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Book part
Publication date: 9 October 2012

Kass Gibson

Purpose – The chapter outlines mixed methods as a recursive and co-operative approach to research. In doing so, it challenges the dominant conception of ‘real’ mixed…

Abstract

Purpose – The chapter outlines mixed methods as a recursive and co-operative approach to research. In doing so, it challenges the dominant conception of ‘real’ mixed methods research as requiring the use of methods from both qualitative and quantitative frameworks by outlining not only logistic and pragmatic issues requiring the attention of researchers but also the underlying philosophical tensions inherent in mixed method designs.

Design/methodology/approach – The process of designing a mixed methods project that investigated the sociological and phenomenological impact of running shoes is outlined with reference to the various pragmatic and epistemological considerations of the project.

Findings – Many researchers require mixed methods to draw on both quantitative and qualitative techniques. However, this chapter demonstrates that such an understanding of mixed methods marginalises critical and interpretivist techniques. It is argued that studies of sport and physical culture have frequently used more than one research method. However, in order for these to be considered mixed methods studies, an explicit attempt is required to connect each technique of data collection and analysis, regardless of the research paradigm in which they operate.

Research limitations/implications – The limitations of mixed methods designs are discussed in relation to pragmatic and logistic concerns as well as the difficulty of connecting methods that present different underlying philosophical assumptions.

Originality/value – This chapter demonstrates the design of a mixed methods project from the initial process of identifying a research problem through to data collection, analysis and publication.

Details

Qualitative Research on Sport and Physical Culture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-297-5

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Abstract

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International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2013

Veronika Schwarzenberger and Kenneth Hyde

This study investigates the role that sports brands play in building group identity within a niche sports subculture, via research from two different trail running events…

Abstract

This study investigates the role that sports brands play in building group identity within a niche sports subculture, via research from two different trail running events. Participants exhibit some of the characteristics of an activity-based subculture of consumption, and brands play a role in building group identity. A key factor that drives a serious leisure pursuit to become an activity-based subculture of consumption is identified as high levels of socialising among participants.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2013

Caroline J. Smith, Christiano A. Machado‐Moreira, Gijs Plant, Simon Hodder, George Havenith and Nigel A.S. Taylor

The purpose of this paper is to provide footwear designers, manikin builders and thermo‐physiological modellers with sweat distribution information for the human foot.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide footwear designers, manikin builders and thermo‐physiological modellers with sweat distribution information for the human foot.

Design/methodology/approach

Independent research from two laboratories, using different techniques, is brought together to describe sweat production of the foot. In total, 32 individuals were studied. One laboratory used running at two intensities in males and females, and measured sweat with absorbents placed inside the shoe. The other used ventilated sweat capsules on a passive, nude foot, with sweating evaluated during passive heating and incremental exercise to fatigue.

Findings

Results from both laboratories are in agreement. Males secreted more than twice the volume of sweat produced by the females (p<0.01) at the same relative work rate. Both genders demonstrated a non‐uniform sweat distribution, though this was less variable in females. Highest local sweat rates were observed from the medial ankles (p<0.01). The dorsal foot sweated substantially more than the plantar (sole) areas (p<0.01). Sweating on the plantar side of the foot was uniform. Wearing shoes limited the increase in sweat production with increasing load, while the sweat rate of uncovered feet kept increasing with work and thermal load.

Practical implications

The observed variation in sweat rate across the foot shows that footwear design should follow the body mapping principle. Fabrics and materials with different properties can be used to improve comfort if applied to different foot surfaces. The data also demonstrate that foot models, whether physical (manikins) or mathematical, need to incorporate the observed variation across the foot to provide realistic simulation/testing of footwear.

Originality/value

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 29 February 2008

Anja Zurcher Wray and Nancy Nelson Hodges

The purpose of this paper is to examine the importance of cognitive‐ versus chronological‐age factors in activewear apparel advertisements targeting female baby boomers in the USA.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the importance of cognitive‐ versus chronological‐age factors in activewear apparel advertisements targeting female baby boomers in the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 50 female participants aged 41‐65 were asked to view two print advertisements: one showing activewear apparel worn by a cognitive‐age model and the other by a chronological‐age model. Participants then responded to a four‐part questionnaire that included a measurement of cognitive age, physical activity, response to the advertisements, and purchase intent.

Findings

The responses indicated that the participants view themselves as younger than their chronological age and were more inclined to respond favorably toward the advertisement using the cognitive age model.

Research limitations/implications

Although this study focuses on only one consumer group – US baby boomers – it reveals their current attitudes toward advertisements of activewear apparel as well as their motivations for purchasing activewear apparel. More research on this age demographic and the impact of cognitive age vs. chronological age on their perceptions of advertising is needed.

Originality/value

Currently one of the largest age demographics in the USA, baby boomers are known for having higher amounts of disposable income as compared to other age cohorts and for their interest in physical fitness and leading active lifestyles. The results of this study point to the need to understand the age‐related perceptions of this consumer group in order to successfully market activewear apparel products directly to them.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Case study
Publication date: 20 January 2017

Robbin Derry and Sachin Waikar

To recapture lost market share, tobacco giant R. J. Reynolds (RJR) developed Uptown, the first cigarette brand created and targeted specifically at a minority group—in…

Abstract

To recapture lost market share, tobacco giant R. J. Reynolds (RJR) developed Uptown, the first cigarette brand created and targeted specifically at a minority group—in this case, African-Americans. RJR planned to launch a six-month test market in Philadelphia in February 1990, which coincided with national Black History Month. The launch generated grassroots opposition from the black community in Philadelphia, which became intent on ensuring there was “No Uptown in our town or any town.”

