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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2007

Robert J. Johnston and Timothy J. Tyrrell

To provide training exercises that will help tourism planners and analysts better understand the fundamentals of tourism sustainability and dynamics.

Abstract

Purpose

To provide training exercises that will help tourism planners and analysts better understand the fundamentals of tourism sustainability and dynamics.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is organized as a presentation of tools and conceptual models, followed by associated training exercises and answers. The first exercise addresses basic concepts of sustainability as applied to tourism development. The second addresses the use of phase diagrams to illustrate the dynamic behavior and change of tourism‐related economic and environmental conditions over time.

Findings

Operational definitions of sustainable tourism generally are consistent with a wide variety of outcomes for a tourist destination. Exercises demonstrate that operational definitions of tourism sustainability require numerous choices and tradeoffs, and are more complex than is suggested by common discourse.

Practical implications

Given that the most desirable sustainable outcomes for tourism differ across groups, the search for sustainable tourism outcomes must combine environmentally sustainable outcomes (which are often many) with socially acceptable compromise solutions that lie somewhere between the optima for each distinct group. No amount of searching, bargaining, or stakeholder education will reveal a universal sustainable solution that maximizes benefits to all affected groups. In the vast majority of cases no optimal solution exists.

Originality/value

The paper provides tools and conceptual frameworks that characterize potential conflicts, hazards, and tradeoffs implicit in the choice among different sustainable or non‐sustainable outcomes for tourism.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2021

Hale Özgit and Ali Ozturen

This theme issue sought to find answers to the question: How could tourism planners and policymakers overcome the barriers to sustainable tourism development in the small…

Abstract

Purpose

This theme issue sought to find answers to the question: How could tourism planners and policymakers overcome the barriers to sustainable tourism development in the small island developing state of North Cyprus? The purpose of this paper is to draw on the collaborative work of tourism academics and practitioners featured in this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

A thematic analysis of the articles in this collection draws together the key outcomes related to the strategic question, with particular reference to the contribution to knowledge, policy and practice and the implications for further applied research in relation to sustainable tourism development in North Cyprus and small island developing states (SIDS) more generally.

Findings

The main finding is that insufficient and/or ineffective collaboration is one of the main obstacles in managing sustainable tourism in North Cyprus. More diversification of tourism products and better conservation of natural, cultural, economic and environmental resources are also needed. It is argued that this can be achieved through planning and policy improvements that focus on facilitating sustainable tourism development.

Originality/value

This paper reflects on the strategic question discussed in this theme issue, and it contains a descriptive analysis of the results and recommendations for policymakers and tourism sector practitioners. The recommendations include: the development of sustainable tourism practices by harnessing technological advances and by raising the awareness of policymakers and tourism stakeholders. This paper and the collection of articles that it draws on, is the first to explore different academic and practitioner perspectives on ways of overcoming obstacles and managing and developing sustainable tourism in the SIDS of North Cyprus.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2021

Shiva Ilkhanizadeh

This paper aims to identify the main stakeholders and the extent of their collaboration in the management of sustainable tourism policy planning practices in North Cyprus.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify the main stakeholders and the extent of their collaboration in the management of sustainable tourism policy planning practices in North Cyprus.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides a literature review of previous work.

Findings

This study recommends that the main stakeholder – national government – should actively involve a wider group of stakeholders in a collaborative effort to attain long-term sustainable development goals.

Originality/value

This is the first study to review the literature on sustainable development and the role of different stakeholders in North Cyprus.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2021

Hale Ozgit and Dana Zhandildina

The aim of the study is to consider the extent to which the 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) agreed by United Nations member states contribute to sustainable tourism

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the study is to consider the extent to which the 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) agreed by United Nations member states contribute to sustainable tourism and to relevant targets in North Cyprus. The study also investigates how tourism stakeholders in North Cyprus understand and implement the UN’s SDGs.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative study with structured questions was used to investigate awareness of the UN SDGs and collaboration between 19 tourism stakeholders from different sectors (tour guides, hotels, travel agencies, restaurants and government) in North Cyprus.

Findings

The results of the study reveal that not all of the SDGs have been embraced in North Cyprus, and that there is lack of understanding about the goals and about the need for collaboration among the different tourism stakeholders in North Cyprus.

