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Book part
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Cherise Addinsall, Norah Rihai and Antoinette Nasse

The predominate Western approach applied to agricultural research and development in Vanuatu is to focus on sector-specific or crop-by crop basis that is universally…

Abstract

The predominate Western approach applied to agricultural research and development in Vanuatu is to focus on sector-specific or crop-by crop basis that is universally applied rather than designing context-specific research objectives. The findings from a gender livelihoods analysis conducted with 45 households in East Coast Santo, Vanuatu show that this sectorial focus inherently excludes women. Female smallholder livelihood activities were found to be centred around activities within the informal economy (traditional economy) and agricultural input is focused on harvesting of Non-timber Forest Products (NTFPs) and food crops for subsistence and local markets, while male smallholder farmers generally focus on cash crops and the formal commercial sector.

The strategies put forward by the Declaration of the International Forum for Agroecology, Nyeleni, Mali, 2007, recognise the central role of women in rural development, and align closely with the traditional economy and the political, economic and social foundations of Vanuatu. Therefore, it is recommended that research and development projects operating in this space consider the integration of agroecology and sustainable livelihoods into their project designs through frameworks such as the Agroecology and Sustainable Livelihoods Framework (ASRLF). The ASRLF approaches research through a critical lens that challenges and transforms structures of power in society and sees minority groups (such as women and youth) and their knowledge, values, vision and leadership as critical for moving forward. This chapter demonstrates the application of the ASRLF to a gender livelihoods analysis and the development of a strategy to engage and empower rural farming women.

Details

Integrating Gender in Agricultural Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-056-2

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2020

Sang Thanh Le and Chi Dao Vo

This paper aims to provide a deep understanding of rural household livelihoods in the Mekong Delta and to explore how they can cope with climate stressors at the ground level.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide a deep understanding of rural household livelihoods in the Mekong Delta and to explore how they can cope with climate stressors at the ground level.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper employs the sustainable livelihood framework at a household and also an individual scale. The general data obtained from a survey of 2,100 households provide an overview of their livelihoods. Qualitative and quantitative methods were adopted, as case studies, to comprehensively assess 100 households in one commune affected by annual floods and an additional 100 households in another commune affected by sea level rises. Livelihood profile analysis is beneficial to identify specific livelihood change patterns that have taken place in these specific cases.

Findings

There are four types of livelihood adaptation to climate stressors: (1) change of structure of agricultural systems, (2) change of employment locations, (3) resettlement with strong impact on livelihoods and (4) out-migration. The household livelihood resources and the local economic structures have significant roles in driving adaptive solutions.

Research limitations/implications

This paper provides detailed profiles of the livelihood change considered as passive adaptation of smallholders in the Mekong Delta.

Originality/value

It contributes to the knowledge of rural households in multiple aspects with regard to how they cope with climate change via reflection on their livelihoods.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

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Book part
Publication date: 26 January 2012

Noralene Uy, Rajib Shaw and Yukiko Takeuchi

Human beings are inseparable from the environment because of their dependence on ecosystems and their services (Schroter, 2009). The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005)

Abstract

Human beings are inseparable from the environment because of their dependence on ecosystems and their services (Schroter, 2009). The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) identifies ecosystem services as vital links between humans and ecosystems because these services are essential for human well-being, especially in terms of security, basic materials for a good life, health, good social relations, and freedom of choice and action. Ecosystem services include flows of materials, energy, and information from natural resources that combined with manufactured and human resources contribute to human well-being (Costanza et al., 1997). These include provisioning services (e.g., food, fresh water, wood and fiber, fuel), regulating services (e.g., climate, flood and disease regulation, water purification), supporting services (e.g., nutrient cycling, soil formation, primary production), and cultural services (e.g., aesthetic, spiritual, educational, and recreational value). The regulating services provided by ecosystems, in particular, are critical for disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. Ecosystems primarily affect both the probability and the severity of events and modulate the effects of extreme events. For example, soils store large amounts of water, facilitate transfer of surface water to groundwater, and prevent or reduce flooding, and natural buffers reduce hazards by absorbing runoff peaks and storm surges.

Details

Environment Disaster Linkages
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-866-4

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2020

Sakshi Naithani and Ashis Kumar Saha

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the role of livelihood assets, strategies and local social networks in disaster response and recovery in post-disaster setting…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the role of livelihood assets, strategies and local social networks in disaster response and recovery in post-disaster setting of 2013 Kedarnath disaster (India).

Design/methodology/approach

It identifies post disaster macro-spaces of Mandakini river valley (India) using change detection analysis and secondary data. Within these macro-spaces, the micro spaces of livelihood and social capital were assessed by selecting two villages for case study.

