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Article
Publication date: 16 September 2021

Prashant Kumar Sinha, Sagar Bhimrao Gajbe, Sourav Debnath, Subhranshubhusan Sahoo, Kanu Chakraborty and Shiva Shankar Mahato

This work provides a generic review of the existing data mining ontologies (DMOs) and also provides a base platform for ontology developers and researchers for gauging the…

Abstract

Purpose

This work provides a generic review of the existing data mining ontologies (DMOs) and also provides a base platform for ontology developers and researchers for gauging the ontologies for satisfactory coverage and usage.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a systematic literature review approach to identify 35 DMOs in the domain between the years 2003 and 2021. Various parameters, like purpose, design methodology, operations used, language representation, etc. are available in the literature to review ontologies. Accompanying the existing parameters, a few parameters, like semantic reasoner used, knowledge representation formalism was added and a list of 20 parameters was prepared. It was then segregated into two groups as generic parameters and core parameters to review DMOs.

Findings

It was observed that among the 35 papers under the study, 26 papers were published between the years 2006 and 2016. Larisa Soldatova, Saso Dzeroski and Pance Panov were the most productive authors of these DMO-related publications. The ontological review indicated that most of the DMOs were domain and task ontologies. Majority of ontologies were formal, modular and represented using web ontology language (OWL). The data revealed that Ontology development 101, METHONTOLOGY was the preferred design methodology, and application-based approaches were preferred for evaluation. It was also observed that around eight ontologies were accessible, and among them, three were available in ontology libraries as well. The most reused ontologies were OntoDM, BFO, OBO-RO, OBI, IAO, OntoDT, SWO and DMOP. The most preferred ontology editor was Protégé, whereas the most used semantic reasoner was Pellet. Even ontology metrics for 16 DMOs were also available.

Originality/value

This paper carries out a basic level review of DMOs employing a parametric approach, which makes this study the first of a kind for the review of DMOs.

Details

Data Technologies and Applications, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9288

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Book part
Publication date: 12 October 2016

Arch G. Woodside, Xin Xia, John C. Crotts and Jeremy C. Clement

The study here helps to fill the gap between the current practices of management performance audits for firms and government agencies. The study advances recent theories…

Abstract

The study here helps to fill the gap between the current practices of management performance audits for firms and government agencies. The study advances recent theories of program evaluation and marketing management auditing. While the application in this chapter refers to government agencies managing destination marketing programs (tourism agencies), the algorithmic model construction is applicable for all management audits. The study applies the perspectives from two streams of theory to describe five relevant activities for managing destination marketing programs: scanning, planning, implementation, assessing, and administering. The analysis proposes impact assessments to improve management performances of DMOs via checklists for assessing the quality of information in tourism-management performance audits. Checklists can serve as a management tool by management performance auditors and by DMO executives to enhance the quality in executing destination marketing programs. A meta-evaluation of 10 tourism management audit reports identifies good and bad practices. The findings indicate that substantial improvements are possible in the practice of DMO’s management performance auditing, and the proposed checklist may ensure both high quality performance audit reports and improved performances in DMO practices.

Details

Making Tough Decisions Well and Badly: Framing, Deciding, Implementing, Assessing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-120-3

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Article
Publication date: 22 May 2020

Catarina Antónia Martins, Maria João Aibéo Carneiro and Osvaldo Rocha Pacheco

Destination management organizations perform a very important role regarding the management of tourism destinations. Destination management systems are a key technological…

Abstract

Purpose

Destination management organizations perform a very important role regarding the management of tourism destinations. Destination management systems are a key technological infrastructure for these organizations. However, in the literature, it is not clear what are the factors that promote the implementation of these systems, neither what are the factors that contribute to their success. This study aims to propose and test two research models to overcome these research gaps.

Design/methodology/approach

The first model refers to the determinants of the implementation of destination management systems, and the second model refers to the determinants of the success of those systems. The models are tested with data collected through a questionnaire survey from destination management organizations of five European countries, which are among the leaders in international tourism receipts.

Findings

Concerning the factors that promote the implementation of destination management systems, this study reveals the importance of the diversity of partnerships that the private sector establishes in the destination, of advantages resulting from governance and of partners' involvement in the functions of destination management organizations. Concerning the factors that promote the success of these systems, this study highlights the importance of a phased implementation, the fact that a high number of functionalities in the system prevents success and the importance of having a revenue model that can support financial and operating costs.

