Search results

1 – 10 of over 2000
Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Bryanna Fox

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the ability of a comprehensive set of covariates to distinguish and predict juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) from non-sexual juvenile…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the ability of a comprehensive set of covariates to distinguish and predict juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) from non-sexual juvenile offenders (NSJOs) using demographic traits, criminality covariates, childhood trauma, and psychopathologies in a sample of male and female juvenile offenders in the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

A multivariate binary logistic regression will be conducted on a total of 64,329 juvenile offenders in Florida to determine what demographic, criminal history, childhood traumas, and psychopathologies make a difference in identifying sexual and NSJOs while controlling for the other key predictors in the model.

Findings

Results indicate that having an earlier age of criminal onset and more felony arrests, experiencing sexual abuse or being male, having low empathy, high impulsivity, depression, and psychosis all significantly increase the risk of sexual vs non-sexual offending among the male and female juvenile offenders, even while controlling for all other key covariates in the analysis.

Originality/value

This study uncovered many new findings regarding the key distinguishing traits of juvenile sex offending vs non-sexual offending, using a comprehensive list of predictors, a large sample of male and female offenders, and a rigorous statistical methodology.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 June 2017

Michele Frasier-Robinson

The purpose of this paper is to present an annotated bibliography of books and journal titles to assist researchers, clinicians, educators and parents in need of…

261

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present an annotated bibliography of books and journal titles to assist researchers, clinicians, educators and parents in need of information on child and adolescent psychopathology.

Design/methodology/approach

Resources that include a wide range child and adolescent mental disorders were selected. Criteria for book selection was based on those that include evidence-based therapies. Journal titles were selected based on impact factor according to Journal Citation Reports.

Findings

The scholarship on child and adolescent psychopathology is immense. After a review of the literature, 15 books and eight journal titles that reflect the diverse nature of child and adolescent mental health disorders are included.

Originality/value

This is an original bibliography that will be helpful to librarians assisting patrons with information needs about child and adolescent mental health disorders.

Details

Reference Reviews, vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0950-4125

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 26 July 2012

Randal G. Ross, Sharon K. Hunter, Gary O. Zerbe and Kate Hanna

It is unclear whether information obtained from a one parent can be used to infer the other parent's history of psychopathology. Two hundred and one parental dyads were…

Abstract

It is unclear whether information obtained from a one parent can be used to infer the other parent's history of psychopathology. Two hundred and one parental dyads were asked to complete psychiatric interviews. Based on maternal report, non-participating husbands/ fathers had higher rates than participating fathers of psychiatric illness. For fathers who did participate, maternal report did not match direct interview of paternal psychopathology with sensitivities less than 0.40 and positive predictive values of 0.33 to 0.74. Psychopa -thology may be over-represented among fathers who do not participate in research. Mother report of paternal symptoms is not an effective proxy. Alternative methods need to be developed to: i) improve father participation or ii) identify psychiatric status in fathers who do not participate in research projects.

Details

Mental Illness, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2036-7465

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 June 2012

Philip Hyland and Daniel Boduszek

The field of cognitive-behavioural therapy contains many different theoretical models of psychopathology, with each discipline ascribing greater emphasis to a particular…

2798

Abstract

Purpose

The field of cognitive-behavioural therapy contains many different theoretical models of psychopathology, with each discipline ascribing greater emphasis to a particular cognitive process or organisation of beliefs. This paper seeks to propose a method of integrating the two most widely practiced and researched schools of CBT; Beck ' s cognitive therapy (CT) and Ellis ' s rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT).

Design/methodology/approach

Although there exist a large degree of similarity between the two therapeutic approaches, the two models do differ in relation to their respective hypothesises regarding the core psychological variable in psychopathology. Cognitive theory hypothesises that negative representational beliefs are of central importance whereas rational emotive behaviour theory hypothesises that negative evaluative demands lie at the core of psychological disturbance. This paper evaluates these competing predictions on the basis of the available empirical literature.

Results

The empirical literature provides greater support for the organisation and interrelations of the irrational beliefs proposed by REBT theory over CT theory, however the research data clearly indicate the importance of the cognitive variables stressed by CT theory in the pathogenesis of psychological distress. Based on the available evidence an integrated CBT model which incorporates elements of both CT and REBT theory is presented. It is proposed that this integrated model can serve as the stepping-stone toward a larger, single, coherent CBT model of psychopathology.

