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Book part
Publication date: 24 September 2010

Aimée C. Kaandorp

Consumer-generated advertisements are advertisements made by consumers for brands they love and hate. This study considers why consumers create their own brand commercials…

Abstract

Consumer-generated advertisements are advertisements made by consumers for brands they love and hate. This study considers why consumers create their own brand commercials and how to classify the types of commercials they make. The chapter also discusses the attitude of companies toward consumer-generated advertisements and the effect of companies’ attitudes on the commercials. The study compares two different brands with a different attitude toward consumer-generated advertisements – Starbucks and Chipotle. An active and positive attitude of the company toward consumer-generated advertisements results in more positive advertisements.

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Tourism-Marketing Performance Metrics and Usefulness Auditing of Destination Websites
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-901-5

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2021

Lauren Alex O’ Hagan

This paper aims to use the advertisements of three major brands – Chymol, Formamint and Lifebuoy Soap – to examine how advertisers responded to the 1918–1919 influenza…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to use the advertisements of three major brands – Chymol, Formamint and Lifebuoy Soap – to examine how advertisers responded to the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic in Great Britain influenza pandemic. It looks particularly at the ways in which marketing strategies changed and how these strategies were enacted in the lexical and semiotic choices (e.g. language, image, colour, typography, texture, materiality, composition and layout) of advertisements.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 120 advertisements for the three brands were collected from the British Newspaper Archive and analysed using the theory and analytical tools of multimodal critical discourse analysis. The general themes and semiotic structures of the advertisements were identified, with the aim of deconstructing the meaning potentials of verbal and visual resources used to convey ideas about the pandemic, and how they work to shape public understanding of the products and make them appear as effective and credible.

Findings

Each brand rapidly changed their marketing strategy in response to the influenza pandemic, using such techniques as testimonials, hyperbole, scaremongering and pseudoscientific claims to persuade consumers that their products offered protection. Whilst these strategies may appear manipulative, they also had the function of fostering reassurance and sympathy amongst the general public in a moment of turmoil, indicating the important role of brands in building consumer trust and promoting a sense of authority in early twentieth-century Britain.

Originality/value

Exploring the way in which advertisers responded to the 1918‐1919 influenza pandemic reminds us of the challenges of distinguishing legitimate and illegitimate medical advice in a fast-moving pandemic and highlights the need to cast a critical eye to the public health information, particularly when it comes from unofficial sources with vested interests.

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Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

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Article
Publication date: 8 March 2013

Wen Chunying

The purpose of this paper is to monitor the changes of delivery of city branding advertisements in China and to try to find a tendency of city branding ads in the delivery…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to monitor the changes of delivery of city branding advertisements in China and to try to find a tendency of city branding ads in the delivery for the future.

Design/methodology/approach

The quantitative research methods used in this paper study the advertisements with city image messages in 13 China Central Television (CCTV) channels that appeared between the year of 2007 to 2010 – a total of 320,653 advertisements. This paper is based on several data sets: advertisement producers, regional distribution of producers, advertisement time slots, types of advertisings, and other such categories. In addition, they have also studied city branding advertisings from international producers in terms of channel selections, program choices, and media outlet choices and so forth.

Findings

Through an analysis of quantity and total duration of city image advertisements, it can be concluded that first‐tier cities have been reducing the broadcasting of city image ads domestically yearly, and third‐tier cities are proving to be a significant power in producing city branding advertisements. Significantly, the eastern littoral region has surpassed the central and west region both in the duration and in growth rate of city branding advertisements. Moreover, between 2007 and 2010, a total of nine foreign cities have produced city branding advertisements on CCTV channels. Unlike cities in China, international cities have scattered their ads widely across different periods of one day.

Practical implications

Finally, based on analysis of advantages and disadvantages in city image advertisements strategies applied by those advanced cities at home and abroad, this author hopes this study can offer some scientifically based reference point for other cities.

Originality/value

Based on analysis of advantages and disadvantages in city image advertisements strategies applied by those advanced cities at home and abroad, this study tries to offer some scientifically based reference point for other cities.

