation test. R provides an open source route for participation in that activity. The Bayesian estimation approach provides an R function and a macro that applies the method of mediation analysis.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 59 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2015

Md Shah Azam

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to…

Abstract

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to economic and non-economic activities. Researchers have increasingly focused on the adoption and use of ICT by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as the economic development of a country is largely dependent on them. Following the success of ICT utilisation in SMEs in developed countries, many developing countries are looking to utilise the potential of the technology to develop SMEs. Past studies have shown that the contribution of ICT to the performance of SMEs is not clear and certain. Thus, it is crucial to determine the effectiveness of ICT in generating firm performance since this has implications for SMEs’ expenditure on the technology. This research examines the diffusion of ICT among SMEs with respect to the typical stages from innovation adoption to post-adoption, by analysing the actual usage of ICT and value creation. The mediating effects of integration and utilisation on SME performance are also studied. Grounded in the innovation diffusion literature, institutional theory and resource-based theory, this study has developed a comprehensive integrated research model focused on the research objectives. Following a positivist research paradigm, this study employs a mixed-method research approach. A preliminary conceptual framework is developed through an extensive literature review and is refined by results from an in-depth field study. During the field study, a total of 11 SME owners or decision-makers were interviewed. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using NVivo 10 to refine the model to develop the research hypotheses. The final research model is composed of 30 first-order and five higher-order constructs which involve both reflective and formative measures. Partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) is employed to test the theoretical model with a cross-sectional data set of 282 SMEs in Bangladesh. Survey data were collected using a structured questionnaire issued to SMEs selected by applying a stratified random sampling technique. The structural equation modelling utilises a two-step procedure of data analysis. Prior to estimating the structural model, the measurement model is examined for construct validity of the study variables (i.e. convergent and discriminant validity).

The estimates show cognitive evaluation as an important antecedent for expectation which is shaped primarily by the entrepreneurs’ beliefs (perception) and also influenced by the owners’ innovativeness and culture. Culture further influences expectation. The study finds that facilitating condition, environmental pressure and country readiness are important antecedents of expectation and ICT use. The results also reveal that integration and the degree of ICT utilisation significantly affect SMEs’ performance. Surprisingly, the findings do not reveal any significant impact of ICT usage on performance which apparently suggests the possibility of the ICT productivity paradox. However, the analysis finally proves the non-existence of the paradox by demonstrating the mediating role of ICT integration and degree of utilisation explain the influence of information technology (IT) usage on firm performance which is consistent with the resource-based theory. The results suggest that the use of ICT can enhance SMEs’ performance if the technology is integrated and properly utilised. SME owners or managers, interested stakeholders and policy makers may follow the study’s outcomes and focus on ICT integration and degree of utilisation with a view to attaining superior organisational performance.

This study urges concerned business enterprises and government to look at the environmental and cultural factors with a view to achieving ICT usage success in terms of enhanced firm performance. In particular, improving organisational practices and procedures by eliminating the traditional power distance inside organisations and implementing necessary rules and regulations are important actions for managing environmental and cultural uncertainties. The application of a Bengali user interface may help to ensure the productivity of ICT use by SMEs in Bangladesh. Establishing a favourable national technology infrastructure and legal environment may contribute positively to improving the overall situation. This study also suggests some changes and modifications in the country’s existing policies and strategies. The government and policy makers should undertake mass promotional programs to disseminate information about the various uses of computers and their contribution in developing better organisational performance. Organising specialised training programs for SME capacity building may succeed in attaining the motivation for SMEs to use ICT. Ensuring easy access to the technology by providing loans, grants and subsidies is important. Various stakeholders, partners and related organisations should come forward to support government policies and priorities in order to ensure the productive use of ICT among SMEs which finally will help to foster Bangladesh’s economic development.

Details

E-Services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-325-9

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 17 October 2016

Christian Nitzl, Jose L. Roldan and Gabriel Cepeda

Indirect or mediated effects constitute a type of relationship between constructs that often occurs in partial least squares (PLS) path modeling. Over the past few years…

Downloads
7471

Abstract

Purpose

Indirect or mediated effects constitute a type of relationship between constructs that often occurs in partial least squares (PLS) path modeling. Over the past few years, the methods for testing mediation have become more sophisticated. However, many researchers continue to use outdated methods to test mediating effects in PLS, which can lead to erroneous results. One reason for the use of outdated methods or even the lack of their use altogether is that no systematic tutorials on PLS exist that draw on the newest statistical findings. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This study illustrates the state-of-the-art use of mediation analysis in the context of PLS-structural equation modeling (SEM).

