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Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2021

Ankit Dhiraj and Sanjeev Kumar

Tourism has been an important activity in the past. Today tourism is a high revenue generation industry in many countries. But recently, many destinations are suffering…

Abstract

Tourism has been an important activity in the past. Today tourism is a high revenue generation industry in many countries. But recently, many destinations are suffering from overtourism. Overtourism is a real-life phenomenon experienced by destinations. Overtourism is defined as many tourists visiting a particular place simultaneously which has resulted in the falling or unacceptable quality of life. It is just the opposite of wellness tourism, a better place to live and a better place to visit. The term overtourism was first used on Twitter as #overtourism back in August 2012. In 2017 UNWTO ministers addressed overtourism at the World Travel Market. In the last few years, there have been anti-tourism movements in popular destinations such as Barcelona, Santorini and Copenhagen. These movements' main aim is the attention of press attraction and have led to different proposed actions by tourism decision-makers in making a policy to control overtourism. In recent years overtourism has become an important and discussed issue in media and academia. In this context, the term is still not widely defined and open to numerous discussions. This chapter aims to clarify the root causes of overtourism, the emergence of overtourism and how social media is responsible for and impacts overtourism. The methodology of this chapter is a general review literature of overtourism issues. The chapter states that the government poorly managed without a bigger political force and genuine knowledge of the government's difficulty and action are taking first in the tourism industry. This chapter identifies the social movement of overtourism raised by residents.

Details

Overtourism as Destination Risk
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-707-2

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 July 2022

Intan Purwandani and Sarani Pitor Pakan

This paper aims to unpack personal narratives of local residents in relation to the effects of overtourism in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The paper uses Pierre Bourdieu’s…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to unpack personal narratives of local residents in relation to the effects of overtourism in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The paper uses Pierre Bourdieu’s concept of habitus to understand how local residents cope with temporal overtourism.

Design/methodology/approach

Findings were gathered from observations and interviews. Interviews were conducted with 12 informants, consisting of local small-to-medium enterprise tourism entrepreneurs, local informal tourism workers and a group of locals uninvolved in tourism.

Findings

The paper has two key findings. First, locals uninvolved in tourism show empathetic behavior toward the locals involved in tourism despite their experiencing negative effects of tourism. The involved locals, for their part, were aware of the importance of resolving issues with the uninvolved locals through regular communication so as to secure the sustained future of tourism. Second, the use of social capital by involved and uninvolved locals reflects the local Javanese culture and value system in which social harmony and integration are paramount.

Research limitations/implications

Local habitus forms and informs locals’ perceptions on temporal overtourism issues. It enables an understanding on how locals manage the effects of overtourism in Yogyakarta. The habitus, which is greatly influenced by Javanese values, creates attitudes and behaviors which are empathetic and tolerant.

Practical implications

To avoid the potential conflict when overtourism explicitly or implicitly frustrates locals, policy should be formulated by taking into account the findings of this paper on the local habitus. The study contributes to the overtourism debate by looking at the inter-relationship of local social structures and cultural context with local responses to temporal overtourism.

Originality/value

Using the concept of habitus, this research deepens existing understanding on the local responses toward overtourism. This research expects to theoretically enrich and complexify debates on tourism–habitus nexus in tourism studies.

Details

Consumer Behavior in Tourism and Hospitality, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2752-6666

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2021

P. P. Mohanty and Niharranjan Mishra

Overtourism is an emerging concept and a perennial process every destination is going through. It is a cyclic phenomenon derived from the destination, retained in the…

Abstract

Overtourism is an emerging concept and a perennial process every destination is going through. It is a cyclic phenomenon derived from the destination, retained in the destination and at last demised by the destination. It's a kind of ‘tourism illness’ spreading rapidly in every destination in the present scenario. The status of overtourism in every destination has been caused by the tourist, of the tourist and for the tourist. In the context of religious places in Odisha, overtourism is a ‘disorder’ that cannot be mitigated, as religiosity, faith and spiritualism have propelled and governed people's sentiment and emotion. Hence ambiguity arises out of making an intrigue situation between a myth or a spiritual sojourn bounded by faith and belief. This chapter significantly contributes by unfolding the existing literature by providing the origin and evolution of overtourism, various stated definitions by the different authors, causes and consequences, and overtourism in religious destinations by adopting an exploratory study, particularly in case of the Golden triangle of Odisha.