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Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1998

Myung‐Soo Jo

This study examines whether consumers’ receptivity to ethnocentrism‐pitched advertisements differs by country and product category and, if so, why. The two countries…

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Abstract

This study examines whether consumers’ receptivity to ethnocentrism‐pitched advertisements differs by country and product category and, if so, why. The two countries surveyed are Australia and India. Australia was chosen as a country where consumers should perceive a high level of foreign threat because it is quite open to foreign products and has a small economy and population. India was chosen as a country where consumers should perceive a low level of foreign threat because it is still tightly closed to foreign products. Findings show that the effectiveness of ethnocentrism‐pitched advertisements differs significantly not only by consumers’ perceptions of foreign threat, but also by consumers’ quality evaluations about domestic products, compared to corresponding foreign ones. Implications for international marketers and domestic manufacturers are discussed.

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International Marketing Review, vol. 15 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 18 June 2010

Jae‐Young Moon and Jun‐Sik Kwak

The purpose of this paper is to verify the difference in the effect of art‐parody and art‐infusion advertisements depending on the product type and regulatory focus, and…

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709

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to verify the difference in the effect of art‐parody and art‐infusion advertisements depending on the product type and regulatory focus, and to expand the boundary of research in the field.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines their effect depending on product type and regulatory focus through two experiments. One is the effect of art‐parody and art‐infusion advertisements by product type and the other is the effect of art‐parody and art‐infusion advertisements by regulatory focus.

Findings

Art‐infusion is more effective than art‐parody for utilitarian products in terms of message credibility and brand attitude except for purchase intention although there is no difference between the two types for hedonic products. Participants with promotion focus favor art‐parody advertisement, while participants with prevention focus favor art‐infusion advertisement in terms of cognitive attitude toward advertisement.

Research limitations/implications

This study is conducted as a part of research on art infusion, which is in the primitive stage of development. Therefore, it shall be possible to extend the boundary of research by applying a variety of marketing theories in the future.

Originality/value

The results of this paper imply that the advertising technique must vary depending on the type of focus the target customer values.

Details

Asian Journal on Quality, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1598-2688

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2021

Qingjiang Yao

This study aims to apply and test the effectiveness of message sidedness and conclusiveness in Google Ads advertising.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to apply and test the effectiveness of message sidedness and conclusiveness in Google Ads advertising.

Design/methodology/approach

Four field experiments on Google Ad campaigns were conducted on the topics of energy and environment, the water–energy–food nexus, and a Higher-Ed program (at the national and local levels).

Findings

Two-sided search engine advertisements are more effective than one-sided advertisements in national campaigns but less effective in local campaigns. In national campaigns, conclusive search engine advertisements are more effective in increasing impressions and clicks, but inconclusive advertisements are more effective in increasing the click-through rate (CTR); in local campaigns, inconclusive advertisements are more effective when being one-sided, while conclusive advertisements are more effective when being two-sided. Overall, the two-sided and inconclusive advertisement generates the best results in a national campaign, but the one-sided and inconclusive advertisement generates the best results in a local campaign.

Originality/value

As the first to test sidedness and conclusiveness with Google Ads advertising, the paper provides theoretical and practical suggestions to search engine marketers by identifying the effective copywriting strategies, moderating factors and more measurements of effectiveness.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2021

Runyu Chen

Micro-video platforms have gained attention in recent years and have also become an important new channel for merchants to advertise their products. Since little research…

Abstract

Purpose

Micro-video platforms have gained attention in recent years and have also become an important new channel for merchants to advertise their products. Since little research has studied micro-video advertising, this paper aims to fill the research gap by exploring the determinants of micro-video advertising clicks. We form a micro-video advertising click prediction model and demonstrate the effectiveness of the multimodal information extracted from the advertisement producers, commodities being sold and micro-video contents in the prediction task.

Design/methodology/approach

A multimodal analysis framework was conducted based on real-world micro-video advertisement datasets. To better capture the relations between different modalities, we adopt a cooperative learning model to predict the advertising clicks.

Findings

The experimental results show that the features extracted from different data sources can improve the prediction performance. Furthermore, the combination of different modal features (visual, acoustic, textual and numerical) is also worth studying. Compared to classical baseline models, the proposed cooperative learning model significantly outperforms the prediction results, which demonstrates that the relations between modalities are also important in advertising micro-video generation.