Originality/value

The study provides important theoretical and practical contributions to the successful implementation of destination management systems by destination management organizations.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 121 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2018

Jörgen Elbe, Sabine Gebert Persson, Fredrik Sjöstrand and Karin Ågren

This paper explores a type of organizing that can be found in tourist destinations that are administratively bound to a specific geographic area in the intersection of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper explores a type of organizing that can be found in tourist destinations that are administratively bound to a specific geographic area in the intersection of public and private context. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the organizing of activities within destinations and also to contribute theoretically and conceptually to how place dependency and public/private can be understood from an industrial marketing and purchasing (IMP) network perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

The research approach has its origin in an ongoing multi-disciplinary and longitudinal case study.

Findings

By applying a network approach to the organizing of destinations, where interaction of relationships, resources, actors and activities play an essential role, a number of propositions have been put forth so as to provide for a better understanding of place-specific organizing, in the intersection between public and private interests.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is conceptual and more empirical studies are needed to test the findings. One implication to consider in future empirical studies is the tensions between created and organic networks that exist in public and private place partnerships.

Practical implications

The paper provides insights into factors affecting destination management.

Social implications

With an emphasis on a socio-political context, the opportunities and limitations that exist between public and private sectors are discussed.

Originality/value

The paper sheds light on a neglected aspect of a contemporary phenomenon where the IMP network approach could contribute to the understanding of destination marketing or management organization that are bound to a specific place in the intersection between the public and private context. The area of public-private organizing is a topic that may also add new aspects to the IMP community.

Details

IMP Journal, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-1403

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2018

Stephan Reinhold, Pietro Beritelli and Rouven Grünig

The need and legitimacy of destination management organizations (DMOs) are increasingly questioned. Still, the tourism literature provides little advice on how DMOs change…

Abstract

Purpose

The need and legitimacy of destination management organizations (DMOs) are increasingly questioned. Still, the tourism literature provides little advice on how DMOs change and finance their activities for the benefit of their destination-given contextual change. This conceptual article aims to contribute to filling this gap. The authors do so by proposing a typology of business models for destination management organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

With the help of typological reasoning, the authors develop a new framework of DMO business model ideal types. To this end, the authors draw on extant literature on business model typologies and identify key dimensions of DMO business models from the tourism literature.

Findings

The challenges DMOs face, as discussed in the tourism literature, relate to both ends of their business model: On the one end, the value creation side, the perceived value of the activities they traditionally pursue has been declining; on the other end, the value capture side, revenue streams are less plentiful or attached to more extensive demands. On the basis of two dimensions, configurational complexity and perceived control, the authors identify four distinct ideal types of DMO business models: the destination factory, destination service center, value orchestrator and value enabler.

Originality/value

The authors outline a “traditional” DMO business model that stands in contrast to existing DMO classifications and that relates DMO challenges to the business model concept. The typology provides an integrated description of how DMO business models may be positioned to create and capture value for the organization and the destination(s) it serves. The ideal types point to important interdependencies of specific business model design choices.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 74 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2012

Peter Atorough and Andrew Martin

Destination Management Organisations (DMOs) are very much a part of the Scottish tourism landscape in 2011. Some regional tourism stakeholders have created DMOs to manage…

Abstract

Purpose

Destination Management Organisations (DMOs) are very much a part of the Scottish tourism landscape in 2011. Some regional tourism stakeholders have created DMOs to manage their respective regional attractions, but until now, this has not been the case with north‐east Scotland. As a prelude to the potential creation of a regional DMO, the purpose of this paper is to empirically evaluate tourism business leaders' attitudes and likely acceptance of the DMO's structure and functions.

Design/methodology/approach

The Thomas‐Kilmann Conflict Mode (TKCM) was utilised to provide an evaluative framework, with discussion of the assertiveness versus cooperativeness needs of tourism business stakeholders in the region. The TKCM's measurement instrument was utilised along with a purpose‐built questionnaire to gather information about tourism leaders' interaction orientations and their level of support for the formation of a DMO, its structure and functions.