Details

Overtourism as Destination Risk
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-707-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2021

Samik Ray

In the post-industrial society, demand escalation for travels and tours led to the mobility of travellers and tourists en masse from cross sections of the society and…

Abstract

In the post-industrial society, demand escalation for travels and tours led to the mobility of travellers and tourists en masse from cross sections of the society and caused tourism's dramatic growth making enormous makeovers in the national income of many states. Tourism, then, could be perceived by travel mobility paradigm. Increasing tourist mobility contributed to the growth of overtourism phenomenon at different destinations. Overtourism sets to be in opposition to responsible and sustainable tourism. Contradictory approaches towards carrying capacity, commodification and commoditisation set overtourism to be positioned so. The way of establishing control on cultural, natural and spatial capitals overlooking hosts' traditional interests, priorities and intentions like destination's economic development and sustenance also made overtourism placed in contrary to the responsible tourism. Contradictions do exist between overtourism and its counter-reactions and within the reactions. Consumerism and control over host capital in the counter-practices continue differently but in contradicting manners with the same magnitude of profit progression. Instead of mass consumerism, elite consumerism appears turning the mobility of organised mass tour packages to the tailor-made alternative tour packages. The contradictions within paradigms of overtourism's nature, aspects, causes and consequences were thus likely. Contradictions also prevail between uncontrolled or limitless and controlled or within limit mobility and activity; goals and means; growth and effect; control of entrepreneurs on tourism capital and local community involvement, etc. It defines parallel subsistence or continuation of contradictory forces. The dialectical nature of history led to make a synthesis of the existing and newly emerging mobility phenomenon. This chapter will locate how control and decontrol or delimiting and limiting of overtourism co-exist in contradiction and reconcile the contradiction to synthesis.

Details

Overtourism as Destination Risk
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-707-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2021

Betül Kodaş and Davut Kodaş

Travels and vacations organised by a large number of people to certain destinations in certain periods cause some negative impacts on the destinations in question. The…

Abstract

Travels and vacations organised by a large number of people to certain destinations in certain periods cause some negative impacts on the destinations in question. The concept of overtourism, which has become a current issue especially with the anti-tourism demonstrations in certain destinations such as Venice, Barcelona and Dubrovnik as a result of the increasing tourism carrying capacity, has been drawing attention in recent years regarding the sustainability in the destinations. Popular destinations that are affected by overtourism try to develop some strategies in order to minimise the negative impacts of overtourism. One of these strategies is the demarketing strategy that is developed by the destination stakeholders towards the target group. In this chapter of the book, the significance of the concept of demarketing in terms of struggle against overtourism was revealed and how demarketing strategies applied to the marketing mix and different strategies were approached in tourism studies was discussed in detail by addressing the current literature. In addition, suggestions were proposed to the popular destinations that feel the negative impacts of overtourism and will be affected by overtourism also in the future concerning creating their own demarketing strategies and destination planning.

Details

Overtourism as Destination Risk
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-707-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2021

Snigdha Kainthola, Pinaz Tiwari and Nimit R. Chowdhary

Overtourism is a problem of social and psychological perspective which is aggravated by the mismanagement of the destination. It can also be understood as an umbrella term…

Abstract

Overtourism is a problem of social and psychological perspective which is aggravated by the mismanagement of the destination. It can also be understood as an umbrella term which incorporates the unfavourable conditions created by means of several tourism activities. The present scenario of overcrowding by tourists, displacement of local population and loss of authenticity can be assumed that overtourism is a consequence of increasing volume of tourism industry in the twenty-first century. There are strong uncorroborated beliefs around overtourism formed by media and literature which are not concrete and need to be busted. Several impressions have been generated around the phenomenon of overtourism and overcrowding which has hampered the administration of a destination. This chapter identifies 11 myths of overtourism with the help of literature review and supporting examples have been given with each myth. The authors attempt to decipher the underlying stereotypes of overtourism in context of it being a recent phenomenon, its existence in the popular part of the cities and the realities of the solutions and perceptions of the concept.

