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Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2021

Ankit Dhiraj and Sanjeev Kumar

Tourism has been an important activity in the past. Today tourism is a high revenue generation industry in many countries. But recently, many destinations are suffering…

Abstract

Tourism has been an important activity in the past. Today tourism is a high revenue generation industry in many countries. But recently, many destinations are suffering from overtourism. Overtourism is a real-life phenomenon experienced by destinations. Overtourism is defined as many tourists visiting a particular place simultaneously which has resulted in the falling or unacceptable quality of life. It is just the opposite of wellness tourism, a better place to live and a better place to visit. The term overtourism was first used on Twitter as #overtourism back in August 2012. In 2017 UNWTO ministers addressed overtourism at the World Travel Market. In the last few years, there have been anti-tourism movements in popular destinations such as Barcelona, Santorini and Copenhagen. These movements' main aim is the attention of press attraction and have led to different proposed actions by tourism decision-makers in making a policy to control overtourism. In recent years overtourism has become an important and discussed issue in media and academia. In this context, the term is still not widely defined and open to numerous discussions. This chapter aims to clarify the root causes of overtourism, the emergence of overtourism and how social media is responsible for and impacts overtourism. The methodology of this chapter is a general review literature of overtourism issues. The chapter states that the government poorly managed without a bigger political force and genuine knowledge of the government's difficulty and action are taking first in the tourism industry. This chapter identifies the social movement of overtourism raised by residents.

Details

Overtourism as Destination Risk
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-707-2

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Article
Publication date: 2 April 2021

Tanja Mihalic and Kir Kuščer

This paper aims to present a model to survey if effective destination management can manage (unsustainable) overtourism from the perspective of residents’ quality of life (QOL).

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a model to survey if effective destination management can manage (unsustainable) overtourism from the perspective of residents’ quality of life (QOL).

Design/methodology/approach

A constructivist approach, based on factors taken from conceptual overtourism model (Mihalic, 2020), was used to propose an overtourism QOL management model. Relationships among the factors were analysed with a path analyses model with two second-order latent factors. The model was tested in a real setting, the city of Ljubljana.

Findings

The proposed theoretical model is comprised of five factors: positive tourism impacts, negative tourism impacts, irritation with overtourism, residents’ QOL and destination management. Empirical tests confirmed the model. Positive tourism impacts positively affected residents’ QOL via destination management. Negative tourism impacts created overtourism-based resident irritation and negatively impacted their QOL.

Research limitations/implications

The model was limited to one group of sustainable tourism stakeholders: residents of a destination. The sustainability performance of tourism was only assessed based on residents’ QOL.

Practical implications

The proposed model adds to the conceptual knowledge of tourism and may be useful for (sustainable) destination managers to monitor the existence and causes of overtourism and may help to focus efforts to manage the causes of overtourism irritation and improve residents’ QOL.

Originality/value

Overtourism is a concern for residents of tourism destinations who become irritated by unsustainable tourism impacts on community resources and their QOL. The suggested model is the first to address destination management’s ability to manage unsustainable overtourism.

设计/方法/路径:

本文采用建构主义的方法, 基于概念性的过度旅游模型(Mihalic, 2020年)中的因素, 提出了过度旅游中居民生活质量(QOL)管理模型。这些因子之间的关系是通过对包含两个二阶潜在因子的模型的路径分析得到的。该模型在卢布尔雅那市的真实情况中进行了测试。

目的:

本文提出了这样一个模型, 从居民的生活质量(QOL)角度出发, 调查有效的目的地管理是否可以管理(不可持续的)过度旅游。

结果:

理论模型由五部分组成:正面的旅游影响, 负面的旅游影响, 过度旅游带来的恼怒, 居民的生活质量和目的地管理。实证检验证实了该模型。积极的旅游业通过目的地管理对居民的生活质量产生了积极影响。负面的旅游影响造成了基于过度旅游的居民恼怒情绪, 并对其生活质量产生了负面影响。

研究局限性/应用:

该模型仅基于一个可持续的旅游业利益相关者:目的地居民。旅游业的可持续发展绩效仅根据居民的生活质量来评估。

实际应用:

社会和实际意义: 提出的模型增加了旅游的概念性知识, 并且可能有助于(可持续)目的地管理者监督过度旅游的存在和原因, 并且集中精力管理过度旅游引起的居民恼怒情绪, 并改善居民的生活质量。

原创性/价值:

对于旅游目的地的居民来说, 过度旅游是一个令人担忧的问题, 他们因不可持续的旅游业对社区资源及其生活质量的影响而感到不快。本模型是第一个解决目的地管理机构管理不可持续的过度旅游的能力的模型。

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Para proponer un modelo de gestión del sobreturismo QOL, se utilizó un enfoque constructivista, basado en factores tomados del modelo conceptual de sobreturismo (Mihalic, 2020). Las relaciones entre los factores se analizaron con un modelo de análisis de rutas con dos factores latentes de segundo orden. El modelo se probó en un escenario real, la ciudad de Ljubljana.