Findings

This study facilitates the adoption of modern procedures in PLS-SEM by challenging the conventional approach to mediation analysis and providing more accurate alternatives. In addition, the authors propose a decision tree and classification of mediation effects.

Originality/value

The recommended approach offers a wide range of testing options (e.g. multiple mediators) that go beyond simple mediation analysis alternatives, helping researchers discuss their studies in a more accurate way.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 116 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2007

Toyah L. Miller, María del Carmen Triana, Christopher R. Reutzel and S. Trevis Certo

Mediating effects allow strategic management researchers to understand “black box” processes underlying complex relationships whereby the effect of an independent variable…

Abstract

Mediating effects allow strategic management researchers to understand “black box” processes underlying complex relationships whereby the effect of an independent variable is transmitted to a dependent variable through a third variable. Since the seminal work of Baron and Kenny (1986), advancements have been made in mediation analysis. Thus, literature on the latest techniques for analyzing mediating and intervening varibales is presented. In addition, strategy literature published in the Academy of Management Journal and the Strategic Management Journal between 1986 and 2005 employing tests of mediation is reviewed to better understand how mediation techniques are used by strategy scholars. Finally, implications and limitations of current mediation analysis in strategy research are discussed, and recommendations are provided to strategy scholars examining mediation.

Details

Research Methodology in Strategy and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1404-1

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

Jess K. Alberts, Brian L. Heisterkamp and Robert M. McPhee

This study examines the impact of mediator style, mediation outcome, and mediator background variables on community mediation participant satisfaction and fairness…

Abstract

This study examines the impact of mediator style, mediation outcome, and mediator background variables on community mediation participant satisfaction and fairness perceptions along several dimensions. Our data were collected from a community mediation program located in a justice court in the Southwestern United States. During a twelve‐month period, 40 mediation sessions, each involving a single mediator, were videotaped. The 108 mediation participants completed surveys assessing their perceptions of and satisfaction with their specific mediation experiences. The findings indicate important impacts of mediator facilitativeness on all perceptions and of conflict resolution success on satisfaction. Mediator experience impacted perceptions of the mediator; mediator gender and law background had no impacts.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 13 June 2019

Ünsal Sığrı and Hakan Karabacak

This paper aims to manage better the conflicts in labor disputes by improving the understanding of mediation dynamics from a game-theoretical perspective.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to manage better the conflicts in labor disputes by improving the understanding of mediation dynamics from a game-theoretical perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

Signaling game model is adapted to a hypothetical labor dispute based on the legislative regulations on the mandatory mediation system in Turkey.

Findings

The paper determines mediation equilibria in which both players get positive payoffs. Analysis of the mediation equilibria helps to improve the understanding about the litigation and mediation dynamics depending on the variables. The variables are clearly separated from each other due to their reverse effects on strategy choices of the parties. Mediation payoff and litigation cost are characterized by their incentive effects on mediation preferences, whereas mediation fee and litigation payoff are characterized by their disincentive effect. While increasing amounts of incentive variables strengthen the mediation tendency of the employee, increasing amounts of disincentive variables reveal the opposite effect. Furthermore, the analysis also indicates that if the litigation payoff is too small to recover litigation costs, accepting the mediation becomes the optimal strategy. This prediction is contrary to that of traditional game-theoretic litigation/settlement models, in which small-claim disputes typically cannot be settled.

Practical implications

The assumption that the mediation fee is not a part of the litigation cost eliminates the disincentive effect of mediation fee and makes it neutral on the strategy choice of employee.

Originality/value

This paper first analyzes the strategic role of mediation in labor disputes by using a signaling game. Despite its mediation focus, the paper also provides practical insights for litigation.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Book part
Publication date: 23 April 2013

Brian Jarrett

Symbolical-interaction sociology is useful to mediators and relevant to mediation practice. It explores the elements of everyday social interaction including behavior of…

Abstract

Symbolical-interaction sociology is useful to mediators and relevant to mediation practice. It explores the elements of everyday social interaction including behavior of disputants during instances of conflict. In particular, Erving Goffman’s frame analysis offers mediators a practical tool useful in assessing and managing both the intellectual and emotional responses of disputants during mediation. Moreover, frame analysis can effectively guide mediators in assisting disputants to reorient their respective responses to each other and to the dispute, thereby enhancing opportunities for meaningful dialogue. In addition, Goffman’s game, drama, and ritual metaphors offer simple but powerful analytic tools guiding mediation clients through terrain which would otherwise be chaotic and overwhelming. Mediators committed to enhancing their practices and researchers in search of a sound theoretical base for effective dispute resolution can benefit substantially by applying these insights to the practice of mediation.