Details

Overtourism as Destination Risk
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-707-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2021

Vikas Gupta and Pranshu Chomplay

The purpose of this study is to find out the negative environmental, cultural and socio-economic effects of overtourism at prominent tourist destination in India focussing…

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to find out the negative environmental, cultural and socio-economic effects of overtourism at prominent tourist destination in India focussing upon Shimla. As well, the study will also try to identify the changes in the residents’ perceptions at these tourism sites experiencing overtourism. It will be based on the review of previous literature to find out the significant negative effects of tourism-related activities on the residents' attitudes and perceptions related to tourists. It will also discuss the negative impacts of overtourism on the overall destination image using the case study approach. It is confirmed through the study findings that overtourism has caused severe environmental, economic and socio-cultural impressions at the tourist destinations under study. It is also revealed that overtourism at these destinations has caused the increased water consumption, collection of huge litter masses, improper waste disposal and air pollution due to vehicular and other sources owing to upsurge in tourist activities. In the tourist destinations under study, overtourism has caused difficulties for the locals as the prices have risen and short-term rentals have caused housing shortages. These findings will be useful for the stakeholders in the tourism sector in India to devise strategies to prevent the over-exploitation of resources and take sufficient measures to reverse the negative impacts and simultaneously promote these destinations for sustainable tourism growth.

Details

Overtourism as Destination Risk
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-707-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2021

Nurhayat Iflazoglu and Ipek Itir Can

While the number of tourists worldwide is expected to reach 1.8 billion people by 2030, tourism destinations try to meet demand for increasing tourism. However, some…

Abstract

While the number of tourists worldwide is expected to reach 1.8 billion people by 2030, tourism destinations try to meet demand for increasing tourism. However, some tourism destinations are experiencing a maturity period of destination life cycle intensively. During these mature periods, while they meet the demand above their tourism carrying capacity, they encounter some problematic issues. In tourist destinations such as Venice, Barcelona and Paris, the negative feelings developed by the local people towards overtourism or tourists result in serious problems like negative destination images, tourism phobia, etc. In these destinations, to prevent the negative consequences of overtourism, destination stakeholders should develop solutions to these problems. There are many solution techniques for the problems which cause overtourism. One of them is the different tourism types which have been developed as an alternative to mass tourism. These alternative tourism types can be handled as a method for solving problems revealed through excess demand in tourism destinations at risk. For example, some tourism destinations which have both beach tourism and nature-based tourism types can bring nature-based tourism activities to the forefront with promotion and marketing activities and therefore, the tourism demand could be balanced between these tourism types. In this context, firstly, comprehensive literature review of overtourism and alternative tourism will be conducted in this study. And then the different types of tourism such as ecotourism, cultural tourism and responsible tourism will be discussed in detail and their relation in reducing the negative consequences of overtourism will be investigated theoretically via secondary data. Therefore, alternative tourism potentials will be investigated and tried to present the managerial suggestions for the development of different alternative types of tourism. As a result, it has been seen that, alternative tourism not only contributes to the growth of tourism in both popular and remote destinations but also makes sure that destinations get their fair share in income distribution of the country.

Article
Publication date: 19 January 2022

Richard William Butler and Rachel Dodds

The purpose of this paper is to identify and review attempts at mitigation and prevention of overtourism and to outline reasons for the failure to date of such efforts.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify and review attempts at mitigation and prevention of overtourism and to outline reasons for the failure to date of such efforts.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is a perspective paper and draws on an examination of relevant literature on the subject through the lens of a conceptual framework. It outlines the changing roles of tourism development and marketing organisations and the failure of public sector agencies to control and manage tourism. The varying methods of limiting tourist numbers are examined, and their weaknesses are presented.

Findings

Conclusions reveal that there are a series of global trends that are contributing to the appearance and continuation of overtourism and which, to date, are proving immune to mitigation and resolution for specific reasons. These include a lack of willingness to accept the problem of tourist numbers and to reduce or effectively manage these at all levels, from local to international.

Research limitations/implications

Present approaches to mitigation need to be revisited and better integrated with management and control of all aspects of development and framed to achieve and retain political support at all levels.

Originality/value

There has been little attempt before to analyse the reasons for the failure to effectively mitigate or prevent overtourism, and this paper makes an original contribution in this area in that it is an evaluation of what is known and a summary of shortcomings within the industry and academia.