Propósito

En este documento se presenta un modelo para estudiar si una gestión eficaz del destino puede gestionar el exceso de turismo (insostenible) desde la perspectiva de la calidad de vida de los residentes (QOL).

Hallazgos

El modelo teórico propuesto comprende cinco factores: impactos positivos del turismo, impactos negativos del turismo, irritación por el exceso de turismo, calidad de vida de los residentes y gestión del destino. Las pruebas empíricas confirmaron el modelo. Los impactos positivos del turismo afectaron positivamente la calidad de vida de los residentes a través de la gestión del destino. Los impactos negativos del turismo crearon una irritación de los residentes basada en el exceso de turismo y tuvieron un impacto negativo en su calidad de vida.

Limitaciones/implicaciones de la investigación

El modelo se limitaba a un grupo de interesados en el turismo sostenible: los residentes de un destino. El desempeño de la sostenibilidad del turismo sólo se evaluó en base a la calidad de vida de los residentes.

Implicaciones prácticas

Implicaciones sociales y prácticas: El modelo propuesto contribuye al conocimiento conceptual del turismo y puede ser útil para que los gestores de destinos (sostenibles) vigilen la existencia y las causas del exceso de turismo y pueda ayudar a centrar los esfuerzos en la gestión de las causas de la irritación del exceso de turismo y mejorar la calidad de vida de los residentes.

Originalidad/valor

El exceso de turismo es una preocupación para los residentes de los destinos turísticos que se irritan por los impactos insostenibles del turismo en los recursos de la comunidad y su QOL. El modelo sugerido es el primero que aborda la capacidad de la gestión del destino para gestionar el sobreturismo insostenible.

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Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2021

P. P. Mohanty and Niharranjan Mishra

Overtourism is an emerging concept and a perennial process every destination is going through. It is a cyclic phenomenon derived from the destination, retained in the…

Abstract

Overtourism is an emerging concept and a perennial process every destination is going through. It is a cyclic phenomenon derived from the destination, retained in the destination and at last demised by the destination. It's a kind of ‘tourism illness’ spreading rapidly in every destination in the present scenario. The status of overtourism in every destination has been caused by the tourist, of the tourist and for the tourist. In the context of religious places in Odisha, overtourism is a ‘disorder’ that cannot be mitigated, as religiosity, faith and spiritualism have propelled and governed people's sentiment and emotion. Hence ambiguity arises out of making an intrigue situation between a myth or a spiritual sojourn bounded by faith and belief. This chapter significantly contributes by unfolding the existing literature by providing the origin and evolution of overtourism, various stated definitions by the different authors, causes and consequences, and overtourism in religious destinations by adopting an exploratory study, particularly in case of the Golden triangle of Odisha.

Details

Overtourism as Destination Risk
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-707-2

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Article
Publication date: 10 February 2021

Ryan Peterson and Robin B. DiPietro

Drawing on theories of development economics and sustainable tourism, this research explores the differences between sovereign and nonsovereign small island tourism…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on theories of development economics and sustainable tourism, this research explores the differences between sovereign and nonsovereign small island tourism economies (SITEs) and identifies the antecedents and effects of overtourism in the Caribbean.

Design/methodology/approach

The research design is based on a comparative case study of selected Caribbean SITEs. Case study research involves a detailed empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary phenomenon within its real-life context. The main purpose of a case study is to provide a contextual analysis of the conditions and processes involved in the phenomenon under study. A comparative case study is an appropriate research methodology to explore new multi-faceted concepts with limited empirical evidence.

Findings

The results confirm previous studies that nonsovereign SITEs have a distinctive overdrive toward tourism specialization. Moreover, the findings indicate that overtourism is driven by both global and domestic policy factors and generates significant economic volatility, social inequality and ecological stress. The paper discusses the tourism policy implications of the evolving economic disconnectedness, environmental decay and social tensions in SITEs in the Caribbean.