Findings

Most important issues faced by communities were loss of lives, livelihoods and access to relief aid. A shift in economic base of families suffering loss of livelihoods was observed as they switched from pilgrimage-based to skill-based opportunities. Geographical location and isolation play a crucial role in recovery trajectory of villages by influencing the social capital.

Research limitations/implications

The paper being case study based deals two of the worst-affected villages; livelihood strategies adopted and social network may be influenced by the “victim” status of villages and may not be generalized for each disaster-affected area.

Social implications

Bridging and bonding networks were significant in geographically isolated places, while “linkages” were beneficial in bringing new livelihood opportunities. Need to enhance the role of social capital by institutional intervention in form of capacity building was required.

Originality/value

The study suggests focus on human capital-based livelihood diversification programs taking geographical location and disaster context into account.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2019

Shubham Kumar, Tapas Kumar Giri and Bidyut Jyoti Gogoi

Livelihood interventions are recognized as instruments to deliver sustainable development by addressing multidimensional issues of poverty. Despite several interventions…

Abstract

Purpose

Livelihood interventions are recognized as instruments to deliver sustainable development by addressing multidimensional issues of poverty. Despite several interventions, success still remains trivial due to various interactive determinants. The purpose of this paper is to present the hierarchical model of determinants of rural livelihood interventions in India.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopts interpretive structural modelling (ISM) approach to explore the interactive relationships among determinants. Then, by using the Matrice d’ Impacts Croises - Multipication Applique a classement (MICMAC) approach, these determinants are classified into four groups on the basis of their driving power and dependence power.

Findings

The research findings include identification of nine critical determinants using hybrid research process. These nine determinants are classified into four distinct levels revealing different extents of influence on livelihood outcomes. The results show that strong emphasis should be given to local institutions and enclosing institutional environment in terms of good governance and better convergence.

Practical implications

The research findings offer insights for policy-makers on the hierarchical model among determinants. The study will help to close the existing dominant gap between theory and practice and imply corresponding methods and processes to deliver better livelihood outcomes.

Originality/value

This study contributes to policy literature by providing a structural model for interventions. This model identifies the dominant as well as mediating determinants and thereby guides policymakers to develop corresponding instruments and strategies. The study also contributes to rural development literature by identifying various interactive contextual relationships and thereby classifying the high priority determinants.

Details

Journal of Indian Business Research, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4195

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Bob Alexander, Catherine Chan‐Halbrendt and Wilmar Salim

The purpose of this paper is to build on recent analysis of sustainable vulnerability reduction of the Government of Indonesia tsunami rehabilitation and reconstruction…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to build on recent analysis of sustainable vulnerability reduction of the Government of Indonesia tsunami rehabilitation and reconstruction plan by applying a sustainable livelihood framework for disaster risk management (DRM) for improvement in understanding potential livelihood strategies for the specific context of vulnerable people previously involved in fisheries livelihoods in Aceh.

Design/methodology/approach

Brief discussion of the preliminary findings of the work of Salim reveals the recommendation of further examination within a sustainable livelihoods DRM framework. Thus, after development and exposition of this framework, interviews and secondary research allow brief description of the context in which livelihood strategies might be implemented.

Findings

By combining the preliminary assessment of resource provisions with discussion of the institutional and vulnerability context of fisheries activities, preliminary recommendations of important considerations in developing appropriate vulnerability‐reducing livelihood strategies are listed under the categories of resource provisions.

Originality/value

This paper should be valuable to researchers interested in further development of applicable DRM models and to government and non‐government agencies interested in the effectiveness of assistance in achieving long‐term sustainable livelihood and sustainable development goals.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Evans Otieku, Charles Godfred Ackah and David Forkuor

The purpose of this paper is to provide statistical and empirical evidence on the motivations, income determinants and livelihood vulnerabilities of female teenage head…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide statistical and empirical evidence on the motivations, income determinants and livelihood vulnerabilities of female teenage head porters. The paper draws from the motivational theory and the livelihood vulnerability approach to assess the motivations, livelihood vulnerabilities and income determinants of female teenage head porters in Kasoa, Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

The mixed methods data collection instruments were used to collect primary data from 200 randomly sampled female teenage head porters in Kasoa. It includes both close and open-ended questionnaires, one case study and personal observation.

Findings

Based on the estimation, the study found that household poverty, unemployment, desire for regular income and quest for personal independence were significant motivational factors drawing teenage girls into head porting. Also, age of respondents and years of experience in the occupation were the significant determinants of income of respondents. Exposure to frequent malaria, stress and physical pains were common livelihood risk factors faced by the respondents. Majority of them were from the northern region of Ghana and less than 20 percent of them had formal education.