Practical implications

This study reveals many shortcomings in implementing sustainable tourism in North Cyprus. It would seem that only issues that affect financial performance are prioritised. At present, tourism stakeholders in North Cyprus do not collaborate and do not believe that collaboration would, in any way, influence the sustainability of tourism in the region or benefit them financially. Given this finding, stakeholder collaboration needs to be enhanced in support of tourism sustainability in North Cyprus, and in this, the government needs to act as a catalyst.

Originality/value

Many developing countries are trying to improve living conditions and, at the same time, protect the environment by implementing sustainable development initiatives. The most common initiatives include the creation of protected areas for tourism development. In this context, sustainable development targets for island economies such as North Cyprus are important.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Andrea Dixon

This paper aims to determine a uniquely Canadian training path for tourism companies to follow to embed sustainable tourism practices in their companies.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to determine a uniquely Canadian training path for tourism companies to follow to embed sustainable tourism practices in their companies.

Design/methodology/approach

The foundation of this paper was laid by conducting in-depth executive interviews with leading tourism companies in Canada. Based on the interviews, an eight-question survey was developed and sent to 22 Canadian tourism companies with a response rate of 36 per cent. The results of best practice research conducted in the UK and Ireland were considered in relation to implementation in Canada.

Findings

This paper suggests a Canadian process and key concepts to consider for embedding sustainability in tourism companies.

Practical implications

This paper provides a practical training process, geared for Canadian tourism companies, that embeds sustainability in all divisions of the company. A step-by-step process is described that all tourism companies, no matter their size, can use to embed sustainability.

Originality/value

This paper draws upon the author’s experience in working with Canadian tourism companies and incorporates best practices shared in a partnership with The Travel Foundation. As the paper represents both original research and industry best practice, it is of interest to academics, tourism training centres and tourism companies in Canada. Learning an effective and efficient process developed specifically for Canadian tourism companies will allow companies to economically embed sustainability and ultimately create a unique market position for the company.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2021

Asli D.A. Tasci, Alan Fyall and Kyle Maurice Woosnam

This study aims to uncover socio-demographic, psychographic and behavioral characteristics of sustainable consumers as a means to advance the demand for sustainability…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to uncover socio-demographic, psychographic and behavioral characteristics of sustainable consumers as a means to advance the demand for sustainability practices by the tourism and hospitality industry. Socio-demographic and psychographic variables were tested for their influence on an individual’s self-assessment as a sustainable consumer, which was then tested for its influence on behavioral outcomes in the form of environmental and social sustainability concerns, objects of sustainability concerns, subjects considered responsible for sustainability and tourism choice vis-à-vis mass vs alternative forms of tourism.

Design/methodology/approach

Because of the paucity of a well-established and robust theory on the characteristics of sustainable consumers, both content analysis of the literature and quantitative analysis of survey data were used to identify the socio-demographic, psychographic and behavioral characteristics of consumers. Plausible variables identified in the literature were filtered through principal component analysis and ordinary least squares regression analysis to fine-tune the variables a priori to develop a suitable model, which was subjected to partial least squares-structural equation modeling to further trim variables a posteriori by testing their reliability and validity.

Findings

Understanding who sustainable consumers are and what they are likely to believe and do is imperative for increasing sustainable practices by the industry. The study shows that people who consider themselves to be sustainable consumers are likely to have higher levels of ethical views, be more feminine and more liberal in personality, demonstrate concern with environmental and social sustainability issues, consider all pertinent parties responsible for sustainability and chose alternative forms of tourism over mass tourism. The study implies that general American consumers have the potential to buy into sustainability practices.

Originality/value

Despite researchers’ sporadic attempts to describe different characteristics of sustainable consumers and sustainable tourism consumers, past research has not substantiated a comprehensive description of who is a sustainable consumer in terms of socio-demographics, psychographics and behavioral characteristics. The literature on sustainable consumer characteristics is scarce and atheoretical; thus, the current study sets the stage for the development of this area of work across all sectors of the global tourism and hospitality industry. The model test results provide a clear profile of sustainable tourism consumers in socio-demographic, psychographic and behavioral domains for the industry to respond to.