Originality/value

To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study analysing micro-video advertising effects. With the help of our advertising click prediction model, advertisement producers (merchants or their partners) can benefit from generating more effective micro-video advertisements. Furthermore, micro-video platforms can apply our prediction results to optimise their advertisement allocation algorithm and better manage network traffic. This research can be of great help for more effective development of the micro-video advertisement industry.

Details

Internet Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 2 July 2021

Hyunjoo Im, Hae Won Ju and Kim K.P. Johnson

Little research has been done to understand how individual elements (e.g. advertisements) within a webpage are processed and evaluated when visual complexity is increased…

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107

Abstract

Purpose

Little research has been done to understand how individual elements (e.g. advertisements) within a webpage are processed and evaluated when visual complexity is increased. Thus, this study aimed to investigate how consumers allocate attention and evaluate products and advertisements on complex webpages when they are casually browsing.

Design/methodology/approach

This study conducted two experiments to test the causal effects of different degrees of visual complexity on consumer responses to products and advertisements. An eye-tracking experiment (n = 90) and a follow-up online experiment (n = 121) were conducted using undergraduate students as participants.

Findings

Participants formed a global impression from the overall webpage complexity, which spilled over to evaluation of individual elements on the webpage (e.g. product, advertisement). The inverted U-shaped relationships (vs. linear negative relationships) between webpage visual complexity and attitude toward the webpage, products, and advertisements were observed. The focal product was given a consistent level of attention regardless of the complexity level.

Practical implications

This study provides implications for website organization and design to maximize positive consumer experiences and marketing effectiveness. The findings provide implications for retailers and advertisement buyers.

Originality/value

This study expanded the knowledge by examining the interplay between individual elements of webpages and the whole webpage complexity when consumers browse visually complex webpages. It is a novel finding that the overall webpage complexity effect spills over to locally attended products or advertisements.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

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Article
Publication date: 30 June 2021

Suniti Vadalkar, Gitesh Chavan, Ranjan Chaudhuri and Demetris Vrontis

Amidst the plethora of mass communication methods that technology bestowed business with, print advertisements still remain an effective and widely utilized advertising…

Abstract

Purpose

Amidst the plethora of mass communication methods that technology bestowed business with, print advertisements still remain an effective and widely utilized advertising tool, and retain a diachronically venerable position in international marketing practice. Bar and transcending mere academic fascination or curiosity, this research provides insights into the past, an understanding of the present and an outlook into the future. In this vein, through a methodical and comprehensive critical review of extant literature on print advertisements since 1965, this research aims to identify gaps in extant knowledge, to map its trends and divergences, to trace its paradigm shifts and to ultimately develop agendas for truly significant future research.

Design/methodology/approach

This spatial-temporal study reviews 256 methodically selected articles, using VantagePoint software, and adopts a novel methodology through natural language processing (NLP), text mining, auto-correlation maps, and bubble maps to conduct and present a robust analysis and explicit findings.

Findings

Using also the VOSviewer for density and network visualization, the results identify the predominant literature themes and, conversely, the relatively under-researched areas, and provide a more insightful collective interpretation of extant works, while laying the foundation for future research of greater value and significance to academia and industry.

Originality/value

This study transcends the partial and/or limited analyses and perspectives of extant literature to present scholars with the first comprehensive and long term meta-analysis or systematic study of print advertising, with explicit findings of both scholarly and executive worth.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Book part
Publication date: 27 November 2014

Debashis ‘Deb’ Aikat

Interactive media strategies and digital tools have enabled advertisers to target children with promotional offers and creative appeals.

Abstract

Purpose

Interactive media strategies and digital tools have enabled advertisers to target children with promotional offers and creative appeals.

Design

Based on theories related to metaphors in advertisements, cognitive comprehension by children, promotional appeals, and presentation techniques, the research for this study comprised a content analysis of 1,980 online banner advertisements with reference to use of metaphors, promotional appeals, creative content, and selling techniques.

Findings

The research study concludes that online advertising to children, in contrast to traditional advertising vehicles, is characterized by (a) a vibrant visual metaphor, (b) surfeit of animated content, (c) interactive features, (d) myriad product types, and (e) creative content for a mixed audience of adults and children.

Originality

This study argues that the impact and content of the Internet as a new advertising medium are distinctly different from traditional characteristics of television and print.

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