Findings

Tourism leaders in north‐east Scotland are collaboration‐oriented. Initial findings indicate that on balance, tourism businesses (as expressed by their managers/owners) are persuaded by the attractiveness of collaboration at an integrated regional level, but would nevertheless prefer a certain degree of competition. In addition, organisational size and membership of existing destination management networks appear to moderate the interaction choice preference.

Research limitations/implications

First, the scale and questionnaire instrument developed to test attitudes toward a DMO formation have not been exhaustively evaluated, nor have the potential moderating factors been comprehensively assessed. A more robust and validated scale should be developed and moderators clearly modelled. Second, current sample size is limited and may not provide an adequate basis for generalisation. In future, a larger sample should be employed. Finally, this research is exploratory in scope, and future research, designed along an evaluative and analytical basis, is encouraged.

Practical implications

Collaboration within a new DMO in marketing to new markets and the support for this is not challenged, but some competition among tourism providers will continue. It is likely that the disparity between tourism performance in the city and rural areas will continue in the near future. The role of the DMO will therefore involve enlarging the customer base and raising the tourism profiles of both city and rural locations, in order to create a level playing field.

Originality/value

This research is the first to utilise the TKCM and Instrument to assess tourism business leaders' assertiveness versus cooperativeness orientations, prior to the initiation of an alliance in a region. The paper shows that this approach holds viability for future research in this direction, especially the potential of TKCM as a predictive framework for interorganisational interaction and collaboration.

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Article
Publication date: 20 April 2015

Pietro Beritelli, Federica Buffa and Umberto Martini

The purpose of this paper is to present an alternative perspective on understanding the coordinating role of destination management organizations. Destination Management…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present an alternative perspective on understanding the coordinating role of destination management organizations. Destination Management Organizations (DMOs) are known to have a coordinating role within a destination. Many qualitative case studies discuss this role in the institutional context, assuming that the DMO is supposed to coordinate the network of the organizations and stakeholder groups in the destination. By contrast, this paper analyzes the coordinator role of DMOs by focusing primarily on the prominent individuals (directors and board members) affiliated with it. In so doing, it proposes an alternative perspective on these organizations. Looking at the influential individuals in the destination, in particular those affiliated with the DMO, reveals new insights into what the DMO alternatively could be from an individual’s perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

Using social network analysis, the coordinator role of the actors affiliated with the DMO for six destination cases in Switzerland, Italy and Austria was measured. First, the network of the most salient individuals in the destination was identified. Second, the coordinator score with the help of the Gould and Fernandez measure was measured. Third, the coordinator scores of individuals affiliated with the DMO were compared against those of the other actors in the network. Fourth, the scores of actors affiliated with the DMO and other actors were compared to the coordinator role attributed to the whole organization by those individuals (i.e. how they see the DMO as coordinator). Fifth, the analysis of the results with case-specific information was completed.

Findings

In each of the six destinations, there are actors affiliated with the DMO as top scorers; these are usually the president of the board and other board members, as well as the director. Additionally, the analysis identifies further board members of the DMO among the tourist elite in the destination. The DMO as an organization is generally seen as an important coordinating institution. In particular, the actors affiliated with the DMO attribute a higher coordinating role to the organization than do the other respondents.

Practical implications

In their board constellation, DMOs support the formation of interlocking directorships through the representation of various stakeholder groups. They increase the concentration of power in favor of a small group (elite), but they can also increase the effectiveness of decisional processes. In so doing, a DMO serves as a valuable platform for leaders in its destination.

Social implications

This study affords a surprising insight into the difference between the overall image actors have of DMOs and the organizations’ self-images, expressed by the actors affiliated to the organizations – the former is always lower than the latter. The study also clearly demonstrates that the role of an institution largely depends on the actors affiliated to it and hence points to the constantly adapting coordinating role of DMOs within destinations.

Originality/value

A DMO can be seen as an organization constituted by individuals who join and leave its board or its management. This paper proposes an actor-based analysis of these often small, but controversially discussed organizations. We do it with a combination of quantitative measures from network analysis and qualitative information. The alternative perspective (actors of the DMOs inside the elite) and the application of social network analysis for this purpose have not been used in studies before. Further research points to two new research streams, namely, to understanding the role attributed to the DMO by different actors in the destination and the reasons for joining/leaving the organization and the shift of the self-concept of the DMO.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 70 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Book part
Publication date: 4 December 2018

Jeremy Fairley

The marketing environment is constantly changing due to political, economic, social and technological issues. Therefore, this chapter explains how practitioners in…

Abstract

The marketing environment is constantly changing due to political, economic, social and technological issues. Therefore, this chapter explains how practitioners in destination marketing can improve their internal capabilities, competences and resources whilst responding to the ongoing changes in the external environment. The strategic management of destination marketing organisations involves continuous decision-making processes due to the nature of the tourism product. Hence, the author underlines the importance of stakeholder management, organisational culture, employee satisfaction, leadership and corporate governance/political environment, as these variables may contribute to the effective strategic management of these organisations.