After analyzing the case, students should be able to:

  • Identify some of the complex issues surrounding targeting specific populations

  • Recognize the importance of understanding cultural context

  • Recognize the limits of profit-based decision-making

Identify some of the complex issues surrounding targeting specific populations

Recognize the importance of understanding cultural context

Recognize the limits of profit-based decision-making

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Article
Publication date: 19 May 2020

Charles R. Taylor, Philip J. Kitchen, Matthew E. Sarkees and Christian O. Lolk

Despite increased emphasis on customer or market orientation over the past several decades, there is considerable evidence that many customer service practices have…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite increased emphasis on customer or market orientation over the past several decades, there is considerable evidence that many customer service practices have created a “Janus face” situation in which stated marketing philosophy often differs from practice. This paper aims to explore those issues in marketing practice.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper develops a typology of “new age” practices in customer service that seem to serve to annoy, alienate and even potentially harm consumers. Consumer-coping mechanisms for dealing with such practices are then discussed, arguing that the practices themselves are not in the best long-term interests of the firm. This paper concludes with suggestions for how firms can avoid a “Janus face” situation and better serve today’s educated consumers.

Findings

Too many of today’s ostensibly “marketing”-oriented companies are more concerned with selling and much less concerned with retention or real relationships. Unfortunately, even if companies are doing many things correctly, this does not sound like behavior that should exist in the so-called “marketing era” in the 21st century.

Research limitations/implications

The negative implication of extolling service excellence while delivering the opposite to customers is undesirable. Research that addresses the service challenges that firms face in this fast-changing marketing environment is crucial to advancing academic knowledge.

Practical implications

As marketing moves into 2020 and beyond, it is critical to correct these service issues and problems. Companies cannot really afford to drive away customers in the dynamic age of relationship marketing fueled by rapidly advancing technological change.

Originality/value

This paper presents a typology of “new age” customer service problems.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 54 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 17 October 2016

Jennifer D. Chandler and Steven Chen

The purpose of this paper is to examine how practices influence service systems.

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1276

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how practices influence service systems.

Design/methodology/approach

Data across three service contexts (crafts, healthcare and fitness) were collected through depth interviews and netnographic analysis, and analyzed with a two-study multi-method approach focusing first on the micro- (individual) level and then on the macro- (network) level of service systems. Study 1 focused on a micro-level analysis using qualitative techniques (Spiggle, 1994). Study 2 focused on a macro-level analysis using partial least squares regression.

Findings

The results illustrate how practices can change service systems. This occurs when a nuanced practice (i.e. a practice style) orders and roots a service system in a specific form of value creation. The findings reveal four practice styles: individual-extant, social-extant, individual-modified and social-modified practice styles. These practice styles shift in response to event triggers and change service systems. These event triggers are: service beneficiary enhancement, service beneficiary failure, service provider failure and social change. Thus, the findings show that practices – when shifting in response to event triggers – change service systems. This transpires in the understudied meta-layer of a service system.

Practical implications

The study identifies four practice styles that can serve as the basis for segmentation and service design.

Originality/value

Service systems are dynamic and ever changing. This study explores how service systems change by proposing a practice approach to service systems.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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Article
Publication date: 20 July 2010

J. Andres Coca‐Stefaniak, Cathy Parker and Patricia Rees

Globalisation as a competitive marketing strategy can only offer a limited explanation for the behaviour of organisations. This is particularly applicable in the case of…

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11032

Abstract

Purpose

Globalisation as a competitive marketing strategy can only offer a limited explanation for the behaviour of organisations. This is particularly applicable in the case of business and marketing strategies for small and medium‐sized organisations in the retail sector. Terms such as “localisation” have been coined by researchers but the concept is yet to receive a valid interpretation as a marketing strategy from the perspective of the small retailer. This paper seeks first, to understand how “localisation” impacts on the business practices and marketing strategy of small retailers in Spain and Scotland. Second, the results should help lessen the gap between the concepts of globalisation and the localisation.

Design/methodology/approach

This explorative, comparative qualitative paper explores business practices and marketing strategies by small retail business owners in Seville (Spain) and Perth (UK) and the role of localisation, using three key themes – place, people and promotion.

Findings

This paper suggests that place attractiveness, word‐of‐mouth customer‐to‐customer marketing, customer service beyond simple product advice, community embeddedness and informal but meaningful interpersonal relations between shop owner and customers are some of the key pillars of the “localisation” strategic marketing approach pursued by small retailers in Perth and Seville. This indicates a counterbalance to globalisation.

Originality/value

The pursuit of a deliberate localisation approach by small retailers may be key to their sustainable competitiveness in the knowledge that these elements would not be easily replicated by larger or global retailers.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 38 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2014

Jay T. Worobets, Fausto Panizzolo, Steve Hung, John W. Wannop and Darren J. Stefanyshyn

The outsole of a running shoe must provide enough traction for the athlete to avoid slipping during running. What is unknown is whether there is any point to designing…

Abstract

The outsole of a running shoe must provide enough traction for the athlete to avoid slipping during running. What is unknown is whether there is any point to designing running shoe outsoles with traction above this minimum required traction. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether performance could be enhanced by increasing the outsole traction of a running shoe. A commercially available running shoe (Control) was compared against the same shoe model with the outsole modified with a higher traction rubber (High Traction). The available traction of each shoe was measured with a traction testing system. Twenty male athletes completed a maximal effort timed running course in both shoes on two different surfaces. When wearing the Control running shoe, the athletes were able to complete the course on an asphalt road surface at maximal effort without slipping. When completing the same course wearing the High Traction shoe, the subjects were able to perform the course even faster. Therefore, the results show that the role of running shoe outsole traction is not to merely provide adequate traction to avoid large scale slips, but can also help athletes enhance performance of high-traction tasks such as accelerations and changes in direction.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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