Details

40th Anniversary of Studies in Symbolic Interaction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-783-2

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 22 October 2018

Tukur Garba and Erika Kraemer-Mbula

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether female workers’ years of education do mediate the influence of gender diversity on innovative capability of enterprises…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether female workers’ years of education do mediate the influence of gender diversity on innovative capability of enterprises in Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses three waves Nigeria Enterprise Surveys panel dataset collected in 2007, 2009 and 2014, for a sample of 1,566 enterprises to circumvent the problems associated with application of cross-sectional designs in mediation studies. The study applies Hicks and Tingley’s (2011) two equations mediation analysis approach with robust standard error.

Findings

The results of the inferential analysis indicate that female workers’ years of education mediate fully and positively the effect of gender diversity on innovative capability of enterprises in Nigeria.

Research limitations/implications

For gender diversity to enhance the innovative capability of an enterprise, female workers must be empowered with higher levels of formal education.

Practical implications

Female workers should be empowered with formal education in order to enhance the ability of firms to innovate. Gender diversity alone does not enhance the innovative capability of an enterprise without empowering female workers with formal education.

Originality/value

Although past studies do provide substantial evidence on the positive relationship between gender diversity and the innovative capability of enterprises, the mediating effect of education on this relationship has been ignored. This is particularly relevant in a country such as Nigeria with low levels of innovation. Furthermore, despite the presumed positive effect of gender diversity on innovative capability, existing empirical research does not yield consistent findings to clearly resolve how or why gender diversity does affect the innovative capability of enterprises. This paper tests whether it could be the result of a mediating (intervening) variable.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 5 July 2018

Harindranath R.M. and Jayanth Jacob

This paper aims to popularize the Bayesian methods among novice management researchers. The paper interprets the results of Bayesian method of confirmatory factor analysis

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to popularize the Bayesian methods among novice management researchers. The paper interprets the results of Bayesian method of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), structural equation modelling (SEM), mediation and moderation analysis, with the intention that the novice researchers will apply this method in their research. The paper made an attempt in discussing various complex mathematical concepts such as Markov Chain Monte Carlo, Bayes factor, Bayesian information criterion and deviance information criterion (DIC), etc. in a lucid manner.

Design/methodology/approach

Data collected from 172 pharmaceutical sales representatives were used. The study will help the management researchers to perform Bayesian CFA, Bayesian SEM, Bayesian moderation analysis and Bayesian mediation analysis using SPSS AMOS software.

Findings

The interpretation of the results of Bayesian CFA, Bayesian SEM and Bayesian mediation analysis were discussed.

Practical implications

The management scholars are non-statisticians and are not much aware of the benefits offered by Bayesian methods. Hitherto, the management scholars use predominantly traditional SEM in validating their models empirically, and this study will give an exposure to “Bayesian statistics” that has practical advantages.

Originality/value

This is one paper, which discusses the following four concepts: Bayesian method of CFA, SEM, mediation and moderation analysis.

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Peter T. Coleman, Katharina G. Kugler, Kyong Mazzaro, Christianna Gozzi, Nora El Zokm and Kenneth Kressel

Research on conflict mediation presents a scattered, piecemeal understanding of what determines mediators’ strategies and tactics and ultimately what constitutes…

Downloads
1416

Abstract

Purpose

Research on conflict mediation presents a scattered, piecemeal understanding of what determines mediators’ strategies and tactics and ultimately what constitutes successful mediation. This paper presents research on developing a unifying framework – the situated model of mediation – that identifies and integrates the most basic dimensions of mediation situations. These dimensions combine to determine differences in mediator’s strategies that in turn influence mediation processes and outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach used by this paper was twofold. First, the existing empirical literature was reviewed on factors that influence mediator’s behaviors. Based on the findings of this review, a survey study was conducted with experienced mediators to determine the most fundamental dimensions of mediation situations affecting mediators’ behaviors and mediation processes and outcomes. The data were analyzed through exploratory factor analysis and regression analysis.

Findings

The results of the study show that four of the most fundamental dimensions of mediation situations include: low vs high intensity of the conflict, cooperative vs competitive relationship between the parties, tight vs flexible context and overt vs covert processes and issues. Each of these factors was found to independently predict differences in mediators’ behaviors and perceptions of processes and outcomes. These dimensions are then combined to constitute the basic dimensions of the situated model of mediation.

Originality/value

The situated model of mediation is both heuristic and generative, and it shows how a minimal number of factors are sufficient to capture the complexity of conflict mediation in a wide range of contexts.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 20000