Details

The Branding of Tourist Destinations: Theoretical and Empirical Insights
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-373-9

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

John Heeley

The purpose of this paper is to trace the emergence of a dominant paradigm from within which academics and practitioners alike currently describe and otherwise explain…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to trace the emergence of a dominant paradigm from within which academics and practitioners alike currently describe and otherwise explain urban destination marketing. The paradigm has been dubbed the “theory of marketing competitive advantage (CA)” by the author, and by others as the “4P’s marketing paradigm”. To effectively market themselves as tourism destinations, this paradigm requires towns and cities to differentiate themselves through the provision of more or less unique products, based on which they subsequently undertake branding, market positioning, distribution and other activities through bespoke destination marketing organisations (DMOs).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper summarises the findings of: first, a review of the academic and practitioner literature on urban destination marketing; second, an online investigation of urban destination marketing in 62 European towns and cities, consulting the corporate and consumer pages of the relevant DMO website; and third, in-depth interviews with 20 senior DMO departmental executives. Each interview was recorded digitally for subsequent transcribing, and was conducted on the basis of a semi-structured interview schedule.

Findings

Theory, as enshrined in the “4P’s marketing paradigm” rarely holds up in practice. Irrespective of whether or not a town or city possesses CA (and few do), DMO marketing gravitates almost inexorably towards a “marketing of everything”. Moreover, much the greater part of urban destination marketing is ineffective, failing to create visitors and deliver the commercial and economic returns on which it is premised. Against a backdrop of DMO marginality and ineffectiveness and a reluctance by them to market what is special and different about places, the continued existence of DMOs and the destination marketing they undertake is thrown into serious question.

Research limitations/implications

Interpretation is unavoidably subjective in parts, drawing on personal experience as well as research undertaken.

Originality/value

This paper is intended to give the reader an understanding of why success is so problematic in urban destination marketing, serving as an antidote to the prevailing idealised, normative and unproblematic picture of the DMO world as this is depicted from within the prevailing “4P’s marketing paradigm”. The research method provides a basis on which to unite theory and practice in the field of urban destination marketing in a more systematic and verifiable manner than has hitherto ever been the case.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Staci M. Zavattaro

This paper aims to understand how place brand managers in the US Deep South understand the brand images associated with their states and cities. The US South has its own…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to understand how place brand managers in the US Deep South understand the brand images associated with their states and cities. The US South has its own unique identity – and the Deep South has its own differences from the rest of the country. Typically, the Deep South is seen as backwards, uneducated and the “buckle of the Bible Belt”. Given potentially negative brand associations, this research explores how destination marketing organization (DMO) managers in three Deep South states (Mississippi, Louisiana and Alabama) think their places are perceived.

Design/methodology/approach

Miles et al.’s (2014) guidelines for qualitative content analysis are used to understand responses to open-ended questions regarding place brand associations. Surveys were sent to 104 DMO managers in each state, and 53 questionnaires were returned with usable responses. Deductive and inductive analyses were used to understand place brand associations, as well as how managers in the three states are promoting positive associations or correcting negative ones.

Findings

Managers reported both positive and negative brand associations but also detailed problems when promoting either: financial and political constraints, information sharing, and asset capitalization. Managers, then, face issues when trying to promote their cities and states, thus negatively influencing the economic and social returns on tourism investment into the region.

Originality/value

Not many studies examine this region of the USA when it comes to tourism-related brand associations. Usually studies focus more broadly on a Southern identity rather than specific associations DMO managers understand the state to maintain. The study also fills a gap regarding asking DMO managers how and why they do what they do. Finally, the study puts into action Gertner and Kotler’s (2004) framework for assessing corrective measures for a negative brand image.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

Keywords

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