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Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2022

Kamuran Elbeyoğlu

Globalisation, which is founded on an axis of dissemination and change, has economic, social, cultural and political dimensions. Since the rise of capitalism in the 1800s…

Abstract

Globalisation, which is founded on an axis of dissemination and change, has economic, social, cultural and political dimensions. Since the rise of capitalism in the 1800s, the concept of childhood has evolved along with the shifting conception of man in globalisation. This shift can be investigated by looking at three pillars: (1) shifting play patterns, (2) child Labour and (3) violence towards children are all issues that need to be addressed. Play has been one of the most important phenomena that people have created for themselves throughout history. Toys that have grown more common and standardised as a result of globalisation are now available to children from various cultures all over the world and are designed to meet specific criteria. It is common knowledge that children have worked to aid their families' economies since they were young, and that child Labour is crucial for the family, village and clan. However, as a result of the commodification of Labour during the industrialisation process and major monopolies' quest for cheap Labour during the globalisation process, children were forced to work in exceedingly terrible conditions for extremely low wages. In the globalisation process, child pornography, the employment of girls and boys as sex workers and child abuse have become more frequent. Aside from child sexual assault, the rise in child murders, the fact that children are the most susceptible and easy targets for organised crime and the growing number of wars around the world illustrate the growing violence that children are exposed to as a result of globalisation. Computer games, which are often centred on war and involve heavy themes of violence, normalise and internalise violence in youngsters.

Details

Being a Child in a Global World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-240-0

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Book part
Publication date: 9 May 2022

Bruce Adamson and Gina Wilson

As an independent children’s rights institution (ICRI), the Children and Young People’s Commissioner Scotland (CYPCS) has contributed to significant changes in children’s…

Abstract

As an independent children’s rights institution (ICRI), the Children and Young People’s Commissioner Scotland (CYPCS) has contributed to significant changes in children’s rights in Scotland (e.g., the implementation of the UN CRC in Scots national law). Since the establishment of CYPCS in 2004, children living in Scotland have come to be seen as holders of rights. Yet this change has been neither linear nor certain. Instead, the CYPCS has contended with pressures to demean children’s rights, including during the COVID-19 pandemic. As the CYPCS continues to advocate for children’s rights and interests, this ICRI looks forward to bolstering decision making of young people and ensuring security of their rights, which in turn will inform the efforts of the CYPCS.

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The Roles of Independent Children's Rights Institutions in Advancing Human Rights of Children
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-608-8

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Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2022

Kurtuluş Yılmaz Genç

This chapter aims to evaluate the problem of child labour exploitation in the world. In this framework, the definition of the concept, the causes, the chronology of global…

Abstract

This chapter aims to evaluate the problem of child labour exploitation in the world. In this framework, the definition of the concept, the causes, the chronology of global regulations on the topic, the risks that child labourers face are given. The basic result of the chapter is the recognition of the importance of the relationship between child labour and economic conditions. Accordingly, when the wealth levels of countries increase, the number of child labourer decreases.

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Being a Child in a Global World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-240-0

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2022

Abdullah Dirikoç

Despite the fact that the rights of the child began to be discussed in the nineteenth century, they came to the fore after the world wars in the twentieth century. Children

Abstract

Despite the fact that the rights of the child began to be discussed in the nineteenth century, they came to the fore after the world wars in the twentieth century. Children, who were considered to belong to their fathers during the agricultural capitalism period before the Industrial Revolution, were also used for domestic labour. Children began to break away from their homes with the Industrial Revolution, after this long period of almost no rights. During this period, child labour, which is cheaper than adult labour and seen as the lever of capitalist accumulation, has become an important part of production. In the second half of the nineteenth century, through the 1920s, called the ‘child rescue age’, compulsory education came to the fore as a way of disciplining children. The perception that children are a group that needs to be protected as a separate category and not as a property reveals the necessity to regulate their working conditions and to ensure their rights. In this regard, the Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child realised the first real progress in 1924. Then, after the Second World War, which brought children's rights to almost a halt, the Declaration of Rights of the Child was signed in 1959. Both of the declarations rely heavily on protection and care services. The touchstone of the development of child rights is the Convention on the Rights of the Child, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 20 November 1989. The Convention became the human rights convention that was approved by the largest number of countries ever. It is the only human rights convention that uniquely combines civil, political, social, cultural, and human rights. Despite all these developments, children continue not to be regarded as subjects and to be exploited in the production of surplus value as the reserve army of labour.

Details

Being a Child in a Global World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-240-0

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 August 2016

Stephen Kemp

The purpose of this chapter is to examine how the paid care of children, and assisting with their development, is increasingly coming to resemble a professional activity…

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to examine how the paid care of children, and assisting with their development, is increasingly coming to resemble a professional activity in Australia. The commodification of child care has tended to create a profession of carers of children, not only by virtue of more formalized qualifications and role descriptions for carers, but also by establishing a potential framework within which a profession may be practiced. I examine how paid child caring in Australia increasingly conforms in many respects with various criteria commonly associated with a professional activity. This evolution within the child care field however is creating tension between the traditional nurturing role of child care and the more formal requirements of a “professional” carer. This process of professionalisation also has significant implications, not only for the care providers, but also for those who are receiving care – the children and their families. It also has important implications for society itself.