Research limitations/implications

Few empirical studies have directly compared the competing predictions of CT and REBT theory. If future research supports the findings presented in this paper, the proposed model can serve as a template for the development of a unified, general-CBT theory of psychopathology.

Practical implications

The integrated model presented in this paper can serve as a guiding theoretical model for therapeutic practice which takes into account therapeutic methods from both CT and REBT.

Originality/value

This paper proposes the first theoretical model which incorporates the competing theoretical conceptualizations of psychological distress from the two main schools of CBT.

Article
Publication date: 28 October 2019

Jing Ling Tay, Alias Lijo, Bixue Wen, Susan Zachariah and Manu Lal

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate a lady with regression and disassociation with multiple psychiatric symptoms. This case highlights the limitations of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate a lady with regression and disassociation with multiple psychiatric symptoms. This case highlights the limitations of descriptive psychopathology and the usefulness of psychodynamic psychopathology in explaining and managing the mental phenomena.

Design/methodology/approach

Case report: the patient R is a 29-year-old lady. She has been known to the mental health institution since 14 years old. Over the next 15 years, she was admitted 27 times. She had been diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, mental retardation, autism spectrum disorder and dissociative identity disorder. She has been subjected to long-standing abuse by her mother.

Findings

Discussion: labyrinthine diagnosis – placing a diagnosis on R proves to be challenging. When R presents with psychosis like and depressive symptoms, she is labelled as having a primary psychotic disorder and mood disorder, respectively. When R regresses to the P or the non-verbal individual persona, she is deemed to have mental retardation and autism spectrum disorder. Furthermore, R’s intelligence quotient was tested to be 65 at 14 years old. However, the intelligence quotient test was not consistent with her level of functioning during her non regressed state and therefore not considered reliable. Explosive and emotional outbursts and a positive family history of bipolar disorder rendered her to be diagnosed with the same. The multiple personas seem classical of dissociative personality disorder. However, the personas seem to exist on a continuum and are not independent of each other. Upon regression, R seems to be fixated at the oral stage. R also reported amnesia of events especially her emotional outbursts, while she was displaying her third persona. Dissociation could have rendered her unable to remember these events.

Originality/value

While the use of descriptive psychopathology is pragmatic and has the obvious advantage of being free from the burden of seeking explanation of the psychopathological phenomenon in a theoretical construct such as the psychodynamic framework, not all patients can be awarded a meaningful diagnosis using such an approach. This case report exemplifies that psychiatric presentation in some patients refuses to be neatly subjected to a useful psychiatric diagnosis using descriptive psychopathology as the diagnostic tool resulting in a confusing array of diagnoses, with each diagnosis representing an isolated facet of the psychological world of the patient while ignoring the rest. Explanatory models of psychopathology such as psychodynamic psychopathology still remain relevant in such cases for both understanding and explanation of the mental phenomena, and devising appropriate intervention strategies.

Details

Mental Health and Social Inclusion, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-8308

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1984

MICHAEL J. CLIFFE

The interest of the pioneers of cybernetics in psychopathology is illustrated. Examples are given of the application of cybernetics to psychopathology, from Wiener…

Abstract

The interest of the pioneers of cybernetics in psychopathology is illustrated. Examples are given of the application of cybernetics to psychopathology, from Wiener onwards. It is argued that cybernetics raises the possibility of a laboratory science of psychopathology. The computer modelling of psychopathological processes is examined, as is the relevance of channel capacity. Some cybernetic approaches to psychosis are reviewed. It is argued that cybernetics provides potential alternative diagnostic methods, based not on static diagnostic entities but on process, and suggests science‐based treatment possibilities.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Article
Publication date: 23 June 2021

Bochra Nourhene Saguem, Amel Braham, Islem Romdhane and Selma Ben Nasr

This paper aims to assess the psychological impact of home confinement in Tunisian medical students and analyze the relationship between psychopathology and cognitive…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess the psychological impact of home confinement in Tunisian medical students and analyze the relationship between psychopathology and cognitive emotion regulation strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 251 medical students who have been in home confinement accepted to participate in an online questionnaire survey. They completed depression, anxiety and stress scale, beck hopelessness scale and cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire.