设计/方法

本论文是一篇观点性论文, 通过概念框架的视角对相关文献进行审视。它概述了旅游开发和营销组织角色的变化以及公共部门机构控制和管理旅游业的失败。研究了限制游客数量的各种方法, 并指出了它们的缺点。

目的

本文的目的是识别和回顾缓解和预防过度旅游的措施, 并概述迄今为止这些措施失败的原因。

调查结果

结论表明, 有一系列全球趋势促成了过度旅游的出现和延续, 迄今为止, 由于特定原因, 应对过度旅游的措施对这些趋势无效。这包括不愿意接受和游客人数相关的问题, 不愿意在从地方到国际各级进行减少或有效管理游客人数。

意义

本文讨论了许多旅游目的地未能解决过度旅游问题的原因。目前的缓解办法需要重新审视, 并更好地与所有区域发展方面相关的管理和控制措施相结合, 并加以规章立制, 以便在各级获得和保持政界支持。

实践意义

它概述了未来研究的潜在方向, 因此对目的地管理机构具有实际意义。特别是, 目前的缓解办法需要重新审视, 并更好地与所有区域发展方面相关的管理和控制措施相结合, 并加以规章立制, 以便在各级获得和保持政界支持。

社会影响

在许多人的心目中, 过度旅游是一个非常严重的社会问题, 本文解释了为什么这个问题很难解决。对过去失败的评估可使旅游目的地居民能够提出不同和更有效的措施, 特别是这些措施该如何实施。

创新点/价值(限100字)

独创性

之前很少有人试图分析未能有效缓解或防止过度旅游的原因。本文在这一领域作出了独创性贡献, 对文献中研究和讨论的内容进行了评估, 总结了业界和学界的不足之处, 总结了公共部门政策的失败。

Diseño/enfoque

Este trabajo es un artículo de perspectiva y se centra en un análisis de la literatura relevante sobre el tema objeto de estudio a través de un marco conceptual. Se destacan los roles cambiantes del desarrollo del turismo y de las organizaciones de marketing, así como los errores de las organizaciones del sector público para controlar y gestionar el turismo. Se presentan los diversos métodos para limitar el número de turistas y se analizan sus debilidades.

Finalidad

La finalidad de este trabajo es identificar y revisar los intentos de mitigación y prevención de la saturación turística y esbozar las razones del fracaso hasta la fecha de dichos esfuerzos.

Resultados

Las conclusiones revelan que existen una serie de tendencias globales que están contribuyendo a la aparición y continuidad de la saturación turística y que, hasta la fecha, están demostrando ser inmunes a la mitigación y resolución por razones específicas. Éstas incluyen la falta de voluntad para aceptar el problema del número de turistas y reducirlos o gestionarlos de manera eficaz en todos los niveles, desde el ámbito local hasta el internacional.

Implicaciones

El trabajo analiza lo que se considera como las razones del fracaso para resolver la saturación turística en muchos destinos turísticos. Los enfoques actuales para la mitigación necesitan ser revisados e integrarse mejor con la gestión y el control de todos los aspectos del desarrollo, y deben enmarcarse para lograr y mantener el apoyo político en todos los niveles.

Implicaciones practices

Se identifican las áreas potenciales para un mayor estudio, así como nuevas aplicaciones y, por tanto, presenta implicaciones prácticas para las organizaciones que gestionan los destinos. En particular, los enfoques actuales de mitigación deben revisarse e integrarse mejor con la gestión y el control de todos los aspectos del desarrollo, y deben enmarcarse para lograr y retener el apoyo político en todos los niveles y ser efectivos.

Implicaciones sociales

La saturación turística es un problema social en la mente de muchas personas y el documento explica por qué este problema ha demostrado ser difícil de resolver. La evaluación de los fracasos del pasado debería permitir a los residentes de los destinos turísticos abogar por medidas diferentes y más eficaces y, en particular, para que esas medidas se apliquen correctamente.

Originalidad/valor

Existen escasos intentos anteriores para analizar las razones del fracaso para mitigar o prevenir eficazmente la saturación turística. El artículo presenta una contribución original en esta área al mostrar una evaluación de lo que se ha investigado y discutido en la literatura y se ofrece una síntesis de las deficiencias dentro de la industria y la academia y el fracaso de las organizaciones del sector público para implementar sus políticas.