可持续旅游消费者:社会人口学, 心理变数, 以及行为的特征

摘要

研究目的

本研究旨在揭示可持续消费者的社会人口学, 心理变数, 以及行为的特征, 并以此作为推动旅游业和款待业对可持续发展实践需求的一种手段。本研究首先测试了两个变量:社会人口学特征和心理变数特征对个人作为可持续消费者的自我评估的影响; 然后测试了其对消费者行为性后果的影响, 包括对环境和社会可持续性问题的关注, 关注的主题, 对可持续性问题责任性的关注, 以及针对大众和其他旅游形式选择的比较。

研究设计/方法论/方案

由于缺乏关于可持续消费者特征的公认理论, 本研究采用了对相关文献内容的定性分析和对调查数据的定量分析来识别消费者的社会人口学, 心理变数, 以及行为特征。在建立合适的模型之前, 研究通过采用主成分分析(PCA)和普通最小二乘法(OLS)回归分析, 首先对文献中已识别的合理变量进行过滤和调整。继而基于偏最小二乘-结构方程建模(PLS- SEM)对可靠性和有效性的测试, 来进一步确定后验变量。

研究发现

了解可持续消费者的界定, 以及他们的信念和行为对于行业增加可持续性实践至关重要。该研究表明, 当人们认为自己是可持续消费者时, 他们便可能具有更高水平的道德观念, 具有更加女性化和自由的个性, 表现出对环境和社会可持续性问题的关注, 对可持续发展责任性的考虑更全面, 以及对其他旅游形式选择的偏爱。本篇研究的结果显示出普通美国消费者具有实践可持续性行为的潜力。

独创性/价值

尽管以往的研究曾零星地尝试描述可持续消费者和可持续旅游消费者的不同特征, 但并未从社会人口学, 心理变数, 以及行为特征这几个方面去全面地界定和证明可持续消费者。文献中依然缺乏关于对可持续消费者特征更加理论性地讨论。因此, 本研究旨在为全球旅游业和款待业的各个领域对于可持续旅游的讨论和发展奠定基础。模型测试的结果也为行业提供了一个关于可持续旅游消费者的社会人口学, 心理变数, 以及行为特征的理论框架, 以供行业响应。

El consumidor de turismo sostenible: Características sociodemográficas, psicográficas, y de comportamiento

Propósito

Este estudio busca revelar las características sociodemográficas, psicográficas, y de comportamiento de los consumidores responsables para promover la demanda de prácticas de sostenibilidad en la industria del turismo y la hospitalidad. Se evaluaron variables sociodemográficas y psicográficas para determinar su influencia sobre la autoevaluación de un individuo como consumidor responsable, que después se evaluó para determinar su influencia en resultados conductuales, específicamente preocupaciones de sostenibilidad medioambiental y social, objectos de preocupaciones de sostenibilidad, sujetos considerados responsables de la sostenibilidad, y la elección de turismo de masas versus turismo alternativo.

Diseño/metodología/método

Debido a la falta de teoría robusta y bien establecida sobre las características de los consumidores responsables, un análisis de contenidos de la literatura y un análisis cuantitativo de datos obtenidos a través de una encuesta se utilizaron para identificar las características sociodemográficas, psicográficas, y de comportamiento de los consumidores. Las variables plausibles identificadas en la literatura fueron filtradas a través de un análisis de componentes principales (ACP) y un análisis de regresión por mínimos cuadrados ordinarios (MCO) para afinar a priori las variables para el desarrollo de un modelo adecuado, el cual fue evaluado utilizando un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales por el método de mínimos cuadrados parciales (PLS-SEM por sus siglas en inglés) que permitió seguir afinando las variables a posteriori por medio de la evaluación de su confiabilidad y validez.

Resultados

Entender quiénes son los consumidores responsables y qué son propensos a creer y hacer es imperativo para aumentar las prácticas sostenibles en la industria. El estudio demuestra que las personas que se consideran consumidores responsables son más propensas a tener niveles más altos de opiniones éticas, a tener personalidades más femeninas y liberales, a demostrar preocupación por los problemas de sostenibilidad medioambiental y social, a considerar a todas las partes pertinentes como responsables de la sostenibilidad, y a escoger formas alternativas de turismo en vez de turismo de masas. El estudio sugiere que los consumidores americanos en general tienen el potencial de apoyar prácticas sostenibles.

Originalidad/valor

A pesar de los intentos esporádicos de otros investigadores para describir las diferentes características del consumidor responsable y de los consumidores de turismo sostenible, las investigaciones anteriores no han generado una descripción completa de quién es un consumidor responsable en términos de sus características sociodemográficas, psicográficas, y de comportamiento. La literatura sobre las características del consumidor responsable es escasa y sin bases teóricas; por lo tanto, este estudio sienta las bases para el desarrollo de esta área de investigación en todos los sectores de la industria global del turismo y la hospitalidad. Los resultados de la evaluación del modelo proporcionan un perfil claro de los consumidores de turismo sostenible en los ámbitos sociodemográficos, psicográficos, y de comportamiento para que la industria responda.