Findings

Moderate to extremely severe levels of depression, anxiety and stress were reported by 57.4%, 51.0% and 31.4% of medical students, respectively. Based on the cut-off value of nine, 31.1% of the participants showed high levels of hopelessness. Hierarchical regression analysis identified four cognitive emotion regulation strategies as significant independent contributors to psychopathology above and beyond home confinement related variables. Self-blame positively predicted stress. Catastrophizing positively predicted anxiety and hopelessness. Refocusing on planning negatively predicted anxiety. Positive reappraisal negatively predicted hopelessness.

Practical implications

Cognitive emotion regulation strategies may constitute a valuable target of preventive and interventional measures to improve medical students’ mental health.

Originality/value

A unique feature of this study is the demonstration of the important role played by cognitive emotion regulation strategies in predicting anxiety, stress and hopelessness in medical students. In the context of mandatory home confinement, these cognitive strategies were significant predictors of psychopathology above and beyond home confinement related variables.

Details

The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-6228

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 24 February 2015

Gamal Sadek, Zack Cernovsky and Simon Chiu

Several studies reported high rates of psychiatric commorbidity among methadone patients. We examined the relationships of measures of psychopathology to outcomes of…

Abstract

Several studies reported high rates of psychiatric commorbidity among methadone patients. We examined the relationships of measures of psychopathology to outcomes of screening urine tests for cocaine, opiates, and benzodiazepines in a sample of 56 methadone patients. They also completed the Symptom Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). The highest scales in the SCL-90-R profile of our patients were those indicating somatic discomfort, anger, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and also obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms (scores above the 39th per centile). The only significant correlations between urine tests and SCL-90-R psychopathology were those involving benzodiazepines: patients with urine tests positive for benzodiazepines had lower social self-confidence (r=0.48), were more obsessive-compulsive (r=0.44), reported a higher level of anger (r=0.41), of phobic tendencies (r=40), of anxiety (r=0.39), and of paranoid tendencies (r=0.38), and also reported more frequent psychotic symptoms (r=0.43).

Details

Mental Illness, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2036-7465

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 June 2016

Claire Parker, Ruth Marlow, Marc Kastner, Felix May, Oana Mitrofan, William Henley and Tamsin Ford

The purpose of this paper is to explore the association between children who are at risk of being or who have been excluded from school between the ages of 4 and 12 years…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the association between children who are at risk of being or who have been excluded from school between the ages of 4 and 12 years and the role of psychopathology, development and attainment.

Design/methodology/approach

A case-control approach was conducted. Cases were children who had been excluded from school compared to those who had no reported exclusions and normative data where possible. A range of measures were used to collect information from the parent, child and teacher on areas covering the child’s mental health and well-being.

Findings

The findings showed the number of difficulties faced by children who are at risk of being or who have been excluded from school compared to gender- and age-matched controls and normative data increased. Behavioural difficulties were apparent in the majority of the cases and an alarming number of children reported self-harm. Interestingly nearly all the cases had recognised needs, but not all of them were accessing appropriate services.

Practical implications

There have been a number of changes regarding the identification and support of children’s mental health and well-being. This study highlights gaps in resources and provision, particularly around behavioural difficulties for children who are presenting as not coping in school.

Originality/value

The findings from the SKIP study indicate the complexities and compounded difficulties faced by children who are experiencing exclusion from school. By implementing a systematic group of assessments the study was able to identify these complexities of need across a vulnerable group of children.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 11 February 2013

Kimberly L. D'Anna-Hernandez, Gary O. Zerbe, Sharon K. Hunter and Randal G. Ross

Understanding parental psychopathology interaction is important in preventing negative family outcomes. This study investigated the effect of paternal psychiatric history…

Abstract

Understanding parental psychopathology interaction is important in preventing negative family outcomes. This study investigated the effect of paternal psychiatric history on maternal depressive symptom trajectory from birth to 12 months postpartum. Maternal Edinburgh Postpartum Depression screens were collected at 1, 6 and 12 months and fathers' psychiatric diagnoses were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV from 64 families. There was not a significant difference in the trajectory of maternal depressive symptoms between mothers with partners with history of or a current psychiatric condition or those without a condition. However, mothers with partners with substance abuse history had higher levels of depressive symptoms relative to those affected by mood/anxiety disorders or those without a disorder. Our results call for a closer look at paternal history of substance abuse when treating postpartum maternal depression.

Details

Mental Illness, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2036-7465

Keywords

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