Originality/value

Policy recommendations are presented for transitioning toward a more inclusive development and strengthening the resilience of small island tourism development in the Caribbean.

Details

International Hospitality Review, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-8142

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Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2021

Samik Ray

In the post-industrial society, demand escalation for travels and tours led to the mobility of travellers and tourists en masse from cross sections of the society and…

Abstract

In the post-industrial society, demand escalation for travels and tours led to the mobility of travellers and tourists en masse from cross sections of the society and caused tourism's dramatic growth making enormous makeovers in the national income of many states. Tourism, then, could be perceived by travel mobility paradigm. Increasing tourist mobility contributed to the growth of overtourism phenomenon at different destinations. Overtourism sets to be in opposition to responsible and sustainable tourism. Contradictory approaches towards carrying capacity, commodification and commoditisation set overtourism to be positioned so. The way of establishing control on cultural, natural and spatial capitals overlooking hosts' traditional interests, priorities and intentions like destination's economic development and sustenance also made overtourism placed in contrary to the responsible tourism. Contradictions do exist between overtourism and its counter-reactions and within the reactions. Consumerism and control over host capital in the counter-practices continue differently but in contradicting manners with the same magnitude of profit progression. Instead of mass consumerism, elite consumerism appears turning the mobility of organised mass tour packages to the tailor-made alternative tour packages. The contradictions within paradigms of overtourism's nature, aspects, causes and consequences were thus likely. Contradictions also prevail between uncontrolled or limitless and controlled or within limit mobility and activity; goals and means; growth and effect; control of entrepreneurs on tourism capital and local community involvement, etc. It defines parallel subsistence or continuation of contradictory forces. The dialectical nature of history led to make a synthesis of the existing and newly emerging mobility phenomenon. This chapter will locate how control and decontrol or delimiting and limiting of overtourism co-exist in contradiction and reconcile the contradiction to synthesis.

Details

Overtourism as Destination Risk
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-707-2

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Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2021

Betül Kodaş and Davut Kodaş

Travels and vacations organised by a large number of people to certain destinations in certain periods cause some negative impacts on the destinations in question. The…

Abstract

Travels and vacations organised by a large number of people to certain destinations in certain periods cause some negative impacts on the destinations in question. The concept of overtourism, which has become a current issue especially with the anti-tourism demonstrations in certain destinations such as Venice, Barcelona and Dubrovnik as a result of the increasing tourism carrying capacity, has been drawing attention in recent years regarding the sustainability in the destinations. Popular destinations that are affected by overtourism try to develop some strategies in order to minimise the negative impacts of overtourism. One of these strategies is the demarketing strategy that is developed by the destination stakeholders towards the target group. In this chapter of the book, the significance of the concept of demarketing in terms of struggle against overtourism was revealed and how demarketing strategies applied to the marketing mix and different strategies were approached in tourism studies was discussed in detail by addressing the current literature. In addition, suggestions were proposed to the popular destinations that feel the negative impacts of overtourism and will be affected by overtourism also in the future concerning creating their own demarketing strategies and destination planning.

Details

Overtourism as Destination Risk
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-707-2

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Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2021

Snigdha Kainthola, Pinaz Tiwari and Nimit R. Chowdhary

Overtourism is a problem of social and psychological perspective which is aggravated by the mismanagement of the destination. It can also be understood as an umbrella term…

Abstract

Overtourism is a problem of social and psychological perspective which is aggravated by the mismanagement of the destination. It can also be understood as an umbrella term which incorporates the unfavourable conditions created by means of several tourism activities. The present scenario of overcrowding by tourists, displacement of local population and loss of authenticity can be assumed that overtourism is a consequence of increasing volume of tourism industry in the twenty-first century. There are strong uncorroborated beliefs around overtourism formed by media and literature which are not concrete and need to be busted. Several impressions have been generated around the phenomenon of overtourism and overcrowding which has hampered the administration of a destination. This chapter identifies 11 myths of overtourism with the help of literature review and supporting examples have been given with each myth. The authors attempt to decipher the underlying stereotypes of overtourism in context of it being a recent phenomenon, its existence in the popular part of the cities and the realities of the solutions and perceptions of the concept.