Practical implications

The paper proposed for extensive implementation of robust macroeconomic and specific social protection interventions to enhance equal job and income opportunities as well as to protect the vulnerable.

Originality/value

The study provides statistical and empirical results different from other related studies (Opare, 2003; Awumbila, 2007; Baah-Ennumh et al., 2012; Akanle and Chioma, 2013).

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 44 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Yong Chen, Yan Tan and Yong Luo

Livelihood recovery is a top priority to sustain resettled communities. The purpose of this paper is to assess livelihood vulnerability of those displaced and resettled in…

Abstract

Purpose

Livelihood recovery is a top priority to sustain resettled communities. The purpose of this paper is to assess livelihood vulnerability of those displaced and resettled in the aftermath of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, China, based on a newly constructed locational adjustable framework.

Design/methodology/approach

The study takes two resettlement villages in Sichuan Province as case study areas. Face-to-face surveys using a structured questionnaire and semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted to collect primary data in 2012-2013.

Findings

The findings show that distant resettlement of people post the Wenchuan earthquake has resulted in an increased livelihood vulnerability within resettlers and that they face more hazards post-resettlement when compared to host residents in the resettlement areas.

Research limitations/implications

The indicators considered for the livelihood vulnerability index (LVI) are only a subset that represents typical factors applicable in the context of rural settings of China. The LVI may vary if more indicators are incorporated or coefficients obtained using different methods.

Social implications

Highlights should be placed on livelihood assets and hazards to livelihood of the displaced people. During the transition period there is a pressing need for greater efforts to enhance migrants’ employment skills and assist them to restore viable livelihood activities.

Originality/value

This paper constructs a locational adjustable framework for analyzing and assessing livelihood vulnerability of disaster-induced resettlers from three aspects: livelihood hazards, livelihood assets and coping strategies.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Theresa Yaaba Baah-Ennumh and Joseph Ato Forson

The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of artisanal small-scale mining (ASM) on sustainable livelihoods in the Tarkwa-Nsuaem Municipality of Ghana. The study…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of artisanal small-scale mining (ASM) on sustainable livelihoods in the Tarkwa-Nsuaem Municipality of Ghana. The study seeks to answer the following questions: what is the impact of ASM on livelihoods in the Tarkwa-Nsuaem Municipality? What measures could be put in place to ensure the sustainability of livelihoods in the municipality?

Design/methodology/approach

A case study approach to inquiry was used in the study. The authors used interview guides (structured and unstructured) to collect primary data from a sample of 400 household heads, 19 institutions, six ASM firms, six mineral processing companies, and two gold-buying agents, and traditional authorities from the Tarkwa-Nsuaem Municipality.

Findings

The findings of the study indicate among other things that land has been rendered unproductive due to the inability of the dominant ASM firms to reclaim lands after mining. The workers’ exposure to cyanide and mercury makes them vulnerable to all manner of health risks, which is a threat to the sustenance of livelihoods. Owing to the unsustainable nature of mining activities, the future indicates not only increases in unemployment but also environmental degradation and health concerns.

Originality/value

The paper contains a significant new perspective of knowledge especially by contextualising sustainable development with ASM. This is an area that has largely been ignored by development researchers. The paper further emphasises the need for policy makers to evolve and embrace developmental approach that is intergenerational.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2011

Corinne Gregoire

Developing and maintaining a pattern of sustainable livelihood (SL) is dependent upon the use to which we put our resources, particularly, our natural resources. SL is…

Abstract

Developing and maintaining a pattern of sustainable livelihood (SL) is dependent upon the use to which we put our resources, particularly, our natural resources. SL is dependent upon five principal components; namely the vulnerability context, livelihood assets, transforming structures and processes, livelihood strategies and livelihood outcomes. DFID (1999), DFID, FAO, IFAD, UNDP, WFP (2001) liveli hood assets also have many components one of which is natural assets/capital. Once the environment is shocked the natural assets are directly affected and all other types of assets and principal components become inoperable. The livelihood outcomes of the Caribbean people, poor and otherwise, are therefore linked to these natural as sets. The objective of this study is to possibly shape and create ways of developing and maintaining patterns that can lead to SLs. It should focus on the available natural resources, access to and optimal use of, which can transit into the best livelihood outcomes specifically for the poor. Basically, the outcome should be a body of knowledge that can contribute to SLs within the Caribbean. This is done with the use of two case studies of Caribbean islands, namely St. Vincent and the Grenadines (SVG) and Grenada. This paper is divided into four sections. Section one provides the background for the paper and briefly introduces the concept of SL. Section two outlines the SL approach. Section three provides an application of the SL approach in SVG and Grenada from two varying standpoints. Section four makes concluding remarks on the types and the sustainability of the livelihood strategies and outcomes.

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

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