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Book part
Publication date: 8 November 2019

Diena Mutiara Lemy, Frans Teguh and Amelda Pramezwary

The euphoria of tourism development in Indonesia as one of the leading industries of the country’s economy requires proper planning and an advanced strategy to maintain…

Abstract

The euphoria of tourism development in Indonesia as one of the leading industries of the country’s economy requires proper planning and an advanced strategy to maintain its sustainability. This chapter discusses strategies used by the Indonesian government for the implementation of sustainable tourism development. The strategy comprises three tourism programs: sustainable destination, sustainable observatory, and sustainable certification. The discussion developed in this chapter stresses that sustainable programs require serious commitment from the government and a carefully developed framework that suits the Indonesian context. Further, the proposed programs have to be introduced in closely monitored stages and are perhaps best developed through a certification program that may encourage positive impacts.

Details

Delivering Tourism Intelligence
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-810-9

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Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2020

Priyakrushna Mohanty

The tourism industry is known to be both famous and infamous in a way that there is a blurred line between how much tourism is sustainable and how much it is not. However…

Abstract

The tourism industry is known to be both famous and infamous in a way that there is a blurred line between how much tourism is sustainable and how much it is not. However, there is no denying of the fact that the industry is in need of innovative and upgraded mechanisms to ensure sustainability. Technology, on the other hand, is making great strides in providing support to ensure sustainable development across various sectors. Taking cues from the existing work, this chapter investigates the various facets of technology in imbibing sustainability, especially in the tourism sector, and proposes a framework for technology-led sustainable tourism development process. The chapter concludes that both technology and sustainable development concept share the common principles of being holistic, futuristic and interrelated (integrated). Therefore, technology can be a proper solution to develop a sustainable model.

Details

The Emerald Handbook of ICT in Tourism and Hospitality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-689-4

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Book part
Publication date: 9 July 2013

Adriana Budeanu

Sustainable development of tourism depends on the fragile balance between its fast growth and the tendency to “consume” its own life support systems: nature, culture, and…

Abstract

Sustainable development of tourism depends on the fragile balance between its fast growth and the tendency to “consume” its own life support systems: nature, culture, and communities. Finding equilibrium between the two conflicting aspects requires a shared rule making, which is seldom encountered, especially in tourism-centric approaches. The emergent new technologies, and particularly the evolution of social media, seem to offer a neutral ground that favors open participation and stakeholder dialogue. This chapter explores the employment of social media by individual users of TripAdvisor and by institutional actors (destination organizations) as platforms for initiating stakeholder dialogues that focus on sustainable tourism. The findings show that individual and institutional actors are slow in adopting social media as a means to discuss the sustainability of tourism.

Details

Tourism Social Media: Transformations in Identity, Community and Culture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-213-4

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Book part
Publication date: 29 November 2018

Danielle Eiseman

At the core of understanding the practice of marketing sustainable tourism lies an appreciation not only of the evolution of the concept of sustainability, but also of the…

Abstract

At the core of understanding the practice of marketing sustainable tourism lies an appreciation not only of the evolution of the concept of sustainability, but also of the co-productive process between consumer and producer. This chapter establishes a conceptual overview on sustainable tourism and its alternative terms (ecotourism, responsible tourism, soft tourism, ethical tourism). Its origins stem from the pivotal works of the Brundtland Report. The author considers the complex structures that interact with the tourism industry, such as the social, environmental and economic impacts of tourism in vulnerable or sensitive climates. For example, in Central Thailand, cities such as Bangkok have experienced rapid urbanisation as well as burgeoning tourism. This has resulted in high levels of air pollution from traffic congestion and manufacturing, while escalation in the tourism industry places burdens on waste management systems. Further strains on waste management in both the Eastern and Southern regions, particularly along the coastlines, which suffer from high levels of coastal litter, are attributed to the rising tourism industry – a process other popular destinations have undergone, such as Costa Rica. Examination of cases such as Thailand will elicit further discussion of public awareness of the impacts of the tourism industry in vulnerable climates. Lastly, the chapter will look at cases of demotion or de-marketing of tourism in certain regions in order to limit the number of visitors, such as that of the Blue Mountains National Park in Australia. In addition to the case studies reviewed in this chapter, there is a practice exercise in developing an environmental performance index, based on existing data on country-specific environmental performance.

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