Details

Overtourism as Destination Risk
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-707-2

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Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2021

Vikas Gupta and Pranshu Chomplay

The purpose of this study is to find out the negative environmental, cultural and socio-economic effects of overtourism at prominent tourist destination in India focussing…

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to find out the negative environmental, cultural and socio-economic effects of overtourism at prominent tourist destination in India focussing upon Shimla. As well, the study will also try to identify the changes in the residents’ perceptions at these tourism sites experiencing overtourism. It will be based on the review of previous literature to find out the significant negative effects of tourism-related activities on the residents' attitudes and perceptions related to tourists. It will also discuss the negative impacts of overtourism on the overall destination image using the case study approach. It is confirmed through the study findings that overtourism has caused severe environmental, economic and socio-cultural impressions at the tourist destinations under study. It is also revealed that overtourism at these destinations has caused the increased water consumption, collection of huge litter masses, improper waste disposal and air pollution due to vehicular and other sources owing to upsurge in tourist activities. In the tourist destinations under study, overtourism has caused difficulties for the locals as the prices have risen and short-term rentals have caused housing shortages. These findings will be useful for the stakeholders in the tourism sector in India to devise strategies to prevent the over-exploitation of resources and take sufficient measures to reverse the negative impacts and simultaneously promote these destinations for sustainable tourism growth.

Details

Overtourism as Destination Risk
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-707-2

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Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2021

Nurhayat Iflazoglu and Ipek Itir Can

While the number of tourists worldwide is expected to reach 1.8 billion people by 2030, tourism destinations try to meet demand for increasing tourism. However, some…

Abstract

While the number of tourists worldwide is expected to reach 1.8 billion people by 2030, tourism destinations try to meet demand for increasing tourism. However, some tourism destinations are experiencing a maturity period of destination life cycle intensively. During these mature periods, while they meet the demand above their tourism carrying capacity, they encounter some problematic issues. In tourist destinations such as Venice, Barcelona and Paris, the negative feelings developed by the local people towards overtourism or tourists result in serious problems like negative destination images, tourism phobia, etc. In these destinations, to prevent the negative consequences of overtourism, destination stakeholders should develop solutions to these problems. There are many solution techniques for the problems which cause overtourism. One of them is the different tourism types which have been developed as an alternative to mass tourism. These alternative tourism types can be handled as a method for solving problems revealed through excess demand in tourism destinations at risk. For example, some tourism destinations which have both beach tourism and nature-based tourism types can bring nature-based tourism activities to the forefront with promotion and marketing activities and therefore, the tourism demand could be balanced between these tourism types. In this context, firstly, comprehensive literature review of overtourism and alternative tourism will be conducted in this study. And then the different types of tourism such as ecotourism, cultural tourism and responsible tourism will be discussed in detail and their relation in reducing the negative consequences of overtourism will be investigated theoretically via secondary data. Therefore, alternative tourism potentials will be investigated and tried to present the managerial suggestions for the development of different alternative types of tourism. As a result, it has been seen that, alternative tourism not only contributes to the growth of tourism in both popular and remote destinations but also makes sure that destinations get their fair share in income distribution of the country.

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2020

Mahfuzuar Rahman Barbhuiya

This study aims to address the issue of overtourism, its causes and impacts and propose a strategy based on a theoretical overtourism matrix to be applied to the Nainital city.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to address the issue of overtourism, its causes and impacts and propose a strategy based on a theoretical overtourism matrix to be applied to the Nainital city.

Design/methodology/approach

Reports on rules and regulations from government authorities, court orders and newspaper reports were studied to understand the severity of overtourism. Focus interviews were undertaken, and monthly tourist arrival data for 13 years is analysed to gauge the levels of overtourism.

Findings

The study identifies the factors such as communication gaps, lack of stakeholders’ participation and non-availability of the tourism development plan as the primary reasons for the absence of sustainable overtourism solution. The study finds the extent of overtourism and its adverse effects on Nainital and underlines the need for policy interventions and optimal management of resources. The findings of this study highlight the need for sustainable long-term strategies.

Research limitations/implications

Overtourism can be understood and analysed in a better way with more granular data level.

Practical implications

The strategies presented can be applied at the policy level in the small- and mid-sized cities that are on hills or near the waterbody-side and experience mostly day and budget travellers. The understanding of resident–tourist interaction and impacts will help in preparing a better sustainable tourism development plan. The practical strategies of overtourism issues may be implemented for tourism experience and development.

Originality/value

This study investigates, for the first time, the impact of overtourism and offers strategies for an Indian city. This study will help tourism managers in developing policies for sustainable tourism development of hill cities or waterbody-side in India.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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