Article
Publication date: 28 December 2021

Michael O’ Regan, Noel B. Salazar, Jaeyeon Choe and Dimitrios Buhalis

As tourism destinations grapple with declines in tourist arrivals due to COVID-19 measures, scholarly debate on overtourism remains active, with discussions on solutions…

Abstract

Purpose

As tourism destinations grapple with declines in tourist arrivals due to COVID-19 measures, scholarly debate on overtourism remains active, with discussions on solutions that could be enacted to contain the excessive regrowth of tourism and the return of “overtourism”. As social science holds an important role and responsibility to inform the debate on overtourism, this paper aims to understand overtourism by examining it as a discursive formation.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper explores recurring thematic threads in scholarly overtourism texts, given the phrases coherence as a nodal-point is partially held in place by a collective body of texts authored by a network of scholars who have invested in it. The paper uses interdiscursivity as an interpretative framework to identify overlapping thematic trajectories found in existing discourses.

Findings

Overtourism, as a discursive formation, determines what can and should be said about the self-evident “truths” of excessive tourist arrivals, the changes tourists bring to destinations and the range of discursive solutions available to manage or end overtourism. As the interpellation of these thematic threads into scholarly texts is based on a sense of crisis and urgency, the authors find that the themes contain rhetoric, arguments and metaphors that problematise tourists and construct them as objects in need of control and correction.

Originality/value

While the persistence of the discursive formation will be determined by the degree to which scholarly and other actors recognise themselves in it, this paper may enable overtourism scholars to become aware of the limits of their discursive domain and help them to expand the discourse or weave a new one.

设计/方法论/方法

本文探讨了过度旅游研究文本中反复出现的主题线索, 鉴于这些短语连贯性作为一个节点, 由学者们组成的网络所研究的一组文本所组成。本文将互辩作为一个解释框架来识别现有语篇中重叠的主题轨迹。

目的

随着旅游目的地应对因新冠病毒−19措施而导致的游客人数下降, 关于过度旅游的学术辩论仍然活跃, 通过讨论可以制定的解决方案, 以遏制旅游业的过度再生和“过度旅游”的再现。由于社会科学在有关过度旅游的辩论中扮演着重要的角色和责任, 本文试图通过将其作为一种话语形式进行考察来理解过度旅游。

结果

作为一种话语形式, 过度旅游展现了过量游客所带来的不言而喻的“真相”、游客给目的地带来的变化以及可用于管理或结束过度旅游的一系列解决方案。由于这些主题线索在学术文本中的质询是基于危机感和紧迫感, 我们发现这些主题包含修辞、论据和隐喻, 使游客感到困惑, 并将其构建为需要控制和纠正的对象。

创新/价值

尽管话语形成的持续性将取决于学者和其他参与者在其中认识到自己的程度, 但本文可能会使过度旅游学者意识到其话语领域的局限性, 并帮助他们扩展话语或构建新的话语。

Propósito

A medida que los destinos turísticos lidian con la disminución de las llegadas de turistas debido a las medidas del COVID-19, el debate académico sobre el “sobreturismo” permanece activo, con discusiones sobre soluciones que podrían promulgarse para contener el crecimiento excesivo del turismo y el regreso del “sobreturismo”. La ciencia tiene un papel importante y una responsabilidad en informar sobre el debate del “sobreturismo”, este artículo busca entender el constructo de “sobreturismo”, examinándolo como una formación discursiva.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

El artículo explora los hilos temáticos recurrentes en los textos académicos sobre el “sobreturismo”, dada la coherencia de las frases como un punto nodal, mantenida parcialmente en su lugar, por un cuerpo colectivo de textos escritos por una red de académicos, los cuales han invertido tiempo en ellos. El artículo utiliza la inter-discursividad como marco interpretativo a la hora de identificar trayectorias temáticas superpuestas que se encuentran en las disertaciones existentes.

Hallazgos

El sobreturismo, como formación discursiva, determina lo que puede y debe decirse sobre las “verdades” evidentes de la llegada excesiva de turistas, los cambios que los turistas traen a los destinos y la gama de soluciones discursivas disponibles para gestionar o acabar con el “sobreturismo”. Como la interpelación de estos hilos temáticos en textos académicos se basa en un sentido de crisis y urgencia, encontramos que los temas contienen retórica, argumentos y metáforas que problematizan a los turistas y los construyen como objetos que necesitan control y corrección.

Originalidad/valor

Si bien la persistencia de la formación discursiva estará determinada por el grado en que los académicos y otros actores se reconozcan en ella, este artículo puede permitir a los estudiosos del “sobreturismo” tomar conciencia de los límites de su dominio discursivo y ayudarlos a expandir el discurso o tejer un discurso nuevo.

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