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Contemporary Issues in Applied and Professional Ethics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-443-3

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Open Access
Book part
Publication date: 4 May 2018

Indrayanti, Jenny Ratna Suminar, Ahmad Gimmy Pratama Siswadi and Yanti Setianti

Purpose – The study is aimed to identify the openness, empathy, supportiveness, positiveness, and equality between mother and child as the key factors for successful…

Abstract

Purpose – The study is aimed to identify the openness, empathy, supportiveness, positiveness, and equality between mother and child as the key factors for successful children. If the parents are not able to give attention and love to their children, it will form feelings of insecurity and hatred towards themselves and to their surroundings. Similarly, if the parents are not able to create discipline in education, the probability of unclear future for their child will increase. A single mother has to endure a lot of problems and face the biggest challenge in their life; to be a single parent who must be able to hold multiple roles, that is as a father who works for a family living and as a mother who nurtures and educate her children. As a mother, she is required to be able to manage everything by herself; some of them include financial management, jobs, and nurture time for her children.

Methodology – employed in this study was in-depth interview to observe inhibiting factors that experienced by single parents in parenting pattern that they apply in nurturing their children.

Finding – Result showed that frequency and intensity play important role in creating openness, empathy, supportive attitude, positive attitude, and equality as well as automatically able to form inclusion, control, and affection between mother and children. The expected final result is the discovery of an ideal way of single parent role for their children.

Implications – the research results showed that frequent communication behavior and sufficient intensity are used to give children more confident in their activities at home or school environment and by which, the children will be able to reach success in their life.

Value originality – the research is the existence of communication pattern formed by single mother family and her children.

Details

Proceedings of MICoMS 2017
Type: Book
ISBN:

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Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2022

Esmeray Alacadağlı

Children are people's gateway to the future; they are 30.3% of the world's population. Childhood is a stage that has a great impact on adulthood and children being healthy…

Abstract

Children are people's gateway to the future; they are 30.3% of the world's population. Childhood is a stage that has a great impact on adulthood and children being healthy individuals. For this reason, child poverty and childhood conditions are very important for individual and community life. Cities are places where people live, and more than 50% of the world's population lives there. In the cities, whose numbers and sizes have increased over time, the crimes committed have also increased and diversified. For this reason, it has become increasingly difficult to provide urban security today. The aim of this study is to show the relationship between child poverty and urban safety, by carrying out an overview of the global perspective and examining the case of Turkey.

Details

Being a Child in a Global World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-240-0

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 November 2003

Whitney P Witt, Anne W Riley and Judith D Kasper

Family health can be studied using the 1994–1995 National Health Interview Survey Disability Supplement by linking children to their mothers and other family members…

Abstract

Family health can be studied using the 1994–1995 National Health Interview Survey Disability Supplement by linking children to their mothers and other family members. However, the data item required to link is missing for 13% of children. We found that unlinked children and their probable mothers differed in many respects from their counterparts who could be linked, and exclusion of these mothers and their children from the analysis could bias results by introducing error due to incomplete coverage of the target population. We developed and validated a simple algorithm to match these children with their probable mother.

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Using Survey Data to Study Disability: Results from the National Health Survey on Disability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-007-4

Book part
Publication date: 2 June 2005

Loretta E. Bass

This International Volume of Sociological Studies of Children and Youth shows the breadth of empirical research that focuses on children and youth around the world. Across…

Abstract

This International Volume of Sociological Studies of Children and Youth shows the breadth of empirical research that focuses on children and youth around the world. Across these articles arranged by region, it becomes clear that we assume different ideas about what childhood is even though these are bound by both cultural and structural factors. We often take “children” or “youth” as a definitive given, and then seek to solve their problems or create policies that serve them. Rarely do we have the luxury of actually thinking about the meaning of these two words. This annual volume creates a space for this particular dialogue to take place. Across these research papers, cultural expectations influence how societies view children and how children view themselves. Immigrant children and youth provide particularly interesting insight as they navigate more than one cultural context and varying expectations for children as they negotiate who they are as individuals and children. Structural factors also become salient, as children come from unequal backgrounds and different levels of economic development, and face varying political concerns.

Details

Sociological Studies of Children and Youth
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-183-5

Open Access
Book part
Publication date: 6 May 2019

Magda Boere-Boonekamp, Karin Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Tamara Schloemer, Peter Schröder-Bäck, Janine van Til, Kinga Zdunek and Paul Kocken

Identifying the qualities of primary care that have the potential to produce optimal health outcomes is only half the story. The Models of Child Health Appraised (MOCHA…

Abstract

Identifying the qualities of primary care that have the potential to produce optimal health outcomes is only half the story. The Models of Child Health Appraised (MOCHA) project has not only explored how to transfer these to other national contexts, but also which successful components should be transferred. It is important to assess the population criteria of the identified sociodemographic, cultural and social characteristics and the population perspectives on a care system’s components. The project analysed public experiences and perceptions of the quality of primary care for children from a representative sample of the general public in five European Union member states. The public perception of children’s primary care services, in particular the perceived quality of care and expectations with regard to care for children, is important to understand before MOCHA lessons can be effectively adopted in a country. We found that the socio-cultural characteristics of a country inform the population perceptions and preferences with regard to the care system. In the five countries surveyed, there was agreement about aspects of quality of care – such as accessible opening hours, confidential consultations for children and timeliness of consultation for an illness, but there was a difference in opinion about giving priority to items such as making an appointment without a referral, or a child’s right to a confidential consultation. The cultural context of transferability and the means of addressing this such as defining the target audience and the different means of disseminating important messages to the wider community to address contextual factors can act as barriers or facilitators to the introduction of new components of primary care models.

Details

Issues and Opportunities in Primary Health Care for Children in Europe